New Supercomputer Simulations Provide Clue to Missing Planets Mystery

Protoplanetary Disc Animation

Recent supercomputer simulations demonstrate that a planet can create a ring and then move away, leaving the ring behind.

Forming planets are one possible explanation for the rings and gaps observed in disks of gas and dust around young stars. But this theory has trouble explaining why it is rare to find planets associated with rings. New supercomputer simulations show that after creating a ring, a planet can move away and leave the ring behind. Not only does this bolster the planet theory for ring formation, the simulations show that a migrating planet can produce a variety of patterns matching those actually observed in disks.

Protoplanetary Disk Comparison

A protoplanetary disk as observed by ALMA (left), and a protoplanetary disk during planetary migration, as obtained from the ATERUI II simulation (right). The dashed line in the simulation represents the orbit of a planet, and the gray area indicates a region not covered by the computational domain of the simulation. Credit: Kazuhiro Kanagawa, ALMA(ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)

Young stars are encircled by protoplanetary disks of gas and dust. One of the world’s most powerful radio telescope arrays, ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array), has observed a variety of patterns of denser and less dense rings and gaps in these protoplanetary disks. Gravitational effects from planets forming in the disk are one theory to explain these structures, but follow-up observations looking for planets near the rings have largely been unsuccessful.

In this research a team from Ibaraki University, Kogakuin University, and Tohoku University in Japan used the world’s most powerful supercomputer dedicated to astronomy, ATERUI II at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, to simulate the case of a planet moving away from its initial formation site. Their results showed that in a low viscosity disk, a ring formed at the initial location of a planet doesn’t move as the planet migrates inwards. The team identified three distinct phases. In Phase I, the initial ring remains intact as the planet moves inwards. In Phase II, the initial ring begins to deform and a second ring starts forming at the new location of the planet. In Phase III, the initial ring disappears and only the latter ring remains.

Three Phases of Ring Formation and Deformation

A comparison of the three phases of ring formation and deformation found in these simulations by ATERUI II (top) with real examples observed by ALMA (bottom). The dotted lines in the simulation represent the orbits of the planets, and the gray areas indicate regions not covered by the computational domain of the simulation. In the upper row, the simulated protoplanetary disks are shown from left to right at the start of planetary migration (Phase I), during planetary migration (Phase II), and at the end of planetary migration (Phase III). Credit: Kazuhiro Kanagawa, ALMA(ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)

These results help explain why planets are rarely observed near the outer rings, and the three phases identified in the simulations match well with the patterns observed in actual rings. Higher resolution observations from next-generation telescopes, which will be better able to search for planets close to the central star, will help determine how well these simulations match reality.

Reference: “Dust Rings as a Footprint of Planet Formation in a Protoplanetary Disk” by Kazuhiro D. Kanagawa, Takayuki Muto and Hidekazu Tanaka, 12 November 2021, The Astrophysical Journal.
DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac282b

3 Comments on "New Supercomputer Simulations Provide Clue to Missing Planets Mystery"

  1. The article is a complete mistake. All planets are born due to the synthesis in stars of atoms from nucleons. Therefore, the nuclei of the planets have a corona temperature of the Sun + 6,000 C. And in the upper cartoon we see a planetary system destroyed by a collision with a similar system of planets or a large comet. Nothing will be born from it, as the asteroid belt will not become the planet Phaeton, and Saturn’s rings will not become a satellite …

    • Torbjörn Larsson | November 14, 2021 at 5:32 am | Reply

      As a superficial reading of the article – which you obviously didn’t do – reveals that your comment is based on a complete mistake. Do you really think anyone else is interested in your fantasies (especially when we get delicious facts served up by scientists)?

  2. Torbjörn Larsson | November 14, 2021 at 5:30 am | Reply

    Mystery solved! And it looks quite straightforward to boot:

    “We simulate a radial migration of a planet in a protoplanetary disk by using two-fluid (gas and dust) hydrodynamic simulations. … We take into account the feedback of the dust grains on the gas, and, hence, the gas is affected by the dust in a similar manner as the dust drift (Kanagawa et al. 2017b, 2018a).”

    “We found that a dust ring induced by a planet does not follow the migrating planet for the relatively massive disks which cause rapid planetary migrations, … estimated to be ∼ 1 Myr, when the planet is migrating from R0 = 100 au. Hence these phase are sufficiently long to be observed.”

    “We also investigated the effect of the mass accretion of the planet on the ring formation (Section 3.5). As the mass of the planet increases, a semicircular incomplete ring can be formed instead of the symmetric complete ring. These structures can be related to the asymmetric structures observed in e.g., the disks of HD 143006 and HD 34282.”

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