NASA’s NuSTAR Telescope Shows Merging Galaxies Have Enshrouded Black Holes

NuSTAR Shows Merging Galaxies Have Enshrouded Black Holes

This illustration compares growing supermassive black holes in two different kinds of galaxies. A growing supermassive black hole in a normal galaxy would have a donut-shaped structure of gas and dust around it (left). In a merging galaxy, a sphere of material obscures the black hole (right).

Using NASA’s NuSTAR telescope, a team of astronomers reveals that in the late stages of galaxy mergers, so much gas and dust falls toward a black hole that the extremely bright AGN is enshrouded.

Black holes get a bad rap in popular culture for swallowing everything in their environments. In reality, stars, gas, and dust can orbit black holes for long periods of time, until a major disruption pushes the material in.

A merger of two galaxies is one such disruption. As the galaxies combine and their central black holes approach each other, gas and dust in the vicinity are pushed onto their respective black holes. An enormous amount of high-energy radiation is released as material spirals rapidly toward the hungry black hole, which becomes what astronomers call an active galactic nucleus (AGN).

A study using NASA’s NuSTAR telescope shows that in the late stages of galaxy mergers, so much gas and dust falls toward a black hole that the extremely bright AGN is enshrouded. The combined effect of the gravity of the two galaxies slows the rotational speeds of gas and dust that would otherwise be orbiting freely. This loss of energy makes the material fall onto the black hole.

“The further along the merger is, the more enshrouded the AGN will be,” said Claudio Ricci, lead author of the study published in the Monthly Notices Royal Astronomical Society. “Galaxies that are far along in the merging process are completely covered in a cocoon of gas and dust.”

Ricci and colleagues observed the penetrating high-energy X-ray emission from 52 galaxies. About half of them were in the later stages of merging. Because NuSTAR is very sensitive to detecting the highest-energy X-rays, it was critical in establishing how much light escapes the sphere of gas and dust covering an AGN.

Researchers compared NuSTAR observations of the galaxies with data from NASA’s Swift and Chandra and ESA’s XMM-Newton observatories, which look at lower energy components of the X-ray spectrum. If high-energy X-rays are detected from a galaxy, but low-energy X-rays are not, that is a sign that an AGN is heavily obscured.

The study helps confirm the longstanding idea that an AGN’s black hole does most of its eating while enshrouded during the late stages of a merger.

“A supermassive black hole grows rapidly during these mergers,” Ricci said. “The results further our understanding of the mysterious origins of the relationship between a black hole and its host galaxy.”

Reference: “Growing supermassive black holes in the late stages of galaxy mergers are heavily obscured” by C. Ricci, F. E. Bauer, E. Treister, K. Schawinski, G. C. Privon, L. Blecha, P. Arevalo, L. Armus, F. Harrison, L. C. Ho, K. Iwasawa, D. B. Sanders and D. Stern, 23 January 2017, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.
DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx173

1 Comment on "NASA’s NuSTAR Telescope Shows Merging Galaxies Have Enshrouded Black Holes"

  1. Tarzan Graystone | May 20, 2017 at 9:16 am | Reply

    Once again you are touting “merger uber alles” pseudo-science. No one has mentioned there are a trillion objects out there. Why doesn’t anyone care where they came from? A linear process would create the mass of an average galaxy EVERY DAY for 14 billion years – and no on has yet characterized one emergent object or emergent system. You should be ashamed to print this drivel.

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