Ivermectin: Can People Take a Drug for Horses and Cows To Treat a Deadly Virus?

Demand has surged for ivermectin, a drug widely given to horses and cows to treat worms and other parasitic infections, as a possible treatment or preventative for COVID-19. Some seekers have turned to over-the-counter animal formulations, despite Food and Drug Administration warnings against their use, resulting in a spike in calls to poison control centers. Dr. Jim Lowe, a professor of veterinary clinical medicine at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign and an expert on infectious diseases and agricultural animals, spoke with News Bureau biomedical sciences editor Liz Ahlberg Touchstone about ivermectin, the differences between forms intended for animals and the approved human prescription, and the risks of accidental overdose.

What is ivermectin? What does it treat?

Ivermectin is parasiticide, meaning it kills parasites. It’s a very broad-spectrum parasiticide that can treat internal parasites, like worms, or can be applied topically to treat mange or lice. It was first used to treat heartworm in dogs and now has broad uses in the animal world, and is used extensively in horses and food animals like cows and swine. It is used in people as well, primarily to treat river blindness, a parasitic infection of the eye in tropical parts of the world.

As you mentioned, ivermectin is available for humans as a prescription. However, ivermectin intended for animals is widely available. How are the animal forms different?

The active ingredient of ivermectin is the same in all forms. The differences are in the formulation and how it’s delivered. The human prescription is generally a tablet that is swallowed. Animal products come in a variety of forms. For example, the product we use in cattle and pigs is injectable, and the dewormer used in horses is a concentrated paste. These tend to come in quite large doses, compared with a single human tablet. We certainly do not want people to take any form of a drug intended for animals.

Taking large or multiple doses of the anti-parasitic drug ivermectin can cause a toxic overdose, and humans should not take forms intended for animal use, says Illinois veterinary medicine expert Dr. Jim Lowe. Credit: Photo by Greg Boozell

Does ivermectin have anti-viral properties as well as anti-parasitic ones?

All of the drug compounds that we use are foreign chemicals to the body, and they all do more than just what they’re intended to do, so in theory it could have some anti-viral activity. However, we don’t see evidence that it’s clinically valuable as an anti-viral, as we don’t see direct impacts on viruses in the way that we would with other anti-viral drugs, such as those used to treat influenza.

Is there a problem with taking any form of ivermectin as a preventative or treatment to COVID-19?

The challenge is toxicity. Toxicity can come from taking too much in a single dose, but the bigger issue is the cumulative dosing with taking the drug for multiple days in a row. Ivermectin is labeled for a single-use dosage in both humans and animals. Whether treating a person for river blindness or a horse for worms, it’s intended to be given once and not multiple times. It stays active in the body for a length of time. If someone takes ivermectin day after day or week after week, as one might with an anti-viral or antibiotic, the dosage builds up in the body to toxic levels. Even with the human form, if someone takes one dose for 10 days in a row, they end up with 10 times the recommended dose, which can certainly cause toxic effects and overdosing.

What are some of the possible side effects of taking too much ivermectin?

There haven’t been a lot of studies of overdosing in humans, but in animals, we do know that when there is an accidental multiple dosing or overdosing, it can be neurotoxic – causing neurological effects like seizures and blindness. The FDA has cautioned that it can cause gastrointestinal symptoms as well as neurological ones, and can interact with other medications.

If someone is in possession of ivermectin and wishes to dispose of it, what should they do?

Drug disposal is regulated state by state, so check your state’s recommended approach. In Illinois, the recommended way to dispose of medication is to remove it from its container, mix it with something inedible like sand or kitty litter, put it in a sealed container, and throw it in the garbage. Do not put it down the drain or the toilet. Some pharmacies also have drug disposal services.

COVID-19ParasitesPharmaceuticalsPopularPublic HealthUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignVirology
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  • John Kociuba

    Ivermectin comes in human and animal treatment. Why? Zoononic pathogens! Sars Cov 2 has never been isolated by medical industry. Sars Cov 2 is a computer generated hypothesis and like the annual Flu circulating for 9 months before burning out and replicating for next 9 months. Sars Cov 2 has a 99.9998% to 99.9997% survival ratio absent hospitalization and prescription antibiotics.

    CDC/NIH/HHS CRIMINAL NEGLIGENCE SELF EVIDENT

  • Janet M Masleid

    “Surprisingly, ivermectin treatment did not limit viral replication, as treated and non-treated animals presented similar amounts of SARS-CoV-2 in the nasal cavity and in the lungs.

    Impact
    The results of this study establish that irrespective of viral load, the symptoms and severity of COVID-19 highlight the critical role played by host inflammatory response in COVID-19 severity and highlight that reduced type I/III interferon and Il-6/Il-10 and the presence of M2 macrophages might account for a more favorable clinical presentation, contributing to a better understanding of COVID-19 pathophysiology. Ivermectin might then be considered as promising therapeutic agent against COVID-19 with no impact on SARS-CoV-2 replication but alleviating inflammation and ensuing symptoms.”

    https://www.embopress.org/doi/full/10.15252/emmm.202114122

    Thank you for pointing out that it is NEVER good to overdose on any medication or substance. Best wishes to ACTIV-6/NIH in their repurposed drug trial featuring ivermectin, fluvoxamine, metformin, etc. for use as early treatment in Covid-19.
    May science continue to uncover ivermectin’s many mechanisms of action. It truly is The People’s Medicine. It cannot do it alone but is a useful component of one’s Covid toolkit.

    https://journal.chestnet.org/article/S0012-3692(20)34898-4/fulltext
    The Journal CHEST/ivermectin

    https://openheart.bmj.com/content/8/1/e001655
    OpenHeart BMJ journal/ivermectin

    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41429-021-00430-5?fbclid=IwAR3DPkPFR_rucxViUNaYLf28nfezENl1FSvW0mr8UG8Loocxr5YiX2PKMQM
    Nature.com

  • d

    What a crap article… Ivermectin has been used in Humans for over 40 years. Estimated at 2 billion humans have taken it already! Currently it’s estimated 36% of the worlds population is using Ivermectin FOR COVID-19
    https://ivmstatus.com/

    Yet here we are in The land of the Free and the Brave, What does our Government tell us? Take the Vaccine, Mask up OR DIE!!!! What MEDICINES CAN WE TAKE IF/WHEN we come down with COVID-19? And we ALL will get Covid 19. ZIP ZERO NADA!!! If we take something as soon as we can, BEFORE Covid ravages our bodies and lungs, we WOULDN’T NEED to go to the hospital. But go ahead and THROW OUT YOUR IVERMECTIN, so you don’t take it!!!

    • d

      BTW, I’m NOT anti-vax. I’ve been fully vaccinated and spent 2 weeks in the hospital with covid My wife has had covid twice, once after being fully vaccinated (why after having natural immunity?). I’m still on Oxygen!!! I believe the vaccine shortened my stay in the hospital but they really don’t have anything for you once you are hospitalized. If I were in a 2nd or 3rd world country, I’d be dead right now!

  • xABBAAA

    … I guess some fake news outlets are desperate for people attention. So! Who cares what one says, as long as it sells…
    … it was about “don’t let proof stand in a way of a good story, now it is more like ” if it sells it sells”…