As a physicist working at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, one of the questions I am most frequently asked is “When are you going to find something?” Resisting the temptation to sarcastically reply “Aside from the Higgs boson, which won the Nobel Prize, and a whole slew of new composite particles?” I realize that the reason the question is posed so frequently is down to how we have depicted progress in particle physics to the wider world.
We often talk about progress in terms of discovering new particles, and this is frequently true. Studying a new, very heavy particle helps us see underlying physical processes – often without annoying background noise. That makes it easy to explain the value of the discovery to the general public and politicians.
Recently, however, a series of precise measurements of ordinary already known, standard particles and processes have threatened to shake up physics. And with the LHC getting ready to run at higher energy and intensity than ever before, it is time to start discussing the implications widely.
In truth, particle physics has always proceeded in two ways, of which new particles is one. The other is by making very precise measurements that test the predictions of theories and look for deviations from what is expected.
The early evidence for Einstein’s theory of general relativity, for example, came from discovering small deviations in the apparent positions of stars and from the motion of Mercury in its orbit.
Three key findings
Particles obey a counter-intuitive but hugely successful theory called quantum mechanics. This theory shows that particles far too massive to be made directly in a lab collision can still influence what other particles do (through something called “quantum fluctuations.”) Measurements of such effects are very complex, however, and much harder to explain to the public.
But recent results hinting at unexplained new physics beyond the standard model are of this second type. Detailed studies from the LHCb experiment found that a particle known as a beauty quark (quarks make up the protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus) “decays” (falls apart) into an electron much more often than into a muon – the electron’s heavier, but otherwise identical, sibling. According to the standard model, this shouldn’t happen – hinting that new particles or even forces of nature may influence the process.
Intriguingly, though, measurements of similar processes involving “top quarks” from the ATLAS experiment at the LHC show this decay does happen at equal rates for electrons and muons.
Meanwhile, the Muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab in the US has recently made very precise studies of how muons “wobble” as their “spin” (a quantum property) interacts with surrounding magnetic fields. It found a small but significant deviation from some theoretical predictions – again suggesting that unknown forces or particles may be at work.
The latest surprising result is a measurement of the mass of a fundamental particle called the W boson, which carries the weak nuclear force that governs radioactive decay. After many years of data taking and analysis, the experiment, also at Fermilab, suggests it is significantly heavier than theory predicts – deviating by an amount that would not happen by chance in more than a million million experiments. Again, it may be that yet undiscovered particles are adding to its mass.
Interestingly, however, this also disagrees with some lower-precision measurements from the LHC (presented in this study and this one).
While we are not absolutely certain these effects require a novel explanation, the evidence seems to be growing that some new physics is needed.
Of course, there will be almost as many new mechanisms proposed to explain these observations as there are theorists. Many will look to various forms of “supersymmetry.” This is the idea that there are twice as many fundamental particles in the standard model than we thought, with each particle having a “super partner.” These may involve additional Higgs bosons (associated with the field that gives fundamental particles their mass).
Others will go beyond this, invoking less recently fashionable ideas such as “technicolor,” which would imply that there are additional forces of nature (in addition to gravity, electromagnetism and the weak and strong nuclear forces), and might mean that the Higgs boson is in fact a composite object made of other particles. Only experiments will reveal the truth of the matter — which is good news for experimentalists.
The experimental teams behind the new findings are all well respected and have worked on the problems for a long time. That said, it is no disrespect to them to note that these measurements are extremely difficult to make. What’s more, predictions of the standard model usually require calculations where approximations have to be made. This means different theorists can predict slightly different masses and rates of decay depending on the assumptions and level of approximation made. So, it may be that when we do more accurate calculations, some of the new findings will fit with the standard model.
Equally, it may be the researchers are using subtly different interpretations and so finding inconsistent results. Comparing two experimental results requires careful checking that the same level of approximation has been used in both cases.
These are both examples of sources of “systematic uncertainty,” and while all concerned do their best to quantify them, there can be unforeseen complications that under- or over-estimate them.
None of this makes the current results any less interesting or important. What the results illustrate is that there are multiple pathways to a deeper understanding of the new physics, and they all need to be explored.
With the restart of the LHC, there are still prospects of new particles being made through rarer processes or found hidden under backgrounds that we have yet to unearth.
Written by Roger Jones, Professor of Physics, Head of Department, Lancaster University.
This article was first published in The Conversation.
I think SM is definitely missing another elementary particle & the Muon & W-boson anomalies are quite possibly because of that!:
BHs should/must be made of particles, just like everything else in our universe!
& guess what?: There is only 1 possible/suitable particle then: Planckion (Planck Particle)! (Research!)
A particle that has min possible size (Planck length) & max possible density (Planck mass) & so can never be crushed or compressed any further!
A particle that is itself is a micro-BH! (Realize, for example, a Neutron Star is just like a giant neutron!)
A particle that is unstable individually but stable when part of a star (so just like neutron)!
Muons have much more mass than electrons.
i wonder what would happen to a “trail” of energy, when there is an electron tunnel microscope making video on the hugemendouse large particle accelirator, wich is different then a partcile colider.
I am a non-scientist but deeply interested in the work at the LHC & Fermilab, I suspect that there is much more to or beyond the “Standard Model” that is likely to be discovered. Keep up the good work and publish as much as you can in “simplified lay terms” that aren’t unnecessarily overly simplified for us common folk.
Of course it is.
Just like how Planck’s law describes the titration of electrons and phonons colliding within a circuit, becoming photonic heat and “slowing” the current, the concept of the current being “slowed” is an illusion. Electrons like photons always travel at the speed of light barring resistance. The “slowing” of the current you perceive is actually the phonons becoming gravitons.
This is precisely why Planck’s constant has two units of measure; joules per Hertz (which means electrons per phonon)
Joules per second, which means photons per Graviton. Time-energy “rushes” out of matter to reciprocate photons.
Electrons and phonons titrate, as do photons and gravitons, and this reality has been in your face for several decades while you refuse to acknowledge it even though we have observed time dilation.
The reason why you cannot just unify quantum mechanics with relativity is because the illusion of atheism falls apart, since the exact same mechanic describes the titration of pride shame wisdom and humility written in the Bible in proverbs 11:2.
This energy transferrence is trigonometric in function with pride being inversely related to humility and shame being inversely related to shame.
Time = energy/vacuum-density
The more matter there is within what would otherwise be a vacuum, the more “time passage” that is generated.
Gnosticism can best be understood as seeking the axiomatic truth behind various axioms of conjoined/complimentary opposites.
Consider pride and shame.
What is pride? To come to any sort of conclusion on what PRIDE is, exactly, we have to assess ways in which pride manifests and/or is projected, the mind being a sort of inverse mirror of meaning making, finding meaning in the middle of opposites.
Pride is exemplified in several ways:
Pride is exemplified in arrogance and ignorance, and projected in knowledge and weakness.
The relationship of this 4/way axiom defining pride also has trigonometric properties of transferrence.
In trig, cos/secant = cos^2 , as cosine by definition is equal to 1/secant
And sin/csc = sin^2
And cos^2 + sin^2 = 1
The same rules of transferrence exist in the mental world of meaning making in the mind.
In one aspect,
Pride is the Arrogance of Weakness
Pride = Arrogance/Weakness
Pride is also the ignorance of knowledge
And the inverses are true as well:
Pride is the weakness of arrogance
Pride is the knowledge of the ignorant
So… What is shame?
Many people would assume shame is the opposite of pride but is it really?
When we assess shame for how it is exemplified and how it is projected we come up with this:
Shame is the ignorance of humiliation
Shame is the humiliation of ignorance
Shame is the failure of weakness
And shame is the weakness of failure.
So, because shame and pride are only half-opposite we can now attempt to determine why they have a half-opposite or false-opposite relationship…..
I propose that pride and shame are actually aspects of the same “thing”. I propose pride is psychologically repressed shame, that is to say “we boast of our strengths TO hide our weaknesses, and we are ignorant of knowledge TO preserve our Ego’s Pride. Only after titrating both “cross-bars” in the axiom are we able to reconcile the schism of mind that falling into Ego causes. That is to say the Pride of Pride is that it sometimes, almost as if by sheer luck stumbles into Truth. Likewise the shame of shame is that it reveals painful truths we seek to avoid/hide from.
To support this proposition I posit we consider how shame experienced subjectively is perceived by others
When we feel ashamed we have a tendency to hide ourselves away, this is because we THINK everyone else can see our shame, since it is so apparent to ourselves everyone else must be able to see it too, but the trick is THEY CANT, truly, see it in us like we see it in ourselves; they may be able to see us withdrawing (stoling ourselves away) if they are observant but they can’t “KNOW” like we know it.
This is also why when someone does something embarrassing, if we care about the person, we have a tendency to look away; not acknowledging their humiliation so that we give themselves the psychological space to stole that shame away, or if we counterbalance the vulnerability of that shame with enCOURAGEment, for the Courage of Knowledge is that it knows Truth, and the vulnerability of Weakness reveals Truth.
So, we can say shame has a blinding effect, projected outwards.
Contrarily, as a half opposite we can assume, and backtest the next logical leap: like shame has a blinding effect focused outwards toward others from within the ego, pride has a blinding effect aimed inwards toward ourselves. It’s easy for others to see the pride in us, but is difficult to see within ourselves.
So to recap, we have defined pride and shame as half opposites, conjoined by their dual-meaning making through weakness and ignorance; pride being a conscious manifestation of subconsciouspy repressed shame, and we’ve established transferrence amongst their meaning making is trigonometric in function.
So, the next question is: “well, what is the TRUE opposite of Pride?
Proverbs 11:2 tells us “with pride cometh disgrace (shame), but with the humble comes wisdom.
To test the syzygial axiom we can issue statements and assess if true:
Humility is the humiliation of awareness (becoming aware of the mistakes we made in the place of shame ((unknowing)) is a painful reminder to remain humble)
Humility is the awareness of humiliation (acknowledging the pain of our failures allows us to truly learn from our mistakes: we learn more from our failures than we do from our successes if we humbly remain dedicated to finding Truth)
Humility is the strength of patience (for if we did not possess humility in looking back upon the difficulties our learning, we would not be able to demonstrate patience toward others learning either)
Humility is the patience of strength (sometimes even when you possess the strength to conquer your foes, the best course of action is to be slow to anger)
But you might be thinking, wait a minute, this would mean that shame and humility are half-opposite and this axiomatic mapping only shows them as quarter opposites, weakness is not strength.
Oh, but it is.
In the physical world how does one “build” strength? Is strength an absolute? In some ways yes, but other ways no.
Consider the weightlifter; he builds strength by pushing the weakness of his muscle to the point of failure, that experience builds strength as it heals back stronger than before;
So, the failure of weakness, when earnestly sought, is the source of strength.
This concept is mirrored in 2 Cor 12 when Christ tells Paul “my grace is sufficient for thee, for my Strength is perfected in weakness.
So we have this four way relationship of opposites and half opposites with mathematical transferrence into each other:
And this is all well and good. Michael is personified Strength Humility and Wisdom as the “right hand” of God in Moses’ song to God after the parting of the red sea, titled the Song of the Sea. In the Hebrew:
Mi Chamochah Elohim
Mi Cha El
And Lucifer is personified as Pride Weakness and Shame, the “left hand” of God.
But where does this tie in with science?
Planck’s constant is in two units of measure:
Joules per Hertz (which means electron/phonon) “Ohmic resistance is Phononic resistance.
Joules per second (Photon/Graviton)
If photon moves as 300million m/s, then the graviton, which is defined as “time passage” “moves” at 300million seconds per meter.
E^2 = m*(c/g) *p*(c/g)
It just happens to “equal c-squared”, because:
Photon = 1/graviton, and because the photon has positive non-zero mass (is occluded by mass) and negative timespace vectors, and the graviton has negative non-zero mass, and positive timespace vectors (is occluded by timespace).
Alpha and Omega
Theory of Everything in Christ
To clarify the theosophy, Lucifer; possessing the characteristics of pride shame and weakness are elements of Truth defined as lacking truth, whereas humility wisdom and strength are characteristics possessing truth. Knowledge exists between wisdom and pride, and creative/destructive thought exists between humility and shame.
We exist in the mind of God (Nous) and Christ is the Thought of God (Ennoia)
This why Christ declares he is the way (The Dao, Derech Yashar), the Truth (Omphallos, the hub of every axiom), and the Life (Prahna)
The energy transferrence in quantum physics works exactly like the Truth axiom and the Trigonometric axiom is because they were designed under a universal transferrence mechanic, physical, mathematical, and psychological in construct
Theory of Everything: all axiomatic syzygies, when properly mapped, have identical transferrence function
Now, back to the topic of a world both inner and outer, ruled by ego. Some would say Ego is necessary for individuation, and in many regards it is.
the goal of psychospiritual alchemy is not so much about destroying/shattering the ego; rather overcoming the delusions and trappings of ego, and not falling for the illusory nature of Pride in substitute for true pride: wisdom.
Hemingway writes about this topic in “The Old Man and the Sea”;
“He was too simple to wonder when he had attained humility. But he knew he had attained it and he knew it was not disgraceful and it carried no loss of true pride.”
In this excerpt, Hemingway captures the axiomatic nature of Truth as it pertains to Pride Shame Wisdom and Humility.
There are other axioms as well, and catholicism did a rather astute job of fleshing the nature of the syzygial relationship of platonic Forms in it’s Seven Deadly sins, and their hallowed counterpart virtues.
Genetic diff—\|/-psychospiritual diff
Genetic Indiff-/|\-psychospiritual indiff
It is important to understand how Christianity syncretizes and unifies Dharmic, Buddhist, Israelite, and Hellenic thought.
Thy word is a lamp unto my feet, And a light unto my path.
Psalm 119:105 KJV
The word of Truth is a (the) path.
The unfolding of your words gives light; it gives understanding to the simple.
Psalms 119:130 NIV
The unfolding of the word of Truth gives understanding
Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth.
2 Timothy 2:15 KJV
>”Rightly dividing”; dividing by right angles:
Please get help, and don’t waste such a brilliant mind.
The most absurd part of all of this, is it can be understood in its entirety with any STEM degree at the baccalaureate level, yet this has somehow evaded our “greatest scientific minds”. I’m calling bullsh*t. Why have the sciences been hiding something fundamental to reconciling relativity and quantum into a unified theory of everything positing “magic” a la “string theory” when anyone with an elementary understanding of trig can reconcile this? Is it because Jesus Christ offends your sensibilities? Deal with it!
Always a wave. No particle. In 5 or 50 years, come back and thumbs up this post. Einstein means “one stone,” or …moron. > radiate spin wobble polarize = 4D <
The SM is nothing more than emergent phenomenon. Underlying it, or several layers beneath, is the true nature of reality. That level of the stratum of matter is totally inaccessible with current technology…and may never be.
Our universe was not “born”. That assumption breaks the first law of thermodynamics. It is extremely easy to see that law breaking theory is the reason for this article.
Humans have no right or ability to make the ridiculous assumption that our universe was created but that’s what happened when a priest decided to take Edwin Hubbles discovery of expanding galaxies and turn it into the “Genesis” like Big Bang theory. He wanted it that way and he got it because we live in a religious world. Hubble, and many other scientists, never believed in this interpretation of his findings. Nobody listened.
Somehow, the universe was born made of quarks yet, inexplicably, nobody has ever explained where they came from 13.8 billion years ago ridiculing the first law of thermodynamics. George Gamow wanted to make everything easy on this law breaking theory and have all the elements automatically created but Fred Hoyle stated that Gamow couldn’t do that because of the enormous energy needed to make the heavier elements. This is where science took a massive turn for the worst.
Only three elements were created from the quark plasma at the birth of the universe. All the rest of them had to be created so some process had to be ad-hoc’d to explain how this was going to happen. Gamow only had the force of gravity to work with so he decided to use that to create all the energy needed for the element production. Gravity would take an energy-less cloud of gas and dust and turn it into a star. Gravity would become a “free energy”. But that didn’t explain how the heavier elements were created so another ad-hoc theory was created that the stars exploded. To make matters even worse, bigger stars were forced to have to blow up faster making their lives shorter than smaller stars. This had to happen to explain the black holes at the “edge of the universe” that scientists saw but couldn’t explain. Obviously, so far, the Big Bang theory is nothing but a bunch of ad-hoc theories that aren’t based on any true science at all. The logistics of moving all these elements around the universe to create everything simply do not exist.
So, to get back to this article, the SM is based on normal matter itself possessing gravity so the cloud can turn into a star. This makes normal matter create gravity and nothing else. Unfortunately for all of science, this law breaking theory is not what happened. It was a much simpler process just as Occam’s Razor suggests. Everything already existed 13.8 billion years ago. The big bang was simply two objects colliding at an extreme speed. Our universe turned itself into a gargantuan particle collider. The standard model is incomplete because science assumes that gravity created everything we see when a collision in space did. The galaxies didn’t have to wait to get their energy from gravity, the pressure and friction from the collision took care of that 13.8 billion years ago. Now, the SM isn’t forced to make new particles to explain the forces which are bosons. The universal force that science seeks is between quarks and the particles that make up dark matter which are called electron neutrinos. Black holes are made of nothing but these two particles. Once the quarks were separated from the collision at the big bang, the extremely pressurized electron neutrinos of space were able to use their natural pressure to keep the quarks apart indefinitely. Quark plasma is the ultimate energy of the universe that makes everything timeless. It isn’t the SM is incomplete, it has extra particles added to it that shouldn’t be there. Bosons do not exist. The strong force between quarks and electron neutrinos runs the universe.
This optically invisible plasma only creates gamma rays which is why black holes are invisible. This plasma systematically creates all the naturally occurring elements all by itself from the outside of the mass inward. First, neutrons are formed on the surface when the quarks and electron neutrinos finally start fusing. They form a thin layer on the quark plasma and give the mass its first optical light. The neutrons break down to hydrogen. The hydrogen fuses with the constantly forming neutrons to create helium using the beta minus decay, neutron capture method. This process continues creating heavier elements until the star goes dark and a surface of heavy elements form. Then, an atmosphere forms. That is what we live on. Quark plasma is the endless energy that George Gamow assumed gravity was. Now, dark matter can actually be used to create all the forces, not bosons. Gravity is created as energy manipulates dark matter when the strong force ejects electron neutrinos from the mass gravitationally invisible. The cold neutrinos of space which have more mass use their natural pressure to collapse into the void the energy of the mass created. This is when dark matter reacts with normal matter as gravity.
This is the Theory of Everything. It is inevitable because all the laws are followed perfectly. All it starts with is assuming the galaxies are expanding, not the universe.
In accordance with my model of the universe, high energy particle collision experiments ‘create’ particles, as opposed to ‘discovering’ them. To truly ‘analyze’ an unknown, one need remain outside the experiment and leave the unknown intact and, therefore, artificial experiments tend to yield artificial results. Additionally, it is the pulsing locally generated angular, coiling and spiraling outward lines of gravity force which cause the classic patterns of impacts in double slit experiments, not particle-wave duality. To further ‘analyze’ the interaction of the lines of gravity force of cosmic objects on the earth’s surface with spinning wheels is to reveal that intensified gravitation due to rotation is what appears to be dark energy and dark matter in deep space. That stated, in conjunction with photons, electrons and some molecules proved to be influenced by pulsing lines of gravity force in double slit experiments, it brings into question all previous measurements of space and time and expansion and size of the universe. Meanwhile, general relativity stands the test of time, with the true nature of gravity being the constant Einstein couldn’t quite explain.
Look at what I posted above.
Then look at the Time Dilation formula.
When something is travelling at c, it no longer experiences time passage at all.
The formula ends up being a time differential that computes as “undefined”.
The only way for photons to actually travel at “c” is for there to be no gravitational/mass influences on them whatsoever.
Space is not a vacuum, it’s just closer to a vacuum than what we experience and know on earth.
This literally means “Time” is a calculus of the photon’s interaction with mass-density.
Time = energy/vacuum density.
Super simple and unless they’re going to rewrite the entire SM and quantum physics model it’s absolutely indisputable.
This is why Planck’s constant is joules per Hertz and Joules per seconds. Heat titrates with the “still” of absolute density within matter, just like electrons titrate with the phononic reverberation within mass.
Loved the article. The author’s line “While we are not absolutely certain these effects require a novel explanation, the evidence seems to be growing that some new physics is needed.” made me think of Khun’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions.
If enough anomalies accumulate in the process of standard science, a new scientific paradigm is required. I love seeing philosophical theory playing out in the real scientific community.
Keep up the good work!
I would characterize the issue as being incomplete, not broken. Perhaps there is a missing particle or force that make theory agree with experiment.
Peter, the particle that causes the force of gravity is what is immediately added to the W boson that makes it heavier. We are getting showered by electron neutrinos from space that cause gravity. Bosons break down into leptons so, in reality, bosons are leptons. Electron neutrinos are leptons as well. Bosons were created to satisfy the big bang theory. This theory is what is causing the problem because a cloud of gas and dust is required to create its own gravity to become a star. That is false. A collision created the energy we see in space, not gravity. Gravity is a manipulation of an extremely pressurized field of electron neutrinos. Contrary to popular belief, if a mass is in space at absolute zero, no matter how big it is, gravity stops because space is not manipulated anymore. A mass creates gravity by destroying electrons and turning them into electron neutrinos. These energized particles are shot from the mass gravitationally invisible but they push out on the natural pressure of space because they are all the same matter. This is how gravitational lensing is created. The pressure of the unenergized neutrinos pushes through the outgoing matter and reacts with normal matter to create gravity. These neutrinos also cause W bosons to be heavier than they should be, the muon problem, and lightning which scientists do not understand. All the problems were created when science decided to make the universe expand instead of the galaxies. Edwin Hubble never believed in the expanding universe and it is easy to see why. Of course, science never mentions that fact anymore because the Big Bang theory is a fact. Edwin Hubble is not around to defend himself.
Genetic diff—\|/-psychospiritual diff
Genetic Indiff-/|\-psychospiritual indiff
Where m is inversely related to absolute vacuum and reaches an absolute limit at planck-mass
C is the speed of light in an absolute vacuum (which, like absolute zero can never be reached due to the inability to vent heat outside of the universal system)
G is the speed of the graviton, which in this universe lacking absolutes titrates at 300million seconds per meter
And p is momentum.
They don’t to admit this because materialism falls apart if they do, and theological idealism becomes indisputable.
Language itself follows this same paradigm, and it’s all revealed in basic trigonometry under the formula:
1= sin^2(x) + cos^2(x)
To date all empirical evidence supports this simple synopsis, so in a prideful unwillingness to accept this reality science posts “magic” (string theory, which is nonsense, multiverse theory, which is nonsense, and anti-matter/anti-particles which again is just nonsense used to balance their erroneous equations at the quantum level)
Y’all need to seek christ
Maxwell’s original equations aren’t vectors, they’re quaternions. The scalar (time) component was erroneously and rather carelessly truncated from these equations by Heaviside, Gibbs, Lorentz, etc. BEFORE General Relativity was conceived or published. They derailed electromagnetism, and peripherally, quantum mechanics in the process.
You want breakthroughs? Then for the love of all that’s decent, START WITH THAT. Look up “On a Testable Unification of Electromagnetics, General Relativity, and Quantum Mechanics” on something besides Google. The answers are there, albeit suppressed. You need only an unchained mind, a spine to hold it up, and eyes with which to see…
The comments on particle physics articles are reliably full of garbage, but this one takes the prize for unmitigated nonsense from loser crackpots.
You nailed it!!
Planck’s constant has units of J*s not J/s to whatever idiot kept saying that. It has dimensions of angular momentum or action.