Astrophysicists Developed a New Theory to Explain ‘Dark Energy’

The fact that our Universe is expanding was discovered almost a hundred years ago, but how exactly this happens, scientists realized only in the 90s of the last century, when powerful telescopes (including orbital ones) appeared and the era of exact cosmo.

International Journal of Modern Physics has published an article by the IKBFU Physics and Mathematics Institute Artyom Astashenok and the Institute’s MA student Alexander Teplyakov. The article refers to the issue of the “Dark Energy” and an assumption is made that the Universe has borders.

Artyom Astashenok told:

“The fact that our Universe is expanding was discovered almost a hundred years ago, but how exactly this happens, scientists realized only in the 90s of the last century, when powerful telescopes (including orbital ones) appeared and the era of exact cosmology began. In the course of observations and analysis of the data obtained, it turned out that the Universe is not just expanding, but expanding with acceleration, which began three to four billion years after the birth of the Universe.”

For a long time, it was believed that space is filled with ordinary matter — stars, planets, asteroids, comets and highly rarefied intergalactic gas. But, if this is so, then accelerated expansion is contrary to the law of gravity, which says that bodies are attracted to each other. Gravitational forces tend to slow down the expansion of the universe, but cannot accelerate it.

Artyom Astashenok says:

“And then the idea was born that the Universe is filled for the most part not with ordinary matter, but with some “dark energy,” which has special properties. No one knows what is it and how it works, so it named “Dark Energy” as something unknown. And 70% of the Universe consists of this Energy.”

There are many theories of what the “Dark Energy” is, and the IKBFU scientists presented their own theory.

“The so-called Casimir effect (named after the Dutch physicist Hendrik Casimir), which consists in the fact that two metal plates placed in a vacuum are attracted to each other, has long been known. It would seem that this cannot be, because there is nothing in the vacuum. But in fact, according to quantum theory, particles constantly appear and disappear there, and as a result of their interaction with plates, which indicate certain boundaries of space (which is extremely important), a very small attraction occurs. And there is an idea according to this, approximately the same thing happens in space. Only this leads, on the contrary, to additional repulsion, which accelerates the expansion of the Universe. That is, there is essentially no “Dark Energy,” but there is a manifestation of the boundaries of the Universe. This, of course, does not mean that it ends somewhere, but some kind of complex topology can take place. You can draw an analogy with the Earth. After all, it also has no boundaries, but it is finite. The difference between the Earth and the Universe is that in the first case we are dealing with two-dimensional space, and in the second — with three-dimensional.”

The published article, which, as explained by Artem Astashenok, develops the ideas presented in the thesis of Alexander Teplyakov, presents a mathematically sound model of the universe in which additional repulsion occurs, and where there is no contradiction between the fact that the expansion of the Universe accelerates and the law of universal gravitation.

Reference: “Some models of holographic dark energy on the Randall–Sundrum brane and observational data” by A. V. Astashenok and A. S. Tepliakov, 2 December 2019, International Journal of Modern Physics D.
DOI: 10.1142/S0218271819501761

AstrophysicsDark EnergyImmanuel Kant Baltic Federal UniversityPopular
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  • stephen bauer

    Sounds like we are going backwards in the theoretical science of cosmology. I’ll wait until the next hypothesis comes out.

    • Aaron Aaron

      There are a number of extremely unforced errors in this news article and the underlying scientific report. Here are a few.

      The acceleration began immediately; three to four billion years ago it overtook the deceleration and became a net acceleration.

      If by Gravity is meant General Relativity, then a repulsion is already included, called the Cosmological Constant.

      The Casmir effect is not an attraction between the plates, but a force from outside pushing them together, caused by a limitation on the lower frequency limit of the radiations of all sorts, including the Zero Point Energy, due to the presence of nearby conducting walls.

      The idea of a “bounded universe with no bounds” is ancient history. The current view, consistent with cosmological acceleration, is that the Universe is exactly flat.

      The “new” ideas here are actually accepted wisdom and have been for at least a couple of decades. It is no surprise that a publication which invented and then presented itself with, a “Creative Non-Fiction” award would publish a paper like this, though I wonder if one of the uncredited authors of the underlying paper is named Sokal.

  • A. Nelson

    The universe has already expanded and has begun to colapse. We can’t see the colapse occurring because the light needed to see it hasn’t reached us yet.the increased mass at the edge of the colapse accounts for the “missing” energy and matter. The ever increasing mass and energy at this edge exerts a stronger gravitational pull that creates the illusion of an accelerating universe

    • Mark Patterson

      A much easier idea to accept. Of course the idea “they” offer is simply social programming for whatever reason but this idea is more likely than the bs sp

    • Howard Jeffrey Bender

      Sorry – the latest measurement of the expansion of the universe is about 67 km/sec per megaparsec, which means the universe is still expanding. See Collaboration, Planck (17 July 2018). “Planck 2018 results. VI. Cosmological parameters”. arXiv:1807.06209 [astro-ph.CO

    • David Webb

      The expansion of the universe is happening everywhere and if that expansion stopped and a collapse happened that would also occur everywhere. There would be no edge where matter piled up.

  • Raj Vijayaraghavan

    Dark energy is the primordial source it’s nothing but vibration
    Different velocities in vibration gives rise to dark matter.
    Dark matter interactions eventually gives rise to quantum particles which contain both velocity and matter

  • James

    What if normal mater, and dark mater repel each other? Out solar system has had 4.5 Billion years to drive all the dark mater away, leaving behind only normal mater. So we have a distorted view of dark mater (and dark energy). A view that consist of nothing. You have to look far away to find any evidence of dark mater(or energy). Maybe a space probe launched on a path out of the Solar System at a very high rate of speed might find something. It would be best to launch the probe perpendicular to the ecliptic plane, and at the highest speed possible. Wait 20 years for the probe to get very far away, and see what the detectors show. Maybe data from Pioneer 1,2, Voyager 8, 9, or New Horizons might have something to see if you were looking for it. But you wouldn’t find any dark mater, or dark energy here.

    • Augusto A Marsella

      That would make no sense, because, according to observations, smaller and youner galaxies have less dark matter in average than older bigger galaxies. If they reppel eachother the effect would have the contrary result, and you would find most of dark matter in the inter-galaxy space

  • Brett M Havener

    What if gravity doesn’t always attract objects? What if off in the distance the pull flips to an equal push? At that distance it would be weak filling the volume of a sphere, but if all matter did that, it would eventually push apart. It always seemed strange to me there was this force just going in one direction, without an opposing force.

  • Jango

    ‘The article refers to the issue of the “Dark Enegry”’, spell check much?

    • Mike O'Neill

      Thanks. Don’t know how I missed that in editing, but it is fixed now.

  • Eric J

    Dark matter/dark energy are labels, translated into plain English they mean “we do not yet understand, in its fullness, the inconsistency in our measurements”.

    It also means, there are going to be a lot of bad ideas and bad approximations of something we are currently missing important pieces of information to help explain the discrepancies in the measurements. It is not moving backwards, scientists are simply clearing out the well intentioned, but, likely, wrong guesses.

    We do not fully yet understand the quantum world, nor how to link it to the atomic/macro world. The Casimir effect demonstrates that “space” is not empty, but whether it’s quantum virtual particles with a lifespan well short of our ability to detect them before they wink out of existence or a field/wave with a frequency and/or amplitude so small we can’t measure it, remains to be determined. Having said that, whichever it is, it’s aggregate effects CAN be measured, thus, it has energy and therefore LIKELY adds something to the total mass (or field effect) to the Universe, as, Einstein imprecisely called it, the “Cosmological constant”.

    I have believed for some time that dark [fill in the blank], would sooner or later be explained as some effect of quantum virtual-particles or a sum over the whole of the universe of the energy/mass of fields or waves that are currently to small to measure. But the halo effect around most galaxies tends to refute that; that “dark-whatever” seems to hang around the outskirts of them. Perhaps virtual-particles/casimir phenomenon is simply more dense around large collections of regular matter???? IDK, I’m not a physicist, but I have believed for a long time the concept of “dark matter/energy” strains credibility.

    • John Waite

      You touch on what I have thought. When you speak of the “halo effect around galaxies “ and “that ‘dark-whatever seems to hang around the outskirts of them”. I have read about the aura glow flowing out from the rim of black holes. It seems logical that as the black hole gorges on matter and becomes ever more dense that it produces this aura which is dark energy. Dark energy will continue to expand this bubble (universe) along with everything in it until diverted by a dominating black hole in the neighborhood and eventually by the last standing black hole in the universe. This Alfa Blackhole will continue to get heavier and heavier until it becomes so dense that it reaches the threshold between nothing and everything, and a “Big Bang “ creates the beginning of a new bubble (universe).

  • Dale Rice

    This is not too surprising to me that the Objects in our universe are of the opposite polarity of the space surrounding it. Opposites attract, therefore if we are the positive side of the equation the great beyond or outside our expanding universe must be the opposite polarity to pull so dramatically on the edges to speed up the entire movement inside the universe. Opposites attract and same sign polarities would:???? Yep Repel or push against expansion. Your are welcome.

  • frenky

    Funny how most of comments are out of topic 🙂 The theory looks interesting. Let’s see what predictions it brings. Then it can be tested.

    The idea isn’t completely new. Looks similar to Verlinde’s theory of gravity. Also assumes boundary of universe. These are fresh ideas in theoretical astrophysics.

  • Chris G.

    As a project scientist on “the project”, I’m aware some people believe that I don’t believe that I don’t know what I’m talking about, but I DO believe I don’t know what I’m talking about.

  • Zo

    So, reduced to it’s basic components, the theories argues that a granularity/threshold issue is causing the effect we attribute to dark energy. That would make a few other things true, or more likely. Fun fantastical things.

    • James bonner

      Is simple.

      The theory of electrical repulsion is out there but current scientists must die for new theorists to rise.

      Gravity doesn’t suck it blows.

      Farnsworth knew it

  • J M H

    Dark Energy is the energy of God. Both omnipresent and from everlasting to everlasting.

    • Mike Massen

      LoL J M H
      Then pray tell why a god, the god, any gods are all far worse communication managers than the dumbest humans betraying attributes more consistent with incompetent mortal devil’s than loving gods ?

  • Steve

    It is probably more likely that all of the material aspects of the matter we are assigning characteristics in behavior to are merely reactions to what is occurring noumenally within the matter to which our most sensitive instruments are drawn. It is obvious that all of the deductions we draw are off of the external behavior of mater. However, the matter which makes up form, however subtle the forms may be may only be the very outer most “layers”. This us a similar idea as seeing light and the proof of how really various is it’s spectrum is through the instrument of a simple prism. Matter, therefore, seems really the slowest form of light energy, in packets, so called, whereas we no it exists in wave firm as well. Thus, perhaps, our deductions about the behavior of matter may be too premature, being that we have not yet developed the instruments necessary to “see” it in terms of light energy, though there is evidence that certain individuals in history have somehow the ability to detect such conditions through their own uncommonly sensitive senses.

    • Dean

      moving. I was just trying to contemplate how this all related to Buddhism and then hit on your comment.

  • Neil Morris

    One would think that a website calling itself “SciTechDaily” would have a better understanding of basic English grammar and punctuation.

    • Mintas Lanxor

      Are you confusing a typo with a lack of grammatical skills? Besides, the article was written by an author whose native tongue is not English. If you don’t have a substantive scientific critique of the content, you’d better refrain from commenting about the insignificant minutiae of any article.

      • Aaron Aaron

        Most pubs welcome reader input about minor errors, typos etc.

        • Mike O'Neill

          Indeed, we welcome input about typos. Mintas Lanxor is also correct about the language difference in the author. However, since I edited the article, I should have caught the energy typo. I don’t know how I missed it before publication, but it is fixed now.

    • Fred Viskovich

      Wasn’t the old ether kinda like dark energy/dark matter? The ether went away because someone proved it didn’t exist or wasn’t needed. All I know is that if astrophysicists testified before a Grand Jury they would be indicted for high crimes and misdemeanors. The measurements of the universe are little more than smug high tech sanctimonious Kentucky Windage.

  • Schinud omsub

    There are many different explanations for the same fundamental fact. It is obvious and simple. We experienced it every day. It is about Nothing and Everything.

    Nothing exists all around us – around the universe, and Everything moves in spacetime toward Nothing, from past to future. This tendency is what we currently call it the dark matter/energy. Ultimately, Everything reach nothingness and becomes Nothing. This movement or tendency defines the existence of everything in the universe. Without it, the universe doesn’t exist.

    But what is Nothing? Our brain cells have no capability to perceive nothingness, physically, chemically, or otherwise. No moment at any scale, quantum or cosmic, therefore, no light, no energy. The temperature is at absolute zero. Blackhole is a bubble of Nothing trapped inside the universe zone which is Everything. Boundary between the universe and nothingness is not constant. It moves and changes in similar fashion as a puff of smoke in the air.

  • Edward Ferranto

    Looks like the aether theory has returned.

  • Howard Jeffrey Bender

    Another way to explain Dark Energy is suggested by String Theory. All matter and energy, including photons (light), have vibrating strings as their basis.

    String and anti-string pairs are speculated to be created in the quantum foam, a roiling energy field suggested by quantum mechanics, and they immediately annihilate each other. If light passes near these string/anti-string annihilations, perhaps some of that annihilation energy is absorbed by the string in the light. Then the Fraunhofer lines in that light will move a bit towards the blue and away from the red shift. As this continues in an expanding universe we get the same curve displayed by Perlmutter and colleagues at their Nobel Prize lecture, without the need for Dark Energy.

    This speculation is contrary to the current direction but has the universe behaving in a much more direct way. Specifics can be found in my YouTube at

  • Ben

    1400 years ago, the Muslim Al Quran spoke of expanding universe. 1400 years ago people.

    • Tim


    • Mike Massen

      Yeah so, ideas are cheap some correct some not – notice No math of the expansion and No interpretation of local discontinuities. don’t need an angel to make claims when humans already good at making things up for power.

      Besides it’s irrefutable the angel or god of the Koran or Any religious texts is a far worse communication manager than the dumbest human.

      Trying to fit current observations into guesses is not helpful, all it does is support bad ideas from superstitious times that inevitably cause conflicts and wars and terrorism.

      Isn’t it obvious the clearly observable attributes of all gods or angels or any supernatural things are far more consistent with them being incompetent mortal devils :-/

      Prove me wrong – even a little, did the koran bring equanimity or More Conflict and Death ?
      Is there not or less religious conflict – even inside islam ???

  • John Read

    “Casimir effect” not an “attraction”. It results from push of virtual waveforms emerging from QV in the topo of allowable frequencies. What fits, or cannot fit, where…

  • P Barton

    What if the universe expansion is not speeding up. Maybe is was always much faster then we thought. And maybe the universe is not over 4 billion years old. This would mean the universe is much much younger. Not even millions of years. We see so much of space that is so far away from us. Possible because it’s been moving away at this faster speed they now believe it to be. The assumption is some how it speeding up even though that seems impossible. What it’s really slowly down.

  • Mark

    The whole expanding universe idea based on red shift could be an illusion. What if light loses energy (shifts to the red end of the spectrum) as it travels the cosmos with the amount of energy per distance lost giving us the observation that farther galaxies appear to be redder than nearer ones? The question of where the energy from the dwindling light is going may help answer the questions about why the observed normal matter of galaxies does not appear to be massive enough to explain their motion by contributing to dark energy/matter in a way we don’t understand yet.

  • ron

    If you put a gas into a balloon and reduce the pressure on the outside of the balloon, it will expand. if you put a gas into a container with a vacuum, the gas will expand evenly to fill the container. Why wouldn’t the matter in the universe expand to evenly fill the entire space. Maybe it hasn’t had sufficient time to fill the available space. The sparse matter is behaving like a gas.

  • richard@

    The reason galaxies are speeding up and moving away is because they have past the apex of the ballistic trajectory and are falling back down, just say’n….

  • Eep

    I think the universe’s shape/topology is a torus moving on (wrapping around) the surface from the center/hole/inside to the outside/perimeter, accelerating faster towards the inside and slowing towards the outside.

    • Angela

      Good one

  • SJB

    Faith is the substance* of things hoped for, the evidence of things not yet seen. — Hebrews 11:1

    *This is how energy is created, how we can create energy. It can have a negative or positive effect based on what each of us chooses to think about.

  • Ivan Buljan

    What happens to the water when a solid object is placed into it? What happens to space when a solid object is placed into it? Matter is being “created”–appearing constantly–inside the universe and the space is being expnded. The universe expands because the space is essentially an incompressible entity with constant density. When the space is displaced by the object, the space can no longer fit into the reduced volume and has to go somewhere else, hence the expansion. The rate at which the objects are introduced and the speed of light have a direct effect on the red shift. Perhaps the displacement law can help to explain the red shift…

  • Michael Bowe

    Immanuel Kant is buried in a cathedral on a little square island in the city of Kaliningrad, Russia. Up until the end of WWII, Kaliningrad was known as Koenigsberg and the island was densely populated and was accessed by 7 bridges. Euler solved the centuries old poser “The Seven Bridges of Koenigsberg” by reducing it to lines and nodes, creating the basis for network theory

  • Jim carter

    I have often wondered what the “half life”, of the force of the energy that was expended when the “big bang” first occurred. It would seem this half life must be expended before a slowing of the universe could occur.

  • Anita Dureich

    it’s gaining speed. at the furthermost edges of the universe….it’s not de-cellerating, it’s gaining speed.

    faster and faster into the unknown…

    i bet there’s good rock lyrics waiting to be written…

  • George Lucas Fan

    George Lucas has all the answers, just match the necessary particles with the cast of the movies, and watch the theory of physics blending as, “The Force”, “Dark side”, etc…

  • peter

    What about book; Philosohical notes-General approach to the Nature and beyond.
    We read and maybe if far to the future but explain everything. Peter

  • Kc

    Arron Arron
    Can you please point me in the right direction to read up on the latest info/theories on dark energy
    Very hard to find proper information online
    Thank you in advance