Biochemistry News

‘NoBody’ – A Microprotein on a Mission

December 5, 2016

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NoBody, A Microprotein on a Mission

Using a technique that has revealed more than 400 new proteins too tiny to be found by other means, scientists from Yale University have helped identify a novel, functional “microprotein” encoded in the human genome. One of those microproteins, called NoBody, is a molecular workhorse involved in sweeping out unneeded genetic material inside cells. Its […]

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Climate Change Threatens Boreal Coniferous Forests

February 22, 2016

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Climate Change Threatens Dark Taiga

New research from the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry reveals that Boreal coniferous forests could see increased occurrences of fire as a result of global warming, with deciduous trees becoming more dominant in the future. Climate change is transforming the Earth, particularly in high-latitude regions. The boreal coniferous forests of the northern hemisphere will witness […]

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Biologists Extend Lifespan in Mice by 35 Percent

February 4, 2016

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Researchers Extend Lifespan in Mice by as Much as 35 Percent

A team of biologists from the Mayo Clinic have shown that senescent cells – cells that no longer divide and accumulate with age – negatively impact health and shorten lifespan by as much as 35 percent in normal mice. The results, which appear today in Nature, demonstrate that clearance of senescent cells delays tumor formation, […]

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Biochemists Identify Another Piece of the Parkinson’s Disease Pathology Puzzle

January 28, 2016

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Researchers Identify another Piece in the Parkinson's Disease Pathology Puzzle

An international team has discovered that the LRRK2 kinase regulates cellular trafficking by deactivating Rab proteins. This finding illuminates a novel route for therapeutic development and may accelerate testing of LRRK2 inhibitors as a disease-modifying therapy for Parkinson’s, the second most common neurodegenerative disease. An international public-private research consortium has identified and validated a cellular […]

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UCLA Nanoscientists Develop a Better Way to Remove Pollutants from Water

November 30, 2015

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Nanoscientists Develop a Better Way to Remove Pollutants

By using nanoparticles filled with enzymes, researchers from UCLA have developed a safer and faster way to remove pollutants from water. A team of researchers from the California NanoSystems Institute at UCLA has found a new way to use enzymes to remove pollutants from water that is cost- and energy-efficient, able to remove multiple pollutants […]

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Scientists Reveal Previously Unknown Subunits of Telomerase

October 16, 2015

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New Telomerase Research May Lead to New Strategies for Treating Disease

Scientists from UCLA have produced the clearest-ever images of telomerase. This new research could lead to new strategies for treating disease, aging, and cancer. An enzyme called telomerase plays a significant role in aging and most cancers, but until recently many aspects of the enzyme’s structure could not be clearly seen. Now, scientists from UCLA […]

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Organic Semiconductor Breakthrough Could Literally Reshape Solar Cells

October 3, 2015

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New Breakthrough Could Reshape Solar Cells and Electronic Devices

A team of materials scientists have discovered a way to make organic semiconductors more powerful and more efficient, growing organic semiconductor crystals vertically for first time. Our smartphones, tablets, computers and biosensors all have improved because of the rapidly increasing efficiency of semiconductors. Since the turn of the 21st century, organic, or carbon-based, semiconductors have […]

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Researchers Decode Root Structure of Muscular Disease

September 29, 2015

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Root Structure of Muscular Disease Decoded

In a newly published study, a team of scientists from Rice University and Baylor College reveal the structural details of a protein seen as key to treating a neuromuscular disease. Their success at obtaining a structural map of a protein known as leiomodin 2 (Lmod2) attached to two actin subunits offers a path forward for […]

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Scientists Reveal Chemical Code for Nitrogen Fixation

September 24, 2015

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Scientists Explain Nitrogen Fixation

A team of scientists from Yale University reveal part of the chemical code that allows nature to transform nitrogen from the air into usable nitrogen compounds. The process is called nitrogen fixation, and it occurs in microorganisms on the roots of plants. This is how nature makes its own fertilizers to feed plants, which feed […]

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High Density Wind Farms Generate Less Electricity Than Thought

September 8, 2015

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High Density Wind Farms Generate Less Electricity Than Previously Thought

Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry show that large wind farms with a high density of installed capacity slow down the wind and generate less electricity than previously thought. Less energy can be withdrawn from wind than was assumed up to now. For example, a previous prediction from a 2013 study by the […]

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Yale Scientists Shed Light on the Warburg Effect

August 18, 2015

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Yale Researchers Shed Light on the Warburg Effect

A newly published study details how two Yale scientists used magnetic resonance measurements to answer the puzzle of the “Warburg Effect.” Given plenty of glucose and oxygen, yeast and cancer cells do not burn it all to produce energy but convert much of it to the byproducts ethanol and lactate, respectively. In the 1920s Nobel […]

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Yale Study Reveals Why BRCA Gene Resists Cancer Treatment

July 3, 2015

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New Discovery Reveals Why BRCA Gene Resists Cancer Treatment

A newly published study from Yale University reveals how biochemists might be able to decrease drug resistance to existing therapies that target ovarian and breast cancer. Yale University researchers have discovered why a key molecular assistant is crucial to the function of the BRCA2 gene, which in some mutant forms can lead to ovarian and […]

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A New Timetable of Evolution – Reappraisal of Hydrocarbon Biomarkers in Archean Rocks

June 4, 2015

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A New Timetable of Evolution

New data show that the first single-celled organisms with a nucleus originated more than a billion years later than biogeochemical evidence had previously indicated. Contaminated samples have evidently created some confusion in the timetable of life. On the basis of ultra-clean analyses, an international team, including scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, has […]

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New Evidence on the Origins of Life on Earth

June 3, 2015

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New Evidence Emerges on the Origins of Life

Two newly published studies reveal evidence for how the genetic code developed in two distinct stages to help primordial chemicals evolve into cells. Chapel Hill, North Carolina – In the beginning, there were simple chemicals. And they produced amino acids that eventually became the proteins necessary to create single cells. And the single cells became […]

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Scientists Find Link in How Cells Start Process Necessary for Life

February 16, 2015

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Researchers Find Link in How Cells Start Process Necessary for Life

While exploring whether a structured RNA molecule from a virus that infects eukaryotic cells could function in bacteria, scientists found that it could initiate protein syntheses – a process necessary for life. Aurora, Colorado – Researchers have found an RNA structure-based signal that spans billions of years of evolutionary divergence between different types of cells, […]

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New Insight Into HIV Vaccination Strategies

February 6, 2015

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New Research Yields Insight Into Generating Antibodies That Target Different Strains of HIV

New research yields insight into generating antibodies that target different strains of HIV, suggesting that sequentially administering several different forms of a potential HIV vaccine could stimulate a stronger immune response than delivering a cocktail of these variants all at once. Through an investigation of a fundamental process that guides the maturation of immune cells, […]

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Conformational Changes of EF-G on the Ribosome During tRNA Translocation

January 21, 2015

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Study Shows Ribosomal Motor is Crucial Part of Cellular Protein Factory

New research from Yale University provides insights into the conformational space that EF-G samples on the ribosome and reveals that tRNA translocation on the ribosome is facilitated by a structural transition of EF-G from a compact to an elongated conformation, which can be prevented by the antibiotic dityromycin. The ribosome is the protein-making “factory” within […]

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Detection of Sugars in Laboratory Simulation of Interstellar Organic Matter

January 13, 2015

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Detection of Sugars in Laboratory Simulation of Interstellar and Pre-Cometary Organic Matter

Using multidimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry, researchers have detected 10 aldehydes laboratory samples which were created to simulate material found in interstellar molecular clouds. Ten aldehydes, including two sugars potentially important for prebiotic chemistry, have for the first time been identified in organic residues issued from photochemistry of interstellar ice analogues, produced […]

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