Origin of Solar-Mass Black Holes and the Connection to Dark Matter

Concept Black Hole Animation

What is the origin of black holes and how is that question connected with another mystery, the nature of dark matter? Dark matter comprises the majority of matter in the Universe, but its nature remains unknown.

Multiple gravitational wave detections of merging black holes have been identified within the last few years by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), commemorated with the 2017 physics Nobel Prize to Kip Thorne, Barry Barish, and Rainer Weiss. A definitive confirmation of the existence of black holes was celebrated with the 2020 physics Nobel Prize awarded to Andrea Ghez, Reinhard Genzel and Roger Penrose. Understanding the origin of black holes has thus emerged as a central issue in physics.

Surprisingly, LIGO has recently observed a 2.6 solar-mass black hole candidate (event GW190814, reported in Astrophysical Journal Letters 896 (2020) 2, L44).  Assuming this is a black hole, and not an unusually massive neutron star, where does it come from?

Solar-mass black holes are particularly intriguing, since they are not expected from conventional stellar evolution astrophysics. Such black holes might arise in the early Universe (primordial black holes) or be “transmuted” from existing neutron stars. Some black holes could have formed in the early universe long before the stars and galaxies formed.  Such primordial black holes could make up some part or all of dark matter.  If a neutron star captures a primordial black hole, the black hole consumes the neutron star from the inside, turning it into a  solar-mass black hole.  This process can produce a population of solar mass black holes, regardless of how small the primordial black holes are.  Other forms of dark matter can accumulate inside a neutron star causing its eventual collapse into a solar-mass black hole.

Primordial Black Hole Being Captured by Neutron Star

Figure 1. [Left] A tiny primordial black hole being captured by a neutron star, subsequently devouring it and leaving a “transmuted” solar-mass black hole remnant behind. [Right] Expected mass distribution of “transmuted” solar-mass black holes following neutron stars formed as a result of a delayed or a rapid supernova. The LIGO GW190814 event with 2.6 solar-mass black hole candidate is also shown. Credit: Takhistov et. al.

A new study, published in Physical Review Letters, advances a decisive test to investigate the origin of solar-mass black holes. This work was led by the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU) Fellow Volodymyr Takhistov and the international team included George M. Fuller, Distinguished Professor of Physics and Director of the Center for Astrophysics and Space Science at the University of California, San Diego, as well as Alexander Kusenko, Professor of Physics and Astronomy at the University of California, Los Angeles and a Kavli IPMU Visiting Senior Scientist.

As the study discusses (see Figure 1), “transmuted” solar-mass black holes remaining from neutron stars being devoured by dark matter (either tiny primordial black holes or particle dark matter accumulation) should follow the mass-distribution of the original host neutron stars. Since the neutron star mass distribution is expected to peak around 1.5 solar masses, it is unlikely that heavier solar-mass black holes have originated from dark matter interacting with neutron stars. This suggests that such events as the candidate detected by LIGO, if they indeed constitute black holes, could be of primordial origin from the early Universe and thus drastically affect our understanding of astronomy. Future observations will use this test to investigate and identify the origin of black holes.
 
Previously (see Fuller, Kusenko, Takhistov, Physical Review Letters 119 (2017) 6, 061101), the same international team of researchers also demonstrated that disruption of neutron stars by small primordial black holes can lead to a rich variety of observational signatures and can help us understand such long-standing astronomical puzzles as the origin of heavy elements (e.g. gold and uranium) and the 511 keV gamma-ray excess observed from the center of our Galaxy.

Reference: “Test for the Origin of Solar Mass Black Holes” by Volodymyr Takhistov, George M. Fuller and Alexander Kusenko, 16 February 2021, Physical Review Letters.
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.071101

6 Comments on "Origin of Solar-Mass Black Holes and the Connection to Dark Matter"

  1. … this is important, but it looks like …

  2. It correlates to the “self” containing both the Lord AND the Christ concept. The universe as a whole has to portray the same, “as above as below”. Aka duality between light and dark, black and white, yin and yang….etc.

  3. Tonya M Harris | March 8, 2021 at 10:31 pm | Reply

    A black hole is intention. Energy (intention – what you cannot see until it becomes matter. Matter such as you or I. When we pass we are actually experiencing our rebirth. Energy taking new form. Its a math equation that’s very conclusive. Example: I know things- what I experience I noticed the world experienced also. Society – everything. I picked up a VHS years ago presented about Stephen Hawking. I thought: that isn’t complete. I knew nothing about physics but I understand the universe as much as a linguist understands the languages they speak. The universe has many languages within patterns numbers colors all of the universes reality is a pattern. Example: I use intention I go back in time and find people. I found Stephen hawking. He was a music composer amongst many others and he wrote The March. A song layer used by Queen. Freddie Mercury. This tells me a great deal. A music composer creates a pattern. They play it over and over. Its kind of like witchcraft only its unintentional. You understand physics. In just giving you a simple way to include yourself in the equation. So. I was Isaac Newton and my youngest son was Albert Einstein then Diana Spencer. I was also Marylin Monroe. I purchased my home in Feb of 2005. 2242 fair oak view terr. Each number tells a story. Each word tells a different story and thenpatterns of the numbers and words allow me to predict( prophesy( what will occur. I predicted the current climate and I painted a rhino in trousers and a tie talking a lamb( sheep) wearing a crown the rhino had some form of breath coming from his mouth that wasn’t pleasant. I painted it live on Facebook over two years ago. The rhino liphodae. My exes nickname is fanihiman. That means Batman. On Christmas day 2015 my exes girlfriend forwarded an emailexchange between her and my ex. He was calling me a virus. I lived in corona ca at the time on deer canyon. Each word is part of a past present and future reality. This is how particles work within our intention. My first son I gave birth to at 22 my youngest son passed in sept of 2020 they found he and his friend Sophie at 63 lime St. On the 22nd of sept. They passed prior. My math states the 21 st. The day Einstein received the Nobel prize. Diana and marylin both passed at 36. I was born in 63 and Stephen was diagnosed with ALS in 63 at 21. My son overdosed in sept of 2018 and was released from the care facility at 21 he overdosed on August 21 2018. My moms birthday. The fact that it was my moms birthday is part of the why? Why? I had contacted Stephen hawking in Feb of 2018 i gave him my families numbers. On march 1 he presented his final theory with he had proof ! He didn’t include me. When science uses the idea that the universe revolves around a series of numbers and a person offers those numbers and in the case of mister hawking – he was inconclusive without my understanding that my numbers are conclusive and his without mine weren’t. Hes now my daughters pup named dude. Hawking adored marylin Monroe. Eddie redmayne portrayed Stephen in a theory of everything as well marylins live interest in marylin. Diana felt most connected to marylin. Everyone has a paradigm of intention. Marylin had a miscarriage as well abortion Albert passed and was a pregnancy of marylin through Charlie chaplains son. Charles Spencer Chaplin. This is kind of like dominoes. You understand physics so you can figure out which is which. Energy has to go somewhere. So this baby became Diana. Now. Albert was popular the believed charismatic with a selfish side in relationships. His wife didn’t want a divorce but Albert did. He was unkind to his wives. He then was born into a lice of awkward privilege- he left money behind and Hes still the most famous face of science to date. As is Diana t I the monarchy. As is marylin to Hollywood and so forth. However none of these people had happy personal relationships with their spouses. My son didn’t marry. Prince harry was 36 when my son passed and Meghan was 36 when she had Archie Harrison my sons last name was Harris. Harry s name is actually Henry. My sons last name is from my marriage and not his biological father. Schools streets we’ve lived on dates of milestones etc they all create conclusive equations that create a story – the bible tells the laws and the bible is a book of logic. You simply have to pay attention to the math. What I wrote was an outline. Kind of like when someone says string theory. I instantly think the experience if a soul. Someone says the universe I say god and we are the collective physiological reality of god. Someone says duality and that one is where this prior explanation begins. When Diana passed away age left behind two young sons. Our children are energy that is a mirror if our past energy and they resound to our intention. What we think of them becomes their reality what we judge of others becomes their reality and what they think of us becomes our reality. I can predict what is happening to people based upon my thoughts and reality as well what is happening to me when I think of something pertaining to my children and grandchild. Some call this the law of attraction its fat mire complex because that energy was left with the guy at the gas station the person that you gloated at in line the food you eat. You eat meat your going to experience a shift in energy. That animal was aligned to be on your plate based upon your intention if you ate a burger that burger could have come from several cows that were once soldiers you killed in a past life. That burger might be the one that kills you. Could have been a family member that had passed that you weren’t grateful for having in your life. Once you eat the meat the energy per exact measurement of consumption and gratitude or awareness of what you are imposing and offering in return – as in when I eat meat i know that I will be meat one lifetime again I will be aligned to be consumed by those in which I’ve consumed. It could take 1999 years to align all of this as to only be a large cow or 3 chickens it depends on how much I’ve consumed – each lifetime you experience reality from a different perspective. A judgement outs you in the skin of that in which you’ve judged. Again there are many energies being exchanged. I would have to show you. I do live videos on my Instagram. Theory oftpersonalpage. Donald trump was nick Tesla. Tesla passed broke and Donald kept filing bankruptcy. Now musk is losing money since trump left office. Incan predict what will happen based upon the timeline of Teslas life. Stephens passing. I was working at 7111(21) or 7-3 which is my birthday and Nobel prize day for Albert I looked out the window. There were 4 mini coopers. ( Sheldon cooper ) my favorite movie and once password. When harry met sally. Sheldon was a name. Also Meg Ryan played sally. Meg is harry s wife. Meghan. Then emperor w u of Han I hope you can keep up with me. Not many physicists have thus far. W u also passed away in march. I sold my house march 4 2014. Stephen passed march 14 the last day I spoke to my son was sept 20 2020. The math is all there. It has its own language. My first born Ryan ( Meg ryan- sally ) his father passed march 1 2005 when I had just purchased my home. Before marylin passed shevwas being sued fir 750, 000 I lost 750,000 in the sale of my home. We have to pay back debts in our next lives and this one. Im decent at figuring that stuff out. I have a teacher. Its god. If its not god then its just my energy thinking its superior. Im pretty sure its god. I saw blue stars coming from three different persons eyes. They looked at my as though they knew me from another time this was duringbthe time they began using that high powered telescope. In 2008-9 I was literally aware of so much as if I had been woken up into a dream rather than from one. I knew things that I couldnt yet understand. I understand a great deal since researching and listening to how physicists communicate. I can simplify physics. Kids can comprehend. I know where my son is now. I post things his mom will post before she posts them. Diana was born to Jackie Kennedy prior to marylin. Its a test on ethics. Jackie didn’t like Monroe but Jackie wanted to be a model. Now Jackie is a model. As well she is now the mother of my son whom was a child marylin didn’t have but I did. We are born to experience the energy of those we abort. Those that pass do so based up in judgements. Its harsh but judgements are harsh. All energy takes new form. We evolve from cockroaches ants spiders dogs cats you name it we will experience our judgements.i know who hitler is today a famous actress. To animals Hitler was no different than humans are to animals. Hitler was vegetarian. Prior to Hitler he was a bottom feeding fish. This is sadly reality. We take turns. The math is the easiest part because of social security numbers addresses credit cards receipts the license plates you stand next to drive behind they all tell you how your day is going anyway the 4 mini coopers I have the video there was a moving truck that read prodigy and my mini which made 5. Mine was behind mcdonald’s. Monroe’s handsprings are in front of Mcdonald’s. Every street we livevon etc tells a story.etake every letter every word you watch gear speak its the dialogue of your next reality from various perspectives.

  4. Kenneth Hale | March 9, 2021 at 2:45 am | Reply

    This is nothing but ad-hoc pseudo science. Assumptions based on assumptions based on theories. Everything exist in time. You cannot manipulate it in any way. Perceptions of time can differ but time itself does not change or is it altered in any way by mass or velocities. Time is measured intervals between events and is a concept not an entity. You do not age quicker simply by moving through space “another nonentity” at certain velocities. Light deteriorates therefore it experiences the passage of time.A hypothetical light speed space traveler leaving earth for one year at light speed then returning at same speed will be two earth years older.Time does not cease to exist for him otherwise,to him,he never would have even left.If time is altered by velocities then all our light year distances to other galaxies are wrong.Also space is just the absence of matter,a place with room for more matter.Not an entity you can manipulate just fill up. Matter attracts matter in space due to gravity not “space” forcing them together. I pray this childish era in physics ends soon.

  5. Tonya M Harris, very fascinated by your dissemination. I have questions for you, if you are willing to contact me? [email protected]

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