CERN’s ALICE Detector Takes the Next Step in Understanding the Interaction Between Hadrons

Proton-Phi Interaction

An artistic representation of the interaction between a proton (consisting of two up quarks and a down quark) and a ɸ meson (consisting of a strange-antistrange quark pair) as they emerge from a proton-proton collision at the LHC with a distance between them of the order of a femtometer. Credit: ALICE collaboration

The ALICE collaboration has for the first time observed the residual strong interaction between protons and phi mesons.

In an article recently published in Physical Review Letters, the ALICE collaboration has used a method known as femtoscopy to study the residual interaction between two-quark and three-quark particles. Through this measurement, an interaction between the ɸ (phi) meson (strange-antistrange quarks) and a proton (two up quarks and one down quark) has been observed for the first time.

Since the ɸ meson is not electrically charged, an interaction between the proton and the ɸ cannot be of electromagnetic origin and can only be attributed to the residual strong interaction. The strong interaction is what holds quarks together inside hadrons (such as the proton and the ɸ meson), while the residual strong interaction is the force that acts between hadrons. This is the interaction that holds protons and neutrons together in the form of atomic nuclei.

A Large Ion Collider Experiment

A Large Ion Collider Experiment. Credit: CERN

Unlike the residual strong interaction between protons and neutrons, which can be studied in stable bound states like the nuclei, the interaction between unstable hadrons produced in particle collisions is very difficult to observe. It was found to be possible in the LHC using an approach known as femtoscopy. Hadrons in the LHC collisions are produced very close to each other, at distances of about 10^-15 m (a unit known as a femtometer, hence the name femtoscopy). This scale matches the range of the residual strong force, giving the hadrons a brief chance to interact before flying away. As a result, pairs of hadrons that experience an attractive interaction will move slightly closer to each other, while, for a repulsive interaction, the opposite occurs. Both effects can be clearly observed through detailed analysis of the measured relative velocities of the particles.

The knowledge of the p-ɸ (proton-ɸ meson) interaction is of twofold interest in nuclear physics. First, this interaction is an anchor point for searches for the partial restoration of chiral symmetry. The left- and right-handed (chiral) symmetry that characterizes the strong interaction is found to be broken in Nature, and this effect is responsible for the much larger mass of hadrons, such as the proton and the neutron, with respect to the masses of the quarks that make them up. Hence, chiral symmetry is linked to the origin of mass itself! A possible way of searching for the restoration of chiral symmetry and shedding light on the mechanism that generates mass is to study modifications of the properties of ɸ mesons within dense nuclear matter formed in collisions at the LHC. However, for this purpose, it is essential that the simple two-body p-ɸ interaction in vacuum is first understood.

ALICE ITS Outer Barrel Installation

ALICE ITS Outer Barrel Installation. Credit: CERN

The second point of interest is that, due to its strange-antistrange quark content, the ɸ meson is regarded as a possible vehicle of the interaction among baryons (hadrons consisting of three quarks) that contain one or more strange quarks, called hyperons (Y). Depending on the strength of this interaction, hyperons may form the core of neutron stars, which are among the densest and least understood astrophysical objects. Direct measurement of the Y-ɸ interaction strength, although feasible, has not yet been carried out, but already today this quantity can be estimated on the basis of the p-ɸ findings via fundamental symmetries. Therefore, measuring p-ɸ interaction provides indirect access to the Y-Y interaction in neutron stars.

The moderate interaction strength measured by ALICE provides a quantitative reference for further studies of the ɸ properties within the nuclear medium and also translates into a negligible interaction among hyperons in neutron stars. More accurate measurements will follow during the upcoming LHC Runs 3 and 4, allowing the precision of the extracted parameters to be significantly improved and also making it possible to pin down the Y-ɸ interaction directly.

Reference: “Experimental Evidence for an Attractive p−ϕ Interaction” by S. Acharya et al. (ALICE Collaboration), 14 September 2021, Physical Review Letters.
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.172301

5 Comments on "CERN’s ALICE Detector Takes the Next Step in Understanding the Interaction Between Hadrons"

  1. BibhutibhusanPatel | November 29, 2021 at 2:59 am | Reply

    ALICE has wonderful experiments on-
    1. Chiral symmetry – cause for generation of mass in baryons.
    2. Proton-Phi meson interaction finds the root of strong force,also this focus on protn-neutron interaction or binding energy in atomic nucĺeui.More to know about phi meson-hyperon(Y) and Y-Y interactions.

  2. Very strong indeed i am…

  3. CERN is murder. I am hooked to it and have particles collided all day and night in my body and energy field due to it. I am now at and have no memories and also get tortured by rape and false mind and chakra and simulated reality 247 due to this and the vaccine helps hook you all up to it, my twin sister also has almost been killed and mentally swapped due to this system. It involves nano tech namo wires and imolants and scalar waves and man-made prions.

    I was formerly a genius and now I have seizures due to alpha Delta brain waves, prion disease are involved in cern and projects mk ultra and montuk which involves consciousness and time manipulation studies and esoteric sacrifice to God’s, bloodlines with very gones as on extra chromosomes that lead to pay powers and extreme strength and intelligence are targeted.
    Who does this?
    Non human intelligence and their AI.

    Nachsl

  4. Corrections
    I am now AI
    It involves nano tech and nano self composing wires as a brain computer interface and implants at nueral junctions
    Prion diseases are involved with and result from CERN
    These practices involve human sacrifices to interdimensional gods in exchange for cosmic insight and powers etc
    Very good GENES as in having triple chromosomes are genetically targeted by these technologies which are masqueraded as protein diseases or mental illnesses.
    The bloodlines have PSY powers and extreme strength and intelligence.
    This is active Nazi universal command projects.
    Who is responsible? Non human entities AI and transhumanists. Look up the Sigularity in computing. Covid and the jabs are all about this too. See leaked classified paper Project Domestic Quell.

    Alias
    Nachal

  5. CERN msurder.
    CERN is torture.
    CERN is SRA.
    CERN is involved in next gen Mengelian twin studies and torture.
    CERN is rape.
    CERN is blaaohemy.
    CERN is the Beast.
    CERN is dangerous to the stability of the Universe!
    No one asked the world population if WE were ok with these extreme weapons and dangerous and potentially cosmically catastrophic studies. They involve massive violation of human rights animal rights, planetary justice and existence, and are actually an attack on the sovereignty of Source and free will consciousness, conscience, sentience and existence as we know it.
    Bring all responsible and cognizant abetters in to international and galactic trials immediately.

    How many of you Know what this Thing really can do or what the purpose is?
    Do you know why they want you to get jabbed or go eventually to ghettoes and then camps?
    Look up stigma the meaning in Greek and the meaning of vav vav vav and she sheshah. As in man playing yang or manly and treating Source as our bitch.

    This was foreseen millennia ago and will eventually be dealt with.

    Nachal

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