From the Distant Past: JWST Unveils Secrets of 12-Billion-Year-Old Star-Forming Galaxies

Celestial Spiral Galaxy

The James Webb Space Telescope has enabled astronomers to discover that most early galaxies, around 12 billion years ago, contained glowing gas that outshone stars, due to interactions with neighboring galaxies. This breakthrough, offering new insights into galaxy evolution and the early universe, highlights the JWST’s transformative impact on astrophysics.

New images from the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) have enabled Australian astronomers to uncover secrets of how infant galaxies started an explosion of star formation in the very early Universe.

Some early galaxies were abundant with a gas that glowed so bright it outshone emerging stars. In a new study, astronomers have now discovered just how prevalent these bright galaxies were some 12 billion years ago.

Images from the JWST have shown that almost 90% of the galaxies in the early universe had this glowing gas, producing so-called ‘extreme emission line features’.

6 JWST HST Comparison

Images of a distant extreme emission line galaxy. Seen by James Webb Space Telescope (left) and Hubble Space Telescope (right). This comparison highlights the clarity of JWST images. Credit: ARC Centre of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions (ASTRO 3D)

“The stars in these young galaxies were remarkable, producing just the right amount of radiation to excite the surrounding gas. This gas, in turn, shone even brighter than the stars themselves,” says Dr Anshu Gupta from the ARC Centre of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions (ASTRO 3D) and the Curtin University node of the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), the lead author of a paper describing the discovery.

“Until now, it was challenging to understand how these galaxies were able to accumulate so much gas. Our findings suggest that each of these galaxies had at least one close neighboring galaxy. The interaction between these galaxies would cause gas to cool and trigger an intense episode of star formation, resulting in this extreme emission feature.”

Advancements in Observing Early Universe Galaxies

The discovery is a graphic example of the unparalleled clarity the JWST telescope provides in studying the early Universe.

“The data quality from the James Webb telescope is exceptional,” says Dr Gupta. “It has the depth and resolution needed to see the neighbors and environment around early galaxies from when the Universe was only 2 billion years old. With this detail, we were able to see a marked difference in the number of neighbors between galaxies with the extreme emission features and those without.”

4.2 JWST HST Comparison

Target galaxy seen by James Webb Space Telescope (left) and Hubble Space Telescope (right). The unprecedented resolution and clarity of JWST images allowed the identification of neighboring galaxies (cyan circles) that Hubble could not even see. Credit: ARC Centre of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions (ASTRO 3D)

Previously we struggled to get a clear picture of galaxies from around 2 billion years of the Universe’s age. As many stars had yet to form, the task was made more difficult with many fewer galaxies to focus on.

“Prior to JWST, we could only really get a picture of really massive galaxies, most of which are in really dense clusters making them harder to study,” Dr Gupta says. “With the technology available then, we couldn’t observe 95% of the galaxies we used in this study. The James Webb telescope has revolutionized our work.”

6 JWST HST Comparison

Images of a distant extreme emission line galaxy. Seen by James Webb Space Telescope (left) and Hubble Space Telescope (right). This comparison highlights the clarity of JWST images. Credit: ARC Centre of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions (ASTRO 3D)

Confirmation of Previous Assumptions

The discovery has proven previous assumptions, says fellow author Associate Director Tran, ASTRO 3D and the Center of Astrophysics, Harvard and Smithsonian. “We suspected that these extreme galaxies are signposts of intense interactions in the early universe, but only with the sharp eyes of JWST could we confirm our hunch,” she says.

The research relied on data obtained as part of the JWST Advanced Deep Extragalactic Survey (JADES) survey, which is exploring the Universe of the earliest galaxies with deep infrared imaging and multi-object spectroscopy. It opens the way for further insights.

7 JWST HST Comparison

Images of a distant extreme emission line galaxy. Seen by James Webb Space Telescope (left) and Hubble Space Telescope (right). This comparison highlights the clarity of JWST images. Credit: ARC Centre of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions (ASTRO 3D)

“What’s really exciting about this piece is that we see emission line similarities between the very first galaxies to galaxies that formed more recently and are easier to measure. This means we now have more ways to answer questions about the early universe, a period that is technically very hard to study,” says second author, Ravi Jaiswar, a PhD student at Curtin University/ICRAR and ASTRO 3D.

“This research is core to the work of our Galaxy Evolution Program. By understanding what early galaxies look like, we can build on answering questions on the origin of the elements that make up our everything in our everyday life here on Earth,” says Professor Emma Ryan-Weber, Director of ASTRO 3D.

Reference: “MOSEL survey: JWST reveals major mergers/strong interactions drive the extreme emission lines in the early universe” by Anshu Gupta, Ravi Jaiswar, Vicente Rodriguez-Gomez, Ben Forrest, Kim-Vy Tran, Themiya Nanayakkara, Anishya Harshan, Elisabete da Cunha, Glenn G. Kacprzak and Michaela Hirschmann, The Astrophysical Journal.
DOI: 10.48550/arXiv.2311.02158

2 Comments on "From the Distant Past: JWST Unveils Secrets of 12-Billion-Year-Old Star-Forming Galaxies"

  1. The topography of the universe over time and how it changes nothing but our perceptions.

    If dark matter changes states between a liquid and gaseous state then there would have been a time where almost all of the dark matter cooled, condensed and collapsed. This liquid state contraction could possibly have led to direct collapse black holes and galaxies. The condensing of dark matter may have also contributed to that uniformity of temperature.

    If the dark matter was in its liquid state then baryonic and dark matter would have been much more concentrated. This would have resulted in deeper gravity wells. The time in these gravity wells to us would seem to be moving slower to us. But due to dark matter condensing the baryonic matter would also have been cooled and rushing together.

    Once stars were formed and black holes became active the ratio of liquid to gaseous dark matter would have decreased over time thus affecting the evolution of particle masses. And making the gravity wells progressively shallower and larger in diameter over time.

    Light red shifts as it climbs out of a gravity well. Thus the further you go back in time the more light is redshifted. This would leave everything the same with the exception of our perception that the universe is expanding. Also if a big portion of the redshift is from climbing out of a deeper gravity well then we are not looking as far into the past as we think.

    Phase transitioning dark matter could also answer several of the biggest questions in cosmology.

  2. mehrdad aghakasiri tehran 00989332197646 | November 14, 2023 at 1:23 am | Reply

    The destruction of human civilization on earth November 2023. On earth, the remains of civilization are only the shape of seas and continents, which are in the form of humans, mammals and birds.More than millions of years ago, before the destruction of humans, those who lived before us on earth.They had reached a star that was coming from the arm of the sky towards the sun and because they knew that star and its planet would collide with the objects of the solar system and the life on earth would be destroyed for us humans and the continents.The seas change into the form of terrestrial creatures.The continent of North America is a bird in flight, its head and mouth are towards the east, it has eyes, its eye is a lake, its right wing is Alaska, and its left wing is the north of North America, which is inthe form of islands.The foot of this bird is the map of the country of Panama, and the foot can be seen on the map, which means Panamanian in Farsi.With its formation, you will think and understand that the earth before us had a civilized life.has had, so we accept the 100 hundred astronomical events that occurred due to the collision of planets with the objects of the solar system, which caused the destruction of human life.People who lived on earth in the past.But why did they do this?They drew the continents in the form of birds and humans and changed them for us.Most likely they wanted to send us a message.They were so advanced in astronomy that they knew that when the star and the planet along with this star The big arm of the galaxy came to the solar system.These stars and planets were at least tens of times smaller than the sun due to the very strange attraction of the sun and the planet Jupiter.
    The number of these stars in the arm of the galaxy is hundreds of millions, and for this reason, the life of the earth lasts one and a half revolutions every hundred million years.In each new period, when the arm of the galaxy passes through the solar system, this planet collides with the outer planets.It doesn’t.They hit the sun gently.It happens again and life on Earth is actually renewed, meaning it doesn’t die out completely because that happens every hundred million years, and a hundred million years is a very long time.And during this long time, the life of the earth is again.They realized that they lived on the earth before us, so they gave us this message by changing the shape of the seas and continents of the earth in the form of birds, humans and mammals.He was flying over the American continent due to a meteor hitting his left wing from the mentioned planet and a star that hit the sun and then disintegrated, he was unable to take off.There is a sad incident that informed us to be alert and to think of a solution to prevent this incident and it is strange and amazing that in America most of the space flights are happening now.They have the shape of a flying bird and the head of a The tribe was depicted in North and South America, but in the other three major continents of the world, Asia, Europe and Africa, images of conflict and war and the slaughter and lootingof caravans by an Arab or black man, wounding a camel’s chest to The claw of a man whose machete is the Red Sea, who takes the head of an animal for its horn.The same is true about the horn of Africa.In the map of the entire continent of Africa, there is an image of a horn sitting on the face and forehead of a rhinoceros.In East Africa, there is a rhinoceros horn, and it is strange.And it is amazing that elephants and rhinos have been killed in the African continent because of their expensive horns.An elephant grabbed the man’s hand with its trunk so that he wouldn’t grab the head of the rhinoceros and tear the chest of the camel.The tip of that man’s machete is near the city of Giza and the Egyptian pyramids.Giza in Persian means wound.Go to the world map and look at the Red Sea, there is the machete of an attacking man, the tip of the machete is exactly near Giza, these are the wonders of the afterlife.They are normal.I have already explained about this in the comments I left for this site.If you want me to explain again, please send me a detailed message because the Islamic Republic of Iran may have blocked my email and the problem is from be somewhere else.Dr. Mehrdad from America, send me an SMS.Considering the circumstances, I am waiting for your message.With the sun in the middle of the big arm of the galaxy, I calculated the distance from the sun to the nearest star in a few thousand years.Earth’s life may be renewed I didn’t write down the exact time of the collision because I don’t know how fast the two giant arms of the galaxy are moving.Does anyone in America know how to send me the speed of the two giant arms of the galaxy, then I can calculate the estimated speed and distance And tell you that the collision will be exactly how many years.

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