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Scientists Discover 520 Million-Year-Old Fossilized Nervous System

March 1, 2016

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Researchers Discover 520 Million-Year-Old Fossilized Nervous System

Researchers from the University of Cambridge have discovered a 520 million-year-old fossilized nervous system is the most complete and best example found to date. Researchers have found one of the oldest and most detailed fossils of the central nervous system yet identified, from a crustacean-like animal that lived more than 500 million years ago. The […]

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Yale Researchers Identify Gene That Regulates the Growth of Melanoma

February 29, 2016

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Yale Identifies Gene That Regulates the Growth of Melanoma

New research from Yale University identifies a gene in melanoma that can dramatically affect the growth of the disease. The findings, published in the journal Cell Reports, provide new insight into how melanoma grows and identifies a new target for treatment of melanoma and other cancers. Enzymes that chemically modify DNA, known as DNA methyltranferases, […]

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MIT Researchers Identify Cells That Represent Feelings of Isolation

February 16, 2016

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Researchers Identify Cells That Represent Feelings of Isolation

In a newly published study, MIT neuroscientists reveal how they identified a brain region that represents the feelings of loneliness. Humans, like all social animals, have a fundamental need for contact with others. This deeply ingrained instinct helps us to survive; it’s much easier to find food, shelter, and other necessities with a group than […]

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Yale Scientists Reveal Underlying Cause of Myeloma

February 11, 2016

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Yale Scientists Discover Underlying Cause of Myeloma

Scientists from the Yale Cancer Center have identified what causes a third of all myelomas, a type of cancer affecting plasma cells. The findings, published February 10 in the New England Journal of Medicine, could fundamentally change the way this cancer and others are treated. Multiple myeloma is a cancer involving the growth of plasma […]

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Scientists Characterize Nerve Cells That Detect Motion by Light Changes

February 8, 2016

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Neurobiologists Characterize Nerve Cells That Detect Motion by Light Changes

In a newly published study, neurobiologists from the Max Planck Institute reveal that (in fruit flies) four classes of nerve cell are involved in calculating directionally selective signals. The ability to see the direction in which something is moving is vital for survival. Only in this way is it possible to avoid predators, capture prey […]

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Was Frozen Mammoth or Giant Ground Sloth Served for Dinner?

February 8, 2016

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Yale Researchers Put Prehistoric Mystery Meat to the Test

A famous dinner for scientists in the 1950s supposedly served meat from a woolly mammoth that was discovered frozen in the arctic. Yale scientists obtained a preserved sample of the meat, which DNA analysis proves is actually from a modern green sea turtle. The green sea turtle is an endangered species, so the flesh sample […]

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Biologists Extend Lifespan in Mice by 35 Percent

February 4, 2016

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Researchers Extend Lifespan in Mice by as Much as 35 Percent

A team of biologists from the Mayo Clinic have shown that senescent cells – cells that no longer divide and accumulate with age – negatively impact health and shorten lifespan by as much as 35 percent in normal mice. The results, which appear today in Nature, demonstrate that clearance of senescent cells delays tumor formation, […]

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Life-Extending Hormone FGF21 Also Protects Against the Loss of Immune Function

January 14, 2016

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FGF21 Hormone Protests Against the Loss of Immune Function

New research from Yale University shows that the hormone FGF21, which extends lifespan in mice by 40%, protects against the loss of immune function that comes with age. Published online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on January 11, the study’s findings have future implications for improving immune function in the elderly, […]

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New Research Shows Hyperactive Neurons May Trigger Alzheimer’s

January 13, 2016

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Hyperactive neurons may be culprit in Alzheimer’s

New research from Yale University shows that an increase in neuronal activity can spur the creation of plaques and toxic amyloid beta peptides, which are believed to trigger Alzheimer’s disease. A long-term reduction in neuronal activity reduces amyloid plaques associated with Alzheimer’s disease, Yale University researchers have found. The study, using mouse models of Alzheimer’s, […]

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New Study Shows Neanderthals Boosted Our Immune System

January 7, 2016

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New Research Shows Neanderthals Boosted Our Immune System

A new study from the Max Planck Institute reveals that the mixing of archaic human forms played an important role in shaping the immune system of modern humans. When modern humans met Neanderthals in Europe and the two species began interbreeding many thousands of years ago, the exchange left humans with gene variations that have […]

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Scientists Should Focus on Changes in Species to Recognize and Avoid a Mass Extinction

December 17, 2015

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Reserachers Examine Rarity in Mass Extinctions and the Future of Ecosystems

New research from Yale University urges scientists to move their focus from species extinction to species rarity in order to recognize, and avoid, a mass extinction in the modern world. Writing in the journal Nature the week of December 16, Yale’s Pincelli Hull and colleagues from the Smithsonian Institution argue that modern extinction rates may […]

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Bacteria Can Be Spatially Excluded from the Exchange of Amino Acids

December 9, 2015

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Study Shows Bacteria Can Be Spatially Excluded from the Exchange of Amino Acids

New research shows that bacteria, which reciprocally exchange amino acids, stabilize their partnership on two-dimensional surfaces and limit the access of non-cooperating bacteria to the exchanged nutrients. In natural microbial communities, different bacterial species often exchange nutrients by releasing amino acids and vitamins into their growth environment, thus feeding other bacterial cells. Even though the […]

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Yale Study Shows Topical Ruxolitinib Grows Hair

December 9, 2015

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Topical Ruxolitinib Helps Teen Grow Hair

A new study from Yale University reveals that a topical formulation of an oral medication used to treat bone marrow diseases can be used to grow hair. A young woman who had no scalp or eyebrow hair for years now enjoys a full mane after using a novel cream devised by researchers at Yale School […]

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Yale Study Shows Protein IL-18 Contributes to Colitis

December 4, 2015

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Researchers Identify Key Protein That Contributes to Colitis

New research from Yale University identifies that the protein IL-18 plays a key part in the development of the colitis. The cause of Ulcerative Colitis, a debilitating disease of the intestine, is unclear. A Yale-led study has illuminated the role of a protein that plays a key part in the development of the condition. The […]

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Scientists Overcome Key CRISPR-Cas9 Genome Editing Hurdle

December 3, 2015

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Researchers Develop a Highly Specific Genome-Editing Tool

Using structural knowledge of Cas9, scientists have overcome a key CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing hurdle and developed a highly specific genome-editing tool. Researchers at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard and the McGovern Institute for Brain Research at MIT have engineered changes to the revolutionary CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing system that significantly cut down on “off-target” […]

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Study Shows Amateur Contact Sports Increase Risk of Degenerative Disorder

December 2, 2015

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Football Increases Risk of Degenerative Disorder

Past evidence has shown that professional football players are susceptible to a progressive degenerative disease, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), which is caused by repetitive brain trauma. Now a new study from the Mayo Clinic reveals a significant and surprising amount of CTE in males who had participated in amateur contact sports in their youth. About […]

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Scientists Discover Genes for a Longer, Healthier Life

December 1, 2015

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Researchers Discover Genes for a Longer Healthier Life

A team of scientists has discovered genes that are involved in physical aging. By influencing only one of these genes, the healthy lifespan of laboratory animals is extended – and possibly that of humans, too. Driven by the quest for eternal youth, humankind has spent centuries obsessed with the question of how it is exactly […]

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Neuroscientists Identify New Mechanism That Contributes to Strengthening Synapses

November 18, 2015

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Newly Identified Mechanism Helps Strengthen Links between Neurons

Neuroscientists from MIT have identified a new mechanism that allows the brain to strengthen links between neurons. When the brain forms memories or learns a new task, it encodes the new information by tuning connections between neurons. MIT neuroscientists have discovered a novel mechanism that contributes to the strengthening of these connections, also called synapses. […]

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