Combining Quantum Physics and the Theory of Relativity: Sound-Waves From a Quantum Vacuum at the Black Hole Laboratory

Quantum Vacuum Black Hole

Credit: University of Nottingham

Researchers have developed a new theory for observing a quantum vacuum that could lead to new insights into the behavior of black holes.

The Unruh effect combines quantum physics and the theory of relativity. So far it has not been possible to measure or observe it, but now new research from a team led by the University of Nottingham has shed light on how this could be achieved using sound particles. The team’s research has been published today in the journal Physical Review Letters.

The Unruh effect suggests that if you fly through a quantum vacuum with extreme acceleration, the vacuum no longer looks like a vacuum: rather, it looks like a warm bath full of particles. This phenomenon is closely related to the Hawking radiation from black holes.

A research team from the University of Nottingham’s Black Hole Laboratory in collaboration with University of British Columbia and Vienna University of Technology has shown that instead of studying the empty space in which particles suddenly become visible when accelerating, you can create a two-dimensional cloud of ultra-cold atoms (Bose-Einstein condensate) in which sound particles, phonons, become audible to an accelerated observer in the silent phonon vacuum. The sound is not created by the detector, rather it is hearing what is there just because of the acceleration (a non-accelerated detector would still hear nothing).

The vacuum is full of particles

One of the basic ideas of Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity is: Measurement results can depend on the state of motion of the observer. How fast does a clock tick? How long is an object? What is the wavelength of a ray of light? There is no universal answer to this, the result is relative — it depends on how fast the observer is moving. But what about the question of whether a certain area of ​​space is empty or not? Shouldn’t two observers at least agree on that?

No — because what looks like a perfect vacuum to one observer can be a turbulent swarm of particles and radiation to the other. The Unruh effect, discovered in 1976 by William Unruh, says that for a strongly accelerated observer the vacuum has a temperature. This is due to so-called virtual particles, which are also responsible for other important effects, such as Hawking radiation, which causes black holes to evaporate.

“To observe the Unruh effect directly, as William Unruh described it, is completely impossible for us today,” explains Dr. Sebastian Erne who came from the University of Nottingham to the Atomic Institute of the Vienna University of Technology as an ESQ Fellow a few months ago. “You would need a measuring device accelerated to almost the speed of light within a microsecond to see even a tiny Unruh-effect -we can’t do that.” However, there is another way to learn about this strange effect: using so-called quantum simulators.

Quantum simulators

“Many laws of quantum physics are universal. They can be shown to occur in very different systems. One can use the same formulas to explain completely different quantum systems,” says Jörg Schmiedmayer from the Vienna University of Technology. “This means that you can often learn something important about a particular quantum system by studying a different quantum system.”

“Simulating one system with another has been especially useful for understanding black holes, since real black holes are effectively inaccessible,” Dr. Cisco Gooding from the Black Hole laboratory emphasizes. “In contrast, analog black holes can be readily produced right here in the lab.”

This is also true for the Unruh effect: If the original version cannot be demonstrated for practical reasons, then another quantum system can be created and examined in order to see the effect there.

Atomic clouds and laser beams

Just as a particle is a “disturbance” in empty space, there are disturbances in the cold Bose-Einstein condensate — small irregularities (sound waves) that spread out in waves. As has now been shown, such irregularities should be detectable with special laser beams. Using special tricks, the Bose-Einstein condensate is minimally disturbed by the measurement, despite the interaction with the laser light.

Jörg Schmiedmayer explains: “If you move the laser beam, so that the point of illumination moves over the Bose-Einstein condensate, that corresponds to the observer moving through the empty space. If you guide the laser beam in accelerated motion over the atomic cloud, then you should be able to detect disturbances that are not seen in the stationary case — just like an accelerated observer in a vacuum would perceive a heat bath that is not there for the stationary observer.”

“Until now, the Unruh effect was an abstract idea,” says Professor Silke Weinfurtner who leads the Black Hole laboratory at the University of Nottingham, “Many had given up hope of experimental verification. The possibility of incorporating a particle detector in a quantum simulation will give us new insights into theoretical models that are otherwise not experimentally accessible. ”

Preliminary planning is already underway to carry out a version of the experiment using superfluid helium at the University of Nottingham. “It is possible, but very time-consuming and there are technical hurdles for us to overcome,” explains Jörg Schmiedmayer. “But it would be a wonderful way to learn about an important effect that was previously thought to be practically unobservable.”

Reference: “Interferometric Unruh Detectors for Bose-Einstein Condensates” by Cisco Gooding, Steffen Biermann, Sebastian Erne, Jorma Louko, William G. Unruh, Joerg Schmiedmayer and Silke Weinfurtner, 20 November 2020, Physical Review Letters.
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.213603

15 Comments on "Combining Quantum Physics and the Theory of Relativity: Sound-Waves From a Quantum Vacuum at the Black Hole Laboratory"

  1. Ich habe gedacht Quanten sind unbeschreibbar

    • Torbjörn Larsson | November 24, 2020 at 5:42 am | Reply

      No, quantum physics has been well described in quantum field theory for almost a century now [“Quantum field theory” @ Wikipedia]. It is even relativistic – though I think Hawking radiation and Unruh effect is derived from considering wavefunction approximations rather than explicit particle fields.

  2. I wonder if they can setup some inter-dimensional communication system using the Unruh Effect?

    • Torbjörn Larsson | November 24, 2020 at 5:46 am | Reply

      Space is specifically 3D in successful LCDM cosmology (and even flat over sufficiently large volumes, as observed by the cosmic background spectra).

      So it looks like there are no dimensional shortcuts.

  3. By using the laser to simulate acceleration without inertia, they are bypassing the inertial frame to test an inertial effect? Sweet.
    I wish I could do that math.

    • Torbjörn Larsson | November 24, 2020 at 5:51 am | Reply

      ! I guess you could describe it that way – but since it is a model analogy I wonder how hard you can press the analogy in the first place. It looks like the “trick” of sweeping a light beam projection on a distant surface faster than the speed of light since inertial frames are … well … “bypassed”.

      As long as they get results that scientists later agree on are valid, I’m pleased.

  4. Are physicists Interested in “Antonymous Space”
    Can anybody explain it??
    Antonymous Space that includes dimensionally the real and imaginary Numbers with all the orientations of inverted Hilbert Spaces..!
    Just wondering is there any real vaccume?

  5. ശൂന്യത അങ്ങനെ ഒന്നില്ല. പ്രകാശത്തിൻെറ ഈഥര്‍ ലയിച്ച വസ്തുകളിൽ പ്രകാശം കടന്നുപോകും. അതിനെ സുതാര്യത എന്ന് പറയും. വായുവില്ലാത്ത സ്ഥലങ്ങളിൽ ശബ്ദം സുതാര്യത കാണിക്കുന്നില്ല. അൾട്രസൗഡ് സ്കാനറിൽ ചില കല്ലുകൾ സുതാര്യമായിക്കും. ബോഡി ഡെൻസിറ്റിക്ക് സമാനമായ കല്ലുകൾ കാണാൻ കഴിയില്ല. എക്സറേ ശരീരത്തിൽ തുളച്ച് കടക്കുന്നതല്ല. എക്സറേ ഈഥര്‍ ലയിച്ച വസ്തുകളിൽ എക്സറേ കടന്നുപോകും. റേഡിയോ തരംഗവും അതുപോലെതന്നെയാണ്.

  6. There is no such thing as emptiness. Light passes through the ether-dissolved material of light. It is called transparency. Noise is not transparent in airless areas. Some stones will be transparent on the ultrasound scanner. Stones similar to body density cannot be seen. X-rays do not penetrate the body. X-ray X-rays pass through ether-dissolved materials. The same is true of radio waves.

  7. The truth of the sky.

    What is the Michelson and Morley experiment? This is where the great mistake of modern science begins.

    What is the Michelson and Morley experiment? Aether’s test to know about it. This means that Earth orbits around the sun at a speed of 29 km per second. Michelson and Morley found it easier to know the ether. Michelson developed the variation map based on the classic idea that the Earth’s orbital velocity would cause a change in the frequency of light. But at 29 km away, they could not detect the frequency variation of 2km in the light. Michelson and Morley published their findings in a journal with a skeptical view. The world was shaken by the news that Ether could not be found. It was also read by Albert Einstein. Albert did not have the knowledge to correct that fallacy. In his mind, a magical universe was being created.

    What is the differential tool?

    The frequency shaping of waves in a flowing medium is of particular interest. When a wave propagates against the flow of the medium, the wave slows down. However, for wave types that are spreading towards the flow, the wave increases. It is this variation that Michelson and Morley tried to measure. But it gave birth to a fool of the world.

    Because the ether’s wind doesn’t feel the earth?

    The ether revolves around the sun at the same speed that the Earth orbits. That is, the ether also revolves around the sun as the air rotates around the earth while the earth rotates. Now I understand what happened. The West rejected the Bharatiya Panchabhuta doctrine. So what happened? It introduced world physics nonsense.

    What is Ether or Sky?

    There is no feeling of wind when we are moving or when the air is not moving. Similarly, if the air company does not move, there will be no sound. The experience of heat illumination occurs when the light ether moves. The experience is demonic. Experience requires the movement of matter.

    What is Ether or Sky?

    The sound travels at a speed of 360 meters per second. That is, if the perimeter of the air extends over three hundred thousand kilometers, that’s Sky or Ether. The Michelson and Morley experiment is proof that the ether orbits the Earth. If that test had not taken place, the theory of distorted relativity and the stupid mathematical equation would not have been born. First you must try to understand the reason for all this.

    A new test for ether.

    There is a temptation to know the ether. That’s what research centers like NASA think. Here we introduce the draft method of knowing the ether. The Michelson Morley method is not the only way to prove ether. My Method No one has proposed this method yet. That’s the way to say it. The frequency of the light falling on each planet will change. That is, the brightness decreases in order from Mercury to Pluto. The reason for this is the circulation of ether, the medium of light. The frequency of the light on the earth can be measured as follows. The Earth’s orbital speed is 29 km / s. The time it takes for light to reach the earth is 8 minutes. Thus the mathematical function will show a frequency variation of> 29 × 60 × 8 = 13920 km. This frequency fluctuation is caused by cyclization of the ether. Frequency fluctuates with the light bending in that vortex. Then the frequency of light will fall on each planet. Thus, each planet needs a satellite to measure the frequency variation. That is, when the frequency of departure from the sun reaches Earth, the change will occur. If this draft is proven, the world will shake. But the reason why this experiment is going on is because of the conservative attitude of the world. You can also experiment with the laser, which releases a powerful laser from the earth to the chow. From there the satellite tracks the laser frequencies at which the laser drops. The laser leaves Venus from Earth. Thus increasing frequency variation can be found.

    The money here is not energy. (Matter is both a matter of energy and a medium of energy) matter is not an energy, but an energy frequency conversion. The biggest energy secret in the universe is 97% neutral energy. This energy is in the form of a supercritical wave. The universe shines when that energy is converted. This transformation is a bicycle. That’s the secret of non-stop energy. Know that this massive energy is not something that can be stopped by the stupid mathematical energy equation ie E = m ^ 2. The matter cannot be converted into energy or energy into matter. However, while modern science claims to be able to convert matter into energy, it does not say that energy can be decomposed. All the modern scientific philosophical errors are hidden there. Modern science, which states that the medium is not necessary, means that the electromagnetic field after the ether has been thrown away, and then Higgs, the medium of the sky. Prehistoric religion holds that no medium can transmit the wave without the medium. The light does not travel as a particle but transmits energy through the wave. Learn it. When the media was excluded, it remained obscure in the abstract. When I added ether to my physics, the universe stood clear.

    How does the star produce energy?

    In the cellulose rodeo circuit, the sound from the earphone comes from the power circuit. But the radiation coming from the sky is energized. In the same way, the star energy is being supplied by a wave of neutral energy that covers the entire universe. This is the underlying activity of the Black Hole which causes the universe energy cycle.

    To sustain the atomic bomb explosion.

    Hiroshima and Nagasaki if they maintain the proton pressure required in the atomic bomb. The fire could still exist. Because the energy comes from the pneumatic sky. This is where 97% of neutral energy resides. This energy cannot be sensed by the living body. The atomic bomb ends with the inability to maintain the proton pressure required to produce energy without stopping.

    Albert Einstein’s Theory of Relativity

    Samasya and GPS.

    Albert Einstein begins the theory of relativity. Michelson Morley is from the experiment. Albert thought so, without realizing the Michelson Morley mistake. Albert hypothesized that the speed of light would remain constant at any higher velocity if the speed of the Earth did not change with the speed of light. Thus, Albert drew theoretical conclusions about light, without coming up with any philosophical proof. Albert’s method was, first, theory and then mathematical equation. Even though the theory is wrong, modern science still tries to attribute its basic truth to mathematics. Modern physics makes mathematics riddled with questions no one else has. No one could provide classical proof for this theoretical hope. The world did not accept Albert Einstein’s theory because of its mysteries. And no one was trying to find the Albert Einstein theoretical flaw. But in Kishore Classical Science, Albert Science is a big mistake. The Kishore Science Albert theoretical flaw. First, there are those who call mathematical equation and theorem. The theory is wrong, but the math can be riddled with it.

    Why is GPS slow?

    The GPS system is slow because of the speed of the earth’s rotation. At some point the Earth’s rotation speed will slow down and GPS speeds will increase. The earth’s rotational velocity increases when the flood period approaches. There are floods in many versions. From the Flood to the Kalpa Flood. The earth is falling into the sun. But the planet’s active state does not permit it. Energy generated inside the planets creates a strong magnetic field. Then the inside will be brighter. When the earth’s magnetic field is strong enough, the earth’s rotational speed increases, the magnetic bubble effect, the earth loses weight, and the sun rises against the gravity like a hydrogen balloon. Thus resetting the Earth’s orbit. Earth’s rotation rate is slowing after the Flood That is, this reset to 432 billion years of life on Earth and planets. If you do not reset all the planets will fall into the sun. Because the Earth’s rotational speed is in order, the GPS needs to be reset every 4 years. Kishorens.com for more information

    A new test for ether.

    There is a temptation to know the ether. That’s what research centers like NASA think. Here we introduce the draft method of knowing the ether. The Michelson Morley method is not the only way to prove ether. My Method No one has proposed this method yet. That’s the way to say it. The frequency of the light falling on each planet will change. That is, the brightness decreases in order from Mercury to Pluto. The reason for this is the circulation of ether, the medium of light. The frequency of the light on the earth can be measured as follows. The Earth’s orbital speed is 29 km / s. The time it takes for light to reach the earth is 8 minutes. Thus the mathematical function will show a frequency variation of> 29 × 60 × 8 = 13920 km. This frequency fluctuation is caused by cyclization of the ether. Frequency fluctuates with the light bending in that vortex. Then the frequency of light will fall on each planet. Thus, each planet needs a satellite to measure the frequency variation. That is, when the frequency of departure from the sun reaches Earth, the change will occur. If this draft is proven, the world will shake. But the reason why this experiment is going on is because of the conservative attitude of the world. You can also experiment with the laser, which releases a powerful laser from the earth to the chow From there the satellite tracks the laser frequencies at which the laser drops. The laser leaves Venus from Earth. Thus increasing frequency variation can be found.

  8. So strange that someone calling out Einstein and Hawkins (his work builds on the “failure” as well I assume) isn’t published in other ways than a comment field… But quantum theory is above me, so there is probably a good reason I never heard of someone calling out Einsteins theories to be wrong..

  9. Whether or not true emptiness exists is a good question. The closest we can get is a quantum vacuum, and because the field there has “potentials’ it is still a bubbling field of virtual wave/particles.

    Maybe, at root level, fundamental reality exists in some sort of tension between existence and non-existence – the ultimate super-position.

  10. Combining quantum theory with relativity will give you two kinds of time and you will then find that the virtual energy formed from expansion is the product of space time having momentum

  11. Caleigh Fisher | January 2, 2021 at 1:38 pm | Reply

    Interesting article. It will be very strange if the Unruh effect is not observed. Relative temperature and velocity are inextricably linked. Of course the vacuum always has a temperature. If it didn’t nothing would exist.

  12. Edgar C. Moghis | January 22, 2021 at 8:29 am | Reply

    If the Casimir effect is real (as has been demonstrated by experimental physics), then would’nt there be some sound, even if the observer is standing perfectly still? Ed.

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