How Do Animals Know It’s Lunchtime?

Husky Eating Pumpkin

A study by Tokyo Metropolitan University using fruit flies has shed light on how daily eating patterns are regulated by genetic components. The quasimodo (qsm) gene was found to synchronize feeding with the light/dark cycle, while the genes clock (clk) and cycle (cyc) maintained these patterns in constant darkness, particularly in metabolic tissues. Moreover, nerve cell “clocks” were identified as key in synchronizing eating patterns with daily light changes. This research, supported by various institutes and grants, enhances our understanding of circadian rhythms in feeding behavior and could inform the treatment of eating disorders.

Researchers uncover the molecular mechanisms that schedule meal timings and their synchronization with daily cycles.

Researchers at Tokyo Metropolitan University have conducted a study using fruit flies to explore the regulation of daily eating patterns. They discovered that the quasimodo (qsm) gene is instrumental in synchronizing feeding with the light/dark cycle, but it is not effective in constant darkness. Under these conditions, the genes clock (clk) and cycle (cyc) maintain eating and fasting cycles.

Moreover, other “clocks” within nerve cells synchronize these cycles with the day-night changes. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that control eating cycles can enhance our comprehension of animal behavior, including human behaviors.

Adaptation to Environmental Cues

Many members of the animal kingdom eat at roughly the same time each day. This is born out of the need to adapt to aspects of the environment, including how much light there is, temperature, the availability of food, the chance that predators are around, all of which are vital for survival. It is also important for efficient digestion and metabolism, thus for our general well-being.

Molecular Mechanisms Behind Regular Feeding Cycles in Fruit Flies

The team found that qsm regulated syncing to light/dark cycles while molecular clocks in neurons took over the role in constant darkness. On the other hand, clk/cyc genes helped keep feeding/fasting cycles. Credit: Tokyo Metropolitan University

But how do such a wide range of organisms know when to eat? An important factor is circadian rhythm, an approximately daily physiological cycle shared by organisms as diverse as animals, plants, bacteria, and algae. It serves as a “master clock” which regulates rhythmic behavior. But animals are full of other timing mechanisms, known as “peripheral clocks,” each with its own different biochemical pathways. These can be reset by external factors, such as feeding. But the specific way in which these clocks govern animal feeding behavior is not yet clear.

Fruit Fly Study Insights

Now a team led by Associate Professor Kanae Ando of Tokyo Metropolitan University has addressed this problem using fruit flies, a model organism that mirrors many of the features of more complex animals, including humans. They used a method known as a CAFE assay, where flies are fed through a microcapillary to measure exactly how much individual flies eat at different times. Firstly, they looked at how flies synced their eating habits to light.

Studying flies feeding in a light/dark cycle, previous work already showed that flies feed more during the daytime even when mutations were introduced to core circadian clock genes, period (per) and timeless (tim). Instead, the team looked at quasimodo (qsm), a gene that encodes for a light-responsive protein that controls the firing of clock neurons. By knocking down qsm, they found that flies had their daytime feeding pattern significantly affected. For the first time, we know that the syncing of feeding to a light-mediated rhythm is affected by qsm.

Clock Genes and Feeding Patterns

This was not the case for flies feeding in constant darkness. Flies with mutations in their core circadian clock genes suffered severe disruption to their daily feeding patterns. Of the four genes involved, period (per), timeless (tim), cycle (cyc) and clock (clk), loss of cyc and clk was far more severe. In fact, it was found that clk/cyc was necessary in creating bimodal feeding patterns i.e. eating and fasting periods, particularly those in metabolic tissues. But how did these cycles sync up with days? Instead of metabolic tissues, molecular clock genes in the nerve cells played the dominant role.

The team’s discoveries give us a first glimpse into how different clocks in different parts of an organism regulate feeding/fasting cycles as well as how they match up with diurnal rhythms. An understanding of the mechanisms behind feeding habits promises new insights into animal behavior, as well as novel treatments for eating disorders.

Reference: “Dissecting the daily feeding pattern: Peripheral CLOCK/CYCLE generate the feeding/fasting episodes and neuronal molecular clocks synchronize them” by Akiko Maruko, Koichi M. Iijima and Kanae Ando, 7 October 2023, iScience.
DOI: 10.1016/j.isci.2023.108164

This work was supported by the Farber Institute for Neurosciences and Thomas Jefferson University, the National Institutes of Health [R01AG032279-A1], a Takeda Foundation Grant, and the TMU Strategic Research Fund.

1 Comment on "How Do Animals Know It’s Lunchtime?"

  1. That’s an awesome fruit fly drawing!

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