Elusive Fundamental Particles – Called Skyrmions – Modeled in Beam of Light

Skyrmion particle modeled in light. Credit: University of Birmingham

Scientists at the University of Birmingham have succeeded in creating an experimental model of an elusive kind of fundamental particle called a skyrmion in a beam of light.

The breakthrough provides physicists with a real system demonstrating the behavior of skyrmions, first proposed 60 years ago by a University of Birmingham mathematical physicist, Professor Tony Skyrme.

Skyrme’s idea used the structure of spheres in 4-dimensional space to guarantee the indivisible nature of a skyrmion particle in 3 dimensions. 3D particle-like skyrmions are theorized to tell us about the early origins of the Universe, or about the physics of exotic materials or cold atoms. However, despite being investigated for over 50 years, 3D skyrmions have been seen very rarely in experiments. The most current research into skyrmions focuses on 2D analogs, which shows promise for new technologies.

In a new study, published in Nature Communications, the international collaboration between researchers at the University of Birmingham, Lancaster, Münster (Germany), and RIKEN (Japan) has demonstrated for the first time how skyrmions can be measured in three dimensions.

Professor Mark Dennis, who led the research, said: “Skyrmions have intrigued and challenged physicists for many decades. Although we’re making good progress investigating skyrmions in 2D, we live in a 3D world. We need a system that can model a skyrmion in all its possible states in a way that could be measured. We realized that a beam of light could be harnessed for this purpose because we are able to closely control its properties, and so use it as a platform to model our skyrmions. With this approach, we can start to truly understand these objects and realize their scientific potential.”

To create their model, Dr. Danica Sugic and Professor Dennis, in the University’s School of Physics and Astronomy, cast the standard description of light, the polarization (the direction in which the light waves travel), and phase (the position of the light waves’ vibration) in terms of a sphere in 4-dimensional space, crucial to Skyrme’s original vision. This then allowed the Skyrmion field to be designed and engineered into a beam of laser light in an experiment led by Professor Cornelia Denz, University of Münster. The team used cutting-edge measurements to determine the precise structure of the skyrmion.

“These objects are actually quite intricate, from a geometric point of view,” said Dr. Sugic. “They resemble a complex system of interlocking rings, with the whole forming a particle-like structure. What’s particularly interesting is the skyrmion’s topological properties – they can be distorted, stretched or squeezed, but will not come apart. This robustness is one of the properties that scientists are most interested in exploiting.”

Reference: “Particle-like topologies in light” by Danica Sugic, Ramon Droop, Eileen Otte, Daniel Ehrmanntraut, Franco Nori, Janne Ruostekoski, Cornelia Denz and Mark R. Dennis, 22 November 2021, Nature Communications.
DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-26171-5

Particle PhysicsPopularSkyrmionsUniversity of Birmingham
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  • mullach abu

    3d robust skyrmions fundamental particles have been seen very rarely
    we need a system that can model a skyrmion in all its possible states in a way that can be measured
    we realize a beam of light could be harnessed for this purpose
    with this approach we can start to truly understand these objects and realize their latent inert dormant potentional to manipulate them to do as u want them to do no freedom allowed
    these objects are quite intricate from a geometric point of view
    so lets look at the picture again indigo violet navy blue sky blue green yellow orange red all the colours of a prism of light i see as newton looks again at the wall how does a beam of sunlight split into five six seven and todays picture eight different colours sure for goodness sake its yellow light
    we need a system that can model a beam of light in all its possible states in a way that can be measured so are you ready get set go so
    take a globe the size of the sun and take an earth orbiting around same
    location location location as these positions are out of date you will have to adjust the model accordingly but we are on the northern hemisphere
    sun xyz = 000 centre of orbital elliptical path
    earth = 1au march 20th pisces the fishes 3oclock high
    the 150,000,000 kilometre beam of solar light is polarized right handed balanced even 0 degrees high all 8 colours coming at you but light green of the tree leaves begins to predominate in all its strengthening glory
    earth = 1au april april 19th aries the ram 4oclock high
    the 150,000,000 kilometre beam of solar light is polarized right handed inclining upwards 15 degrees all 8 colours coming at you but light blue predominates in plants that bloom begin to form in all its stengthening glory
    earth = 1au may 20th taurus the bull 5oclock high
    the 150,000,000 kilometre beam of solar light is polarized right handed rising upwards 30 degrees high all 8 colours coming at you but dark navy blue predominates in the flowers that bloom in all its mighty glory
    earth = 1au june 21st gemini the twins 6oclock high
    the 150,000,000 kilometre beam of solar light is polarized even handed inclined upwards to its zenith 90 degrees upwards crest all 8 colours coming at you but white light predominates in all its full blown glory
    earth = 1au july 22nd cancer crab 7oclock high
    the 150,000,000 kilometre beam of solar light is polarized left handed inclining downwards 60 degrees all 8 colours coming at you but dark navy blue predominates in intensity phase vibration in all its post glory
    earth = 1au august 22nd leo the lion 8oclock high
    the 150,000,000 kilometre beam of solar light is polarized left handed inclining downwards 30 degrees all 8 colours coming at you but light blue predominates in intensity phase vibration in all its weakening glory
    earth = 1au september 22nd virgo the virgin 9oclock high
    the 150,000,000 kilometre beam of solar light is polarized even handed balanced even 0 degrees high all 8 colours coming at you but dark green of the tree leaves begins to predominate in intensity phase vibration in all its weakened glory
    earth = 1au october 23rd libra the balace 10oclock high
    the 150,000,000 kilometre beam of solar light is polarized left handed inclining downwards minus 30 degrees all 8 colours coming at you but yellow and oranges of the tree leaves begins to predominate in intensity phase vibration in all its weakened glory
    earth = 1au november 21st scorpio scorpion 11oclock high
    the 150,000,000 kilometre beam of solar light is polarized left handed inclining downwards minus 60 degrees all 8 colours coming at you but reds of the tree leaves begins to predominate in intensity phase vibration in all its weak glory
    earth = 1au december 21st sagittarius the archer 12oclock high
    the 150,000,000 kilometre beam of solar light is polarized even handed inclined downwards minus 90 degrees to its downwards nadir trough all 8 colours coming at you but red infra red light predominates in all its feeblest glory
    earth = 1au january 19th capricornus the goat 1oclock high
    the 150,000,000 kilometre beam of solar light is polarised right handed inclined upwards minus 30 degrees all 8 colours coming at you but yellow light predominates in all its very weak glory
    earth = 1au february 18th aquarius the water bearer 2oclock high
    the 150,000,000 kilometre beam of solar light is polarised right handed inclined upwards minus 60 degrees all 8 colours coming at you but orange light predominates in all its weak glory
    if you living southside southern hemisphere reverse the polarities and the seasons
    and we have the sunlight sunbeam in all its possible earthly states

  • mullach abu

    its a trick of the polarized light when your upside down and back to front
    it should work this way
    3d robust skyrmions fundamental particles have been seen very rarely
    we need a system that can model a skyrmion in all its possible states in a way that can be measured
    we realize a beam of light could be harnessed for this purpose
    with this approach we can start to truly understand these objects and realize their latent inert dormant potential to manipulate them to do as u want them to do no freedom allowed
    these objects are quite intricate from a geometric point of view
    so lets look at the picture again indigo violet navy blue sky blue green yellow orange red all the colours of a prism of light i see as newton looks again at the wall how does a beam of sunlight split into five six seven and todays picture eight different colours sure for goodness sake its solar sun yellow light
    we need a system that can model a beam of light in all its possible states in a way that can be measured so are you ready get set go so
    take a globe the size of the sun and take an earth orbiting around same
    location location location as these positions are out of date you will have to adjust the model accordingly but we are on the northern hemisphere
    sun xyz = 000 centre of orbital elliptical path
    earth = 1au march 20th pisces the fishes 3oclock high east
    the 150,000,000 kilometre beam of solar light is polarized right handed balanced even 0 degrees high all 8 colours coming at you but light green of the tree leaves begins to predominate in all its strengthening glory
    earth = 1au april april 19th aries the ram 2oclock high north east north
    the 150,000,000 kilometre beam of solar light is polarized right handed inclining upwards 15 degrees all 8 colours coming at you but light blue predominates in plants that bloom begin to form in all its strengthening glory
    earth = 1au may 20th taurus the bull 1oclock high north north east
    the 150,000,000 kilometre beam of solar light is polarized right handed rising upwards 30 degrees high all 8 colours coming at you but dark navy blue predominates in the flowers that bloom in all its mighty glory
    earth = 1au june 21st gemini the twins 12oclock high north zenith
    the 150,000,000 kilometre beam of solar light is polarized even handed inclined upwards to its zenith 90 degrees upwards crest all 8 colours coming at you but white light predominates in all its full blown glory
    earth = 1au july 22nd cancer crab 11oclock high north north west
    the 150,000,000 kilometre beam of solar light is polarized left handed inclining downwards 60 degrees all 8 colours coming at you but dark navy blue predominates in intensity phase vibration in all its post glory
    earth = 1au august 22nd leo the lion 10oclock high north west north
    the 150,000,000 kilometre beam of solar light is polarized left handed inclining downwards 30 degrees all 8 colours coming at you but light blue predominates in intensity phase vibration in all its weakening glory
    earth = 1au september 22nd virgo the virgin 9oclock high west
    the 150,000,000 kilometre beam of solar light is polarized even handed balanced even 0 degrees high all 8 colours coming at you but dark green of the tree leaves begins to predominate in intensity phase vibration in all its weakened glory
    earth = 1au october 23rd libra the balance 8oclock high south west south
    the 150,000,000 kilometre beam of solar light is polarized left handed inclining downwards minus 30 degrees all 8 colours coming at you but yellow and oranges and golden browns of the tree leaves begins to predominate in intensity phase vibration in all its weakened glory
    earth = 1au november 21st scorpio scorpion 7oclock high south south west
    the 150,000,000 kilometre beam of solar light is polarized left handed inclining downwards minus 60 degrees all 8 colours coming at you but reds of the tree leaves begins to predominate in intensity phase vibration in all its weak glory
    earth = 1au december 21st sagittarius the archer 6oclock low south nadir
    the 150,000,000 kilometre beam of solar light is polarized even handed inclined downwards minus 90 degrees to its downwards nadir trough all 8 colours coming at you but red infra red light predominates in all its feeblest glory
    earth = 1au january 19th capricornus the goat 5oclock high south south east
    the 150,000,000 kilometre beam of solar light is polarized right handed inclined upwards minus 30 degrees all 8 colours coming at you but yellow light predominates in all its very weak glory
    earth = 1au february 18th aquarius the water bearer 4oclock high south east south
    the 150,000,000 kilometre beam of solar light is polarised right handed inclined upwards minus 60 degrees all 8 colours coming at you but orange light predominates in all its weak glory
    if you living southside southern hemisphere reverse the polarities and the seasons
    and we have the sunlight sunbeam in all its possible earthly states