Subatomic Particle Seen Changing to Antiparticle and Back for the First Time in Extraordinary Experiment

Matter Antimatter Concept

A team of physicists, including the University of Warwick, have proved that a subatomic particle can switch into its antiparticle alter-ego and back again, in a new discovery just revealed last week.

“This new result shows for the first time that charm mesons can oscillate between the two states.”

An extraordinarily precise measurement made by UK researchers using the LHCb experiment at CERN has provided the first evidence that charm mesons can change into their antiparticle and back again.

For more than 10 years, scientists have known that charm mesons, subatomic particles that contain a quark and an antiquark, can travel as a mixture of their particle and antiparticle states, a phenomenon called mixing. However, this new result shows for the first time that they can oscillate between the two states.

Armed with this new evidence, scientists can try to tackle some of the biggest questions in physics around how particles behave outside of the Standard Model. One being, whether these transitions are caused by unknown particles not predicted by the guiding theory.

Large Hadron Collider Tunnel

The Large Hadron Collider tunnel. Credit: CERN

The research, submitted today to Physical Review Letters and available on arXiv, received funding from the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC).

Being one and the other

In the strange world of quantum physics, the charm meson can be itself and its antiparticle at once. This state, known as quantum superposition, results in two particles each with their own mass – a heavier and lighter version of the particle. This superposition allows the charm meson to oscillate into its antiparticle and back again.

Using data collected during the second run of the Large Hadron Collider, researchers from the University of Oxford measured a difference in mass between the two particles of 0.00000000000000000000000000000000000001 grams – or in scientific notation 1×10-38g. A measurement of this precision and certainty is only possible when the phenomenon is observed many times, and this is only possible due so many charm mesons being produced in LHC collisions.

As the measurement is extremely precise, the research team ensured the analysis method was even more so. To do this, the team used a novel technique originally developed by colleagues at the University of Warwick.

LHCb Experiment at CERN

The LHCb experiment at CERN. Credit: CERN

There are only four types of particle in the Standard Model, the theory that explains particle physics, that can turn into their antiparticle. The mixing phenomenon was first observed in Strange mesons in the 1960s and in beauty mesons in the 1980s. Until now, the only other one of the four particles that has been seen to oscillate this way is the strange-beauty meson, a measurement made in 2006.

A rare phenomenon

Professor Guy Wilkinson at University of Oxford, whose group contributed to the analysis, said:

“What makes this discovery of oscillation in the charm meson particle so impressive is that, unlike the beauty mesons, the oscillation is very slow and therefore extremely difficult to measure within the time that it takes the meson to decay. This result shows the oscillations are so slow that the vast majority of particles will decay before they have a chance to oscillate. However, we are able to confirm this as a discovery because LHCb has collected so much data.”

Professor Tim Gershon at University of Warwick, developer of the analytical technique used to make the measurement, said:

“Charm meson particles are produced in proton–proton collisions and they travel on average only a few millimeters before transforming, or decaying, into other particles. By comparing the charm meson particles that decay after traveling a short distance with those that travel a little further, we have been able to measure the key quantity that controls the speed of the charm meson oscillation into anti-charm meson – the difference in mass between the heavier and lighter versions of charm meson.”

A new door opens for physics exploration

This discovery of charm meson oscillation opens up a new and exciting phase of physics exploration; researchers now want to understand the oscillation process itself, potentially a major step forward in solving the mystery of matter-antimatter asymmetry. A key area to explore is whether the rate of particle-antiparticle transitions is the same as that of antiparticle-particle transitions, and specifically whether the transitions are influenced/caused by unknown particles not predicted by the Standard Model.

Dr. Mark Williams at University of Edinburgh, who convened the LHCb Charm Physics Group within which the research was performed, said:

“Tiny measurements like this can tell you big things about the Universe that you didn’t expect.”

The result, 1×10-38g, crosses the ‘five sigma’ level of statistical significance that is required to claim a discovery in particle physics.

Reference: “Observation of the mass difference between neutral charm-meson eigenstates” by LHCb collaboration: R. Aaij, C. Abellán Beteta, T. Ackernley, B. Adeva, M. Adinolfi, H. Afsharnia, C.A. Aidala, S. Aiola, Z. Ajaltouni, S. Akar, J. Albrecht, F. Alessio, M. Alexander, A. Alfonso Albero, Z. Aliouche, G. Alkhazov, P. Alvarez Cartelle, S. Amato, Y. Amhis, L. An, L. Anderlini, A. Andreianov, M. Andreotti, F. Archilli, A. Artamonov, M. Artuso, K. Arzymatov, E. Aslanides, M. Atzeni, B. Audurier, S. Bachmann, M. Bachmayer, J.J. Back, P. Baladron Rodriguez, V. Balagura, W. Baldini, J. Baptista Leite, R.J. Barlow, S. Barsuk, W. Barter, M. Bartolini, F. Baryshnikov, J.M. Basels, G. Bassi, B. Batsukh, A. Battig, A. Bay, M. Becker, F. Bedeschi, I. Bediaga, A. Beiter, V. Belavin, S. Belin, V. Bellee, K. Belous, I. Belov, I. Belyaev, G. Bencivenni, E. Ben-Haim, A. Berezhnoy, R. Bernet, D. Berninghoff, H.C. Bernstein, C. Bertella, A. Bertolin, C. Betancourt, F. Betti, Ia. Bezshyiko, S. Bhasin, J. Bhom, L. Bian, M.S. Bieker, S. Bifani, P. Billoir, M. Birch, F.C.R. Bishop, A. Bitadze, A. Bizzeti, M. Bjørn, M.P. Blago, T. Blake, F. Blanc, S. Blusk, D. Bobulska, J.A. Boelhauve, O. Boente Garcia, T. Boettcher, A. Boldyrev, A. Bondar, N. Bondar, S. Borghi, M. Borisyak, M. Borsato, J.T. Borsuk, S.A. Bouchiba, T.J.V. Bowcock, A. Boyer, C. Bozzi, M.J. Bradley et al., Submitted, Physical Review Letters.
arXiv: 2106.03744

15 Comments on "Subatomic Particle Seen Changing to Antiparticle and Back for the First Time in Extraordinary Experiment"

  1. Peter M Foster | June 13, 2021 at 7:59 pm | Reply

    Pico, Septo. Billionth of a meter not even close, trillionth is the basic measure to determine the existence if an atom or a nuclear structure magnetically and elementally, in moments of inertia, connected through nuclear anatomy or architecture. The magnetic moment begins to appear as oscillations of fidelity. Much unlike the force of ions combining to form microwaves and ultimately radio waves. The platform of gamma radiation and ultraviolet. The long wave of infrared with the gamma structure, the cornerstone. The slub in the midst of the angular velocity being interpreted by its neighbors. ,,–%–” the distance of the overs Nd unders of the star of David. The vibrational tendencies of the slub the detail of that time, time and half a time, themoment before the delta, the change or the handle to the door is about to be turned… the second hand on its way to the next second. Develop universal measurements, use whole numbers 285714, no zeroes or decimals, one third resulting in infinite calculations… but like a record player, the spindle, the 66, 45, 33, the sound of the grove a technics calibration of speed displayed on the prism. The interlocutory, —><—, meeting and the tilde, the energies flow, with the winding of degrees of freedom seen as the path of that which flies. A sigma of sand dial on its side.

  2. BibhutibhusanPatel | June 14, 2021 at 6:09 am | Reply

    This ìs a MAGNETON,the fundamental particle having ÙÑIT magnetism.Congratùlationsto the CERN scientists workìng òn ĹHCb for the dìscovery and fìnding of magneton’s mass.

  3. BibhutibhusanPatel | June 14, 2021 at 6:24 am | Reply

    This ìs a MAGNETON,the fundamental particle having ÙÑIT magnetism.Congratùlationsto the CERN scientists workìng òn ĹHCb for the dìscovery and fìnding of magneton’s mass.Oscillation of a magneton produce partìcle-antiparticle and back to original form or state of a Charm meson.Thanks,tò the Authors.

  4. Mike Pollock | June 14, 2021 at 7:28 am | Reply

    Normal matter lives in a sea of extremely pressurized electron neutrinos. Gravity is produced when these particles are manipulated with heat. A mass will create energized dark matter by destroying electrons and turning them into electron neutrinos. These are the neutrinos that scientists have observed that travel great distances from other energy sources. These particles are shot from the mass gravitationally invisible. They are in the form of gamma rays but as the black hole experiences entropy,the gamma rays are filtered through the mass that the black hole will create on it’s surface following the first law of thermodynamics. This is why stars have different colors and go dark. The electron neutrinos of space are the ones that are not as easy to see if not impossible. These particles have more mass that the ones shot from the mass and are under pressure in space. Scientists can’t see them because they react with other matter before they ever get to see them. The energized particles push out on the natural pressure of space and cause gravitational lensing. It is these particles from space that cause gravity as they push through the outgoing matter. These are the sterile neutrinos that cause gravity, the muon problem, and the crux of this article. It is merely the big bang theory that has caused us to ignore electron neutrinos. This is because gravity was forced to be inherent to matter to make gas and dust turn into a star. In actuality, this energy came from a massive collision in space, not gravity. It is time for a paradigm shift in science and I know how it will work.

  5. BibhutibhusanPatel | June 14, 2021 at 8:39 am | Reply

    This ìs a MAGNETON,the fundamental particle having ÙÑIT magnetism.Congratùlationsto the CERN scientists workìng òn ĹHCb for the dìscovery and fìnding of magneton’s mass.Oscillation of a magneton produce partìcle-antiparticle and back to original form or state of a Charm meson.Thanks,tò the Authors.lncluding magneton’s mass the mode of vibration in term of mass keeps presence is perfectly a topic of New Physics,now commonly viewed with muon:a moßt ongoing theme of research.So,this is good and confirmative to achive 5sigma accùracy for the mass of magneton in the chapter of new physics.

  6. BibhutibhusanPatel | June 14, 2021 at 8:50 am | Reply

    The discovery confirms with 5 sigma accuracy of result for the mass òf maģneton in oscillation mode is in New Physics.This is related to research of muon’s extra magnetism also belònging to fact of new physics.

  7. BibhutibhusanPatel | June 14, 2021 at 8:58 am | Reply

    The discovery confirms with 5 sigma accuracy of result for the mass òf maģneton in oscillation mode is in New Physics.This is related to research of muon’s extra magnetism also belònging to fact of new physics.Simillar functional analogy is present for both magneton and muons total magnetism (common 2+exess or extra).!

  8. BibhutibhusanPatel | June 14, 2021 at 9:06 am | Reply

    The discovery confirms with 5 sigma accuracy of result for the mass òf maģneton in oscillation mode is in New Physics.This is related to research of muon’s extra magnetism also belònging to fact of new physics.Simillar functional analogy is present for both magneton and muons total magnetism (common 2+exess or extra).This is in connection to the mass of magneton geneŕated due to its oscillation moďe a nnd muon’s excess magnetism,have simple transitional corelation.

  9. BibhutibhusanPatel | June 14, 2021 at 9:17 am | Reply

    The discovery confirms with 5 sigma accuracy of result for the mass òf maģneton in oscillation mode is in New Physics.This is related to research of muon’s extra magnetism also belònging to fact of new physics.Simillar functional analogy is present for both magneton and muons total magnetism (common 2+exess or extra).This is in connection to the mass of magneton geneŕated due to its oscillation moďe a nnd muon’s excess magnetism,have simple transitional corelation.An inversion phenomena between mass and magnetism is seen to present related by thermodynamic change at temperature near to 0°K.

  10. BibhutibhusanPatel | June 14, 2021 at 9:20 am | Reply

    The discovery confirms with 5 sigma accuracy of result for the mass òf maģneton in oscillation mode is in New Physics.This is related to research of muon’s extra magnetism also belònging to fact of new physics.Simillar functional analogy is present for both magneton and muons total magnetism (common 2+exess or extra).This is in connection to the mass of magneton geneŕated due to its oscillation moďe a nnd muon’s excess magnetism,have simple transitional corelation.An inversion phenomena between mass and magnetism is seen to present related by thermodynamic change at temperature near to 0°K.This can be a topìc of còsmology.

  11. BibhutibhusanPatel | June 15, 2021 at 7:54 am | Reply

    In the còntext neutrino,the fact fact present that when this is treated as energy particle to concentrate in its mass form is of the order 10 to pòwer _24Kg.Again treating this radical particle to ìts energy fòrm gives particle rather simultaneoùs wave form is the uĺtimate partìcle with mass ofthe order 10 to power _48 J that is ejected from a galaxy (Unìveŕse,any extŕa unìveŕse can be detected keeps presence).This bears another golden property of di-hexagonal ring clue to be related with Univèrse or the Big Bang.So,sole particle is used for stùdy òf galaxies in þhe universe and inter-relations among them,hence any extra Ùnivetse can be detected.The numericl advantage present for power rangès for partìcles from 48 to 24 is related by a squre root.

  12. BibhutibhusanPatel | June 15, 2021 at 8:05 am | Reply

    In the còntext neutrino,the fact fact present that when this is treated as energy particle to concentrate in its mass form is of the order 10 to pòwer _24Kg.Again treating this radical particle to ìts energy fòrm gives particle rather simultaneoùs wave form is the uĺtimate partìcle with mass ofthe order 10 to power _48 J that is ejected from a galaxy (Unìveŕse,any extŕa unìveŕse can be detected keeps presence).This bears another golden property of di-hexagonal ring clue to be related with Univèrse or the Big Bang.So,sole particle is used for stùdy òf galaxies in þhe universe and inter-relations among them,hence any extra Ùnivetse can be detected.The numericl advantage present for power rangès for partìcles from 48 to 24 is related by a squre root.These are the only phenomena in observable universe to occùre.

  13. BibhutibhusanPatel | June 15, 2021 at 8:16 am | Reply

    In the còntext neutrino,the fact fact present that when this is treated as energy particle to concentrate in its mass form is of the order 10 to pòwer _24Kg.Again treating this radical particle to ìts energy fòrm gives particle rather simultaneoùs wave form is the uĺtimate partìcle with mass ofthe order 10 to power _48 J that is ejected from a galaxy (Unìveŕse,any extŕa unìveŕse can be detected keeps presence).This bears another golden property of di-hexagonal ring clue to be related with Univèrse or the Big Bang.So,sole particle is used for stùdy òf galaxies in þhe universe and inter-relations among them,hence any extra Ùnivetse can be detected.The numericl advantage present for power rangès for partìcles from 48 to 24 is related by a squre root.These are the only phenomena in observable universe to occùre.Hence,the present dìscòvery cònfirms the the ßtudy of unìverse establishìng relations between galaxìes and stùdy of other universe,hòwever new physìcs can only do residùal experimental verification.

  14. Peter M Foster,
    Please write English so we can understand what you are trying to communicate.
    Paragraphs help.
    Would dearly like to understand what you are trying to say.

  15. … I wonder what would be seen from decay graph… I don’t thing that thing do exists now. …
    Well, the one should make all decays on a graph and interaction. Some things might emerge from it…

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