Biology News RSS feed for this section

How Genetic Defects in Myelin Formation Cause White Matter Diseases

November 17, 2015

0 Comments

Yale Researchers Show How a Mutated Gene Wreaks Havoc on White Matter

New research from Yale University may shed insight into mechanisms to control the course of multiple sclerosis. Their results point to a role for FAM126A in supporting myelination, an important process in development and also following acute exacerbations in multiple sclerosis. An inherited disease of myelin marked by slow, progressive neurological impairment is caused by […]

Continue reading...

New Model Maps the Development of Stem Cells in the Human Body

November 13, 2015

1 Comment

New Model Analyses of the Development of Stem Cells

Using the telomeres on the chromosomes of blood cells, scientists have designed a mathematical model for mapping the development of populations of haematopoietic stem cells with advancing age. Stem cells ensure the regeneration and maintenance of the body’s tissues. Diseases like cancer can arise if they spiral out of control. In collaboration with doctors from […]

Continue reading...

Neurons Can Be Changed from One Type Into Another from Within the Brain

November 10, 2015

3 Comments

Researchers Reprogram Neurons

A newly published study from Harvard biologists shows how neurons can be dramatically changed from one type into another from within the brain and how neighboring neurons recognize the reprogrammed cells as different and adapt by changing how they communicate with them. Building on earlier work in which they disproved neurobiology dogma by “reprogramming” neurons […]

Continue reading...

Neuroscientists Observe Signs of Synaptic Plasticity Emerging in a Living Brain

November 3, 2015

0 Comments

Researchers Observe Signs of Synaptic Plasticity Emerging in a Living Brain

Using measurements of changes in neural activity in neurons of the inferior temporal cortex of mature nonhuman primates as they observed novel and familiar stimuli, neuroscientists have observed signs of synaptic plasticity emerging in a living brain while it accomplishes the feat of beholding and recognizing stimuli. From the first project David Sheinberg took on […]

Continue reading...

Neuroscientists Reveal That the Ventral Pre-Arcuate Holds “Attentional Template”

October 29, 2015

0 Comments

MIT Neuroscientists Identify Brain Region That Holds Objects in Memory

Neuroscientists from MIT have identified the region of the brain that holds objects in memory until they are spotted. Imagine you are looking for your wallet on a cluttered desk. As you scan the area, you hold in your mind a mental picture of what your wallet looks like. MIT neuroscientists have now identified a […]

Continue reading...

GDF10 Promotes Brain Cells’ Ability to Form New Connections

October 28, 2015

0 Comments

New Discovery Could Lead to Better Recovery After Stroke

Scientists from UCLA have identified a molecule (GDF10) that signals brain tissue to form new connections after a stroke. The finding could eventually lead to a new treatment to promote brain repair and functional recovery in people who have suffered a stroke, which is the leading cause of serious long-term disability in adults. The five-year […]

Continue reading...

Scientists Show That Blocking Enzymes in Hair Follicles Promotes Hair Growth

October 26, 2015

2 Comments

New Research Shows That Blocking Enzymes in Hair Follicles Promotes Hair Growth

New research from Columbia University reveals that inhibiting a family of enzymes inside hair follicles restores hair growth. The research is published in the online edition of Science Advances. In experiments with mouse and human hair follicles, Angela M. Christiano, PhD, and colleagues found that drugs that inhibit the Janus kinase (JAK) family of enzymes […]

Continue reading...

Yale Study Shows Nlrp6 Regulates Intestinal Antiviral Innate Immunity

October 26, 2015

0 Comments

Yale Researchers Reveal Pathway of Resistance to Viral Infections in the Gut

New research from Yale University shows that the protein known as Nlrp6 plays a key role in the overall immune response that provides immediate defense against infection. The gut is an important barrier for the body, protecting it from pathogens that might otherwise cause illness. While scientists have investigated the intestinal immune response to bacterial […]

Continue reading...

New Species of Galapagos Giant Tortoise Identified

October 23, 2015

0 Comments

New Galapagos Giant Tortoise Species

A team of researchers from Yale University have discovered a new species of giant tortoise in the Galapagos. A few hundred giant tortoises living on one side of Santa Cruz Island in the Galapagos actually are a separate species from a second, larger population living less than 10 kilometers away, a new Yale-led genetic analysis […]

Continue reading...

Scientists Reveal Previously Unknown Subunits of Telomerase

October 16, 2015

2 Comments

New Telomerase Research May Lead to New Strategies for Treating Disease

Scientists from UCLA have produced the clearest-ever images of telomerase. This new research could lead to new strategies for treating disease, aging, and cancer. An enzyme called telomerase plays a significant role in aging and most cancers, but until recently many aspects of the enzyme’s structure could not be clearly seen. Now, scientists from UCLA […]

Continue reading...

New Research Shows Individual Brain Activity Is As Unique As Fingerprints

October 13, 2015

1 Comment

Functional Connectome Fingerprinting Identifying Individuals Using Patterns of Brain Connectivity

A newly published study from Yale University reveals that a person’s brain activity appears to be as unique as his or her fingerprints. These brain “connectivity profiles” alone allow researchers to identify individuals from the fMRI images of brain activity of more than 100 people, according to the study published October 12 in the journal […]

Continue reading...

New Epigenetic Algorithm Accurately Predicts Male Sexual Orientation

October 12, 2015

1 Comment

Epigenetic Algorithm Accurately Predicts Male Sexual Orientation

By using epigenetic information from just nine regions of the human genome, a new algorithm can predict the sexual orientation of males with up to 70 percent accuracy. “To our knowledge, this is the first example of a predictive model for sexual orientation based on molecular markers,” said Tuck C. Ngun, PhD, first author on […]

Continue reading...

Neuroscientists Reveal Neuron-Firing Patterns That Underlie Time Measurement

October 9, 2015

1 Comment

Scientists Reveal Neuron-Firing Patterns That Underlie Time Measurement

In a newly published study, neuroscientists from MIT and Columbia University reveal how neurons in one part of the brain measure time intervals and accurately reproduce them. The researchers found the lateral intraparietal cortex (LIP), which plays a role in sensorimotor function, represents elapsed time, as animals measure and then reproduce a time interval. They […]

Continue reading...

Enhanced-Sensitivity NMR Reveals New Details on Protein Structure

October 8, 2015

1 Comment

MIT Researchers Reveal New Clues to How Proteins Fold

Using a new technique based on dynamic nuclear polarization, scientists hope to gain more insight into protein structure and function. Proteins can fold in different ways depending on their environment. These different configurations change the function of the protein; misfolding is frequently associated with diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Until now, it has been […]

Continue reading...

Yale Researchers Identify RNA That Controls Cholesterol

October 7, 2015

0 Comments

Researchers Identify Tiny RNA That Controls Cholesterol

A new study from Yale University reveals that miR-148a modifies LDL receptors in liver cells of both mice and humans and suppresses a gene that is critical for controlling levels of HDL cholesterol. High levels of LDL cholesterol — the “bad” cholesterol — increase the risk of heart disease, the leading cause of death in […]

Continue reading...

Scientists Produce Photoreceptors from Embryonic Stem Cells

October 6, 2015

0 Comments

Correcting Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Stem Cells

By producing photoreceptors from human embryonic stem cells, researchers from the University of Montreal have taken a major step forward in the fight against age-related macular degeneration. Age-related macular degeneration (AMRD) could be treated by transplanting photoreceptors produced by the directed differentiation of stem cells, thanks to findings published today by Professor Gilbert Bernier of […]

Continue reading...

New Evidence That the Brain’s Inferotemporal Cortex Can Identify Objects

October 5, 2015

1 Comment

Evidence That The Brain’s Inferotemporal Cortex Can Identify Objects

In a newly published study, neuroscientists from MIT reveal evidence that the brain’s inferotemporal cortex can identify objects. When the eyes are open, visual information flows from the retina through the optic nerve and into the brain, which assembles this raw information into objects and scenes. Scientists have previously hypothesized that objects are distinguished in […]

Continue reading...

Neuroscientists Show High-Fructose Diet Hampers Brain Recovery

October 3, 2015

0 Comments

New Study Shows High-Fructose Diet Hampers Recovery

A newly published study from UCLA neuroscientists reveals how a diet high in processed fructose hampers the brain’s ability to heal itself following traumatic injury. Revealing a link between nutrition and brain health, the finding offers implications for the 5.3 million Americans living with a traumatic brain injury, or TBI. According to the Centers for […]

Continue reading...