Wormholes – Shortcuts Connecting Two Points in Spacetime – Help Resolve Black Hole Information Paradox

Wormhole Spacetime Shortcut

Figure 1: As depicted in science fiction, a wormhole is a shortcut connecting two points in spacetime. A RIKEN physicist and two collaborators have used a new spacetime geometry with a wormhole-like structure to show that information is not necessarily irretrievably lost from black holes as they evaporate. Credit: © Mark Garlick/Science Photo Library

A mathematical analysis helps illuminate the puzzle over how information escapes from a black hole.

A RIKEN physicist and two colleagues have found that a wormhole—a bridge connecting distant regions of the Universe—helps to shed light on the mystery of what happens to information about matter consumed by black holes.

Einstein’s theory of general relativity predicts that nothing that falls into a black hole can escape its clutches. But in the 1970s, Stephen Hawking calculated that black holes should emit radiation when quantum mechanics, the theory governing the microscopic realm, is considered. “This is called black hole evaporation because the black hole shrinks, just like an evaporating water droplet,” explains Kanato Goto of the RIKEN Interdisciplinary Theoretical and Mathematical Sciences.

Kanato Goto

Kanato Goto and two colleagues have performed an analysis using wormholes that sheds light on the black-hole information paradox. Credit: © 2022 RIKEN

This, however, led to a paradox. Eventually, the black hole will evaporate entirely—and so too will any information about its swallowed contents. But this contradicts a fundamental dictum of quantum physics: that information cannot vanish from the Universe. “This suggests that general relativity and quantum mechanics as they currently stand are inconsistent with each other,” says Goto. “We have to find a unified framework for quantum gravity.”

Many physicists suspect that the information escapes, encoded somehow in the radiation. To investigate, they compute the entropy of the radiation, which measures how much information is lost from the perspective of someone outside the black hole. In 1993, physicist Don Page calculated that if no information is lost, the entropy will initially grow, but will drop to zero as the black hole disappears.

When physicists simply combine quantum mechanics with the standard description of a black hole in general relativity, Page appears to be wrong—the entropy continually grows as the black hole shrinks, indicating information is lost.

But recently, physicists have explored how black holes mimic wormholes—providing an escape route for information. This is not a wormhole in the real world, but a way of mathematically computing the entropy of the radiation, notes Goto. “A wormhole connects the interior of the black hole and the radiation outside, like a bridge.”

When Goto and his two colleagues performed a detailed analysis combining both the standard description and a wormhole picture, their result matched Page’s prediction, suggesting that physicists are right to suspect that information is preserved even after the black hole’s demise.

“We discovered a new spacetime geometry with a wormhole-like structure that had been overlooked in conventional computations,” says Goto. “Entropy computed using this new geometry gives a completely different result.”

But this raises new questions. “We still don’t know the basic mechanism of how information is carried away by the radiation,” Goto says. “We need a theory of quantum gravity.”

Reference: “Replica wormholes for an evaporating 2D black hole” by Kanato Goto, Thomas Hartman and Amirhossein Tajdini, 29 April 2021, Journal of High Energy Physics.
DOI: 10.1007/JHEP04(2021)289

8 Comments on "Wormholes – Shortcuts Connecting Two Points in Spacetime – Help Resolve Black Hole Information Paradox"

  1. take a galaxy any galaxy
    wormholes a bridge connecting distant regions in the universe shortcuts connecting two points in spacetime a wormhole connects southern red region in the first photograph shown with a northern blue region
    the black hole is hale and hearty and very fat in diameter
    take a globular cluster take 200 globular clusters
    make a black hole swallow them all hook line and sinker
    the black hole is halier and heartier and a big fat blob in diameter bulging in ouranus and kronus gobbling
    where have all the globular clusters gone
    the black hole shrinks just like an evaporating water droplet
    the black hole is getting as skinny as a rake
    black hole evaporation
    with nothing to gobble its vanished aint it it aint there is it
    helps to shed light on the mystery of what happens to information about matter consumed by black holes resolve black hole information paradox information is not necessarily irretrievably lost from black holes as they evaporate
    as usual your diction needs to be translated
    helps to shed light on the mystery of what happens to energy about matter consumed by ouranus and kronus black holes resolve black hole energy paradox energy if not necessarily irretrivelably lost from ouranus kronus black hole as energy dissaptes
    the black hole evaporates entirely and so too will any information about its swallowed contents
    no more globular clusters to consume makes black hole ouranus and kronus a very hungry starving skeleton belly being and then it disappears altogether
    a fundamental dictum of quantum mechanics that information cannot vanish from the universe
    the energy of the black hole where is it
    the energy of the 200 globular clusters where are they
    this suggests that general relativity and quantum mechanics as they currently stand are inconsistent with each other
    we have to find a unified framework for quantum gravity
    many physicists suspect that the information escapes encoded somehow in the radiation
    the information radiation
    or
    the energy radiation
    to investigate they compute the entropy of the radiation which measures how much radiation is lost from the perspective of someone outside the black hole
    thats you and me looking across space and time and the energy paradox of the energy of a black holes and 200 globular clusters
    if no information is lost the entropy will initially grow
    if no black hole or 200 globular cluster are lost the energy of the entropy will initially grow
    but will drop to zero as the black hole disappears
    they have all been gobbled up in the black hole event horizon outer and inner wall of approximately 200au and launched polar wise to the blue and red regions of the first photograph note that these are not the regions red moving away from u or blue moving towards u
    but the energy will drop to nought as the ouranus kronos black hole vanishes disappears and no more globular clusters are there to consume
    when physicists simply combine quantum mechanics with the standard description of a black hole in general relativity
    page appears to be wrong
    the entropy continually grows as the black hole shrinks indicating information is lost
    but if black holes mimic wormholes providing an escape route for information then mathematically the entropy of the radiation can be computed
    the wormhole connects the interior of the black hole and the radiation outside like a bridge
    standard description and wormhole picture their result matched pages prediction that information is preserved even after the black holes demise
    because he page understood the geometric shape of the system
    a new spacetime geometry with a wormhole like structure like any geometrician could calculate in their head entropy computed using this old geometry gives a space time continuum result
    but this raises new questions
    we still don’t know the basic mechanism of how information is carried away by the radiation
    we still don’t know the basic mechanism of how energy is carried away by the radiation
    we need a theory of quantum gravity
    conserve energy to work
    the amount of energy in the universe is constant = finite energy amount
    the finite energy amount cannot be destroyed
    the finite energy amount cannot be created
    the finite energy amount can be transferred

  2. Black holes as popularized for the masses don’t exist. Ask Stephen Hawking or any of the science magazine explaining this. Throw in some new pseudo math-only Worm Hole evaporation to further explain this popular fiction. Now we can write some new sci-fi movies to match.

  3. Mathematics is the language we have invented to describe a lot of what the universe is doing. But, like any other language, it can describe all sorts of stuff the universe MIGHT not be doing. Does the universe actually do wormholes? Maybe but I doubt it. The biggest mystery of the day is quantum entanglement. That means quantum only not baryonic structures. We aren’t going to time-travel anywhere- not now -not ever. We need to take better care of the earth!

  4. This may validate the integument for the changes of the electron… if invormation does depart from the black hole it has to have a confomative shape accordingly, fractal. How could information not have a shape at as decay? This is an anomaly to say the least! Existence of regularilies must govern deep laws…

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  5. Marcia Stewart | March 15, 2022 at 8:06 pm | Reply

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  6. Red-fallen moonrocks in blue-shifted light: Mind twisted yet?: GR puts its foot down, big time, on light paths that shift light colors:

    GR is like forgetting you are wearing color-shift lenses, shifted light must have been “born” that way. Gravity shifts along a light channel are not allowed to affect light wave shape, except to bend light waves. Always forbidding shift effects out in space while always allowing bend effects there is a partly “nonconformal” lack of thorough realism in action. Others may fret that blue-shifted light on the moon as seen from the Earth does not seem to agree naturally with the slower falling rate there. Non-conformal again. A light source drawing nearer shows less shift, of course. When the color of everything starts to change as you, the observer, start to move to a different gravity, what will you infer? That the light was “born” affected by your travels? That’s it’s just relativity being relative? All the change is happening around the observer end.

    General Relativity basics for light: The mass media holy sacrament: Perfect Everlasting “c”:

    Using GR, you can measure distance with light by counting wavelengths of a known frequency (X wave-cycles/meter) and measure time with light by counting oscillations of a known frequency (Y wave-cycles/second). Supposing speed of light is constant, blue-shifted light’s faster oscillation rate means time rate is faster, while a fixed count of its shorter wave cycles defines shorter meters. Faster seconds and shorter meters allow blue-shifted light to cover a constant number of meters per second. Red shift is handled similarly with the same result, namely a constant number of meters per second.

    Tossing the lame eye prescription politics of forgetful brain-dulling bent spacetimes in general:

    If observed blueshift is an effect partly conforming to observer gravity not an effect conforming only to light source gravity, flipping the magnitude of an observed shift restores realism to remote gravity measurements, undoing the light channel’s cumulative effects, also it conforms to supposing all changes to falling rates, and to frequency rates, must run together in the same direction. Not taking shifts literally but instead taking them flipped inside out would disagree with the trampoline-type “matter stretches spacetime” lensing theory used to explain the paths of mass particles and light bending toward mass. Despite that flipping around frequency shifts would agree with a round mass compressing the closest space around it the most, just like it compresses another mass the most on its surface, the curved spacetime theory for flipped gravity shift remote inference-making (anti deSitter space) says mass must repel light and bits of matter in space. Ultimately, neither of the two complementary bent spacetime tropes is completely realistic.

    Faster light is not the same as faster seconds or slower seconds: Don’t stretch it in front of the class:

    When light (and space and time) is laterally compressed more when closer to a mass and compressed less when farther, what draws light toward mass faster than drawing it away? Answer is nothing, not even time reversal. When light (and space and time) is laterally stretched more when closer to a mass and less when farther, what draws light toward mass faster than drawing it away? Best answer GR is a model where stretchable space fabric gets pulled down by gravity pushing on top of it. When light is faster closer to mass and slower when further, what draws light toward mass faster than drawing it away? Answer is flat time, bent time, backward time, any kind of time.

    Believe it or not: Unbent time and unbent space also have the benefit of giving an easy accurate accounting of energy:

    Keeping wavelength constant while letting frequency vary means initially redshifted light realistically must be light initially slowed by decreased gravity. Same with a passing rumble-strip effect. Light frequency is independent of photon rate, meaning a constant-rate countable photon (or light pulse) source gives the only reliable light-based indicator for time rate. Heisenberg’s uncertainty applied to light says a tight frequency source is a loose phase timing source, so atomic clock frequency means practically nothing about photon rate.

  7. Interesting.
    Some Thoughts of Consideration.

    1. Rethinking the wormhole. Reimagine how one can get from Point A to Point B!
    2, Assumption. Universe is a spherical blob.
    3. We can travel from Point A to Point B along the circumfrence of the sphere or tunnel ones way from point A to Point B, Throught the 3-D Spherical Universe!
    4.So if we travel along the Diameter from Point A o Point B alogthe Diameter of the Sphere, we can get from Point A to Point B , faster than if we travell along the near-spherical 3-D Universe.
    5. These short-cuts are equivalent to Wormholes in Space-Time terms. Infinite in Number. Like the Teli Gali in Andheri to catch the Bus to Seepz , Andheri!
    6, This way we squeeze the time element of Space-Time.
    7. When we take the time element down to Zero, we get ” The One without a Second”.

    Work out the theoritical mathematics of time approaching Zero
    Is the flow of time linear or can it be non-linear.
    If it can be non-linear then we can travel in Space-Time without any constraints. Past and Future!

    Views Expressed are personal and not binding on anyone.

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