Solar Dynamics Observatory

The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is a NASA mission launched in February 2010 to study the Sun’s activity and its effects on Earth. Positioned in a geosynchronous orbit, SDO monitors the solar atmosphere continuously, capturing high-resolution images across multiple wavelengths. The observatory is equipped with three main instruments: the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), which studies solar magnetic fields and the solar interior; the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), which photographs the solar atmosphere in multiple wavelengths to better understand the dynamics and drivers of solar activity; and the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE), which measures the sun’s extreme ultraviolet irradiance. SDO’s data are crucial for improving our understanding of solar phenomena like solar flares and coronal mass ejections and their impact on space weather, which affects satellite operations, communication systems, and even power grids on Earth.