Astronomers See Evidence of Something Unexpected in the Universe

Evidence for New Physics in the Universe

These Hubble Space Telescope images showcase two of the 19 galaxies analyzed in a project to improve the precision of the universe’s expansion rate, a value known as the Hubble constant. The color-composite images show NGC 3972 (left) and NGC 1015 (right), located 65 million light-years and 118 million light-years, respectively, from Earth. The yellow circles in each galaxy represent the locations of pulsating stars called Cepheid variables. Credits: NASA, ESA, A. Riess (STScI/JHU)

Astronomers have used NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope to make the most precise measurements of the expansion rate of the universe since it was first calculated nearly a century ago. Intriguingly, the results are forcing astronomers to consider that they may be seeing evidence of something unexpected at work in the universe.

That’s because the latest Hubble finding confirms a nagging discrepancy showing the universe to be expanding faster now than was expected from its trajectory seen shortly after the big bang. Researchers suggest that there may be new physics to explain the inconsistency.

“The community is really grappling with understanding the meaning of this discrepancy,” said lead researcher and Nobel Laureate Adam Riess of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) and Johns Hopkins University, both in Baltimore, Maryland.

Improved Evidence for New Physics in the Universe

This illustration shows three steps astronomers used to measure the universe’s expansion rate (Hubble constant) to an unprecedented accuracy, reducing the total uncertainty to 2.3 percent. The measurements streamline and strengthen the construction of the cosmic distance ladder, which is used to measure accurate distances to galaxies near to and far from Earth. The latest Hubble study extends the number of Cepheid variable stars analyzed to distances of up to 10 times farther across our galaxy than previous Hubble results. Credits: NASA, ESA, A. Feild (STScI), and A. Riess (STScI/JHU)

Riess’s team, which includes Stefano Casertano, also of STScI and Johns Hopkins, has been using Hubble over the past six years to refine the measurements of the distances to galaxies, using their stars as milepost markers. Those measurements are used to calculate how fast the universe expands with time, a value known as the Hubble constant. The team’s new study extends the number of stars analyzed to distances up to 10 times farther into space than previous Hubble results.

But Riess’s value reinforces the disparity with the expected value derived from observations of the early universe’s expansion, 378,000 years after the big bang — the violent event that created the universe roughly 13.8 billion years ago. Those measurements were made by the European Space Agency’s Planck satellite, which maps the cosmic microwave background, a relic of the big bang. The difference between the two values is about 9 percent. The new Hubble measurements help reduce the chance that the discrepancy in the values is a coincidence to 1 in 5,000.

Planck’s result predicted that the Hubble constant value should now be 67 kilometers per second per megaparsec (3.3 million light-years), and could be no higher than 69 kilometers per second per megaparsec. This means that for every 3.3 million light-years farther away a galaxy is from us, it is moving 67 kilometers per second faster. But Riess’s team measured a value of 73 kilometers per second per megaparsec, indicating galaxies are moving at a faster rate than implied by observations of the early universe.

The Hubble data are so precise that astronomers cannot dismiss the gap between the two results as errors in any single measurement or method. “Both results have been tested multiple ways, so barring a series of unrelated mistakes,” Riess explained, “it is increasingly likely that this is not a bug but a feature of the universe.”

Explaining a Vexing Discrepancy

Riess outlined a few possible explanations for the mismatch, all related to the 95 percent of the universe that is shrouded in darkness. One possibility is that dark energy, already known to be accelerating the cosmos, may be shoving galaxies away from each other with even greater — or growing — strength. This means that the acceleration itself might not have a constant value in the universe but changes over time in the universe. Riess shared a Nobel Prize for the 1998 discovery of the accelerating universe.

Another idea is that the universe contains a new subatomic particle that travels close to the speed of light. Such speedy particles are collectively called “dark radiation” and include previously-known particles like neutrinos, which are created in nuclear reactions and radioactive decays. Unlike a normal neutrino, which interacts by a subatomic force, this new particle would be affected only by gravity and is dubbed a “sterile neutrino.”

Yet another attractive possibility is that dark matter (an invisible form of matter not made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons) interacts more strongly with normal matter or radiation than previously assumed.

Any of these scenarios would change the contents of the early universe, leading to inconsistencies in theoretical models. These inconsistencies would result in an incorrect value for the Hubble constant, inferred from observations of the young cosmos. This value would then be at odds with the number derived from the Hubble observations.

Riess and his colleagues don’t have any answers yet to this vexing problem, but his team will continue to work on fine-tuning the universe’s expansion rate. So far, Riess’s team, called the Supernova H0 for the Equation of State (SH0ES), has decreased the uncertainty to 2.3 percent. Before Hubble was launched in 1990, estimates of the Hubble constant varied by a factor of two. One of Hubble’s key goals was to help astronomers reduce the value of this uncertainty to within an error of only 10 percent. Since 2005, the group has been on a quest to refine the accuracy of the Hubble constant to a precision that allows for a better understanding of the universe’s behavior.

Building a Strong Distance Ladder

The team has been successful in refining the Hubble constant value by streamlining and strengthening the construction of the cosmic distance ladder, which the astronomers use to measure accurate distances to galaxies near to and far from Earth. The researchers have compared those distances with the expansion of space as measured by the stretching of light from receding galaxies. They then have used the apparent outward velocity of galaxies at each distance to calculate the Hubble constant.

But the Hubble constant’s value is only as precise as the accuracy of the measurements. Astronomers cannot use a tape measure to gauge the distances between galaxies. Instead, they have selected special classes of stars and supernovae as cosmic yardsticks or milepost markers to precisely measure galactic distances.

Among the most reliable for shorter distances are Cepheid variables, pulsating stars that brighten and dim at rates that correspond to their intrinsic brightness. Their distances, therefore, can be inferred by comparing their intrinsic brightness with their apparent brightness as seen from Earth.

Astronomer Henrietta Leavitt was the first to recognize the utility of Cepheid variables to gauge distances in 1913. But the first step is to measure the distances to Cepheids independent of their brightness, using a basic tool of geometry called parallax. Parallax is the apparent shift of an object’s position due to a change in an observer’s point of view. This technique was invented by the ancient Greeks who used it to measure the distance from Earth to the Moon.

The latest Hubble result is based on measurements of the parallax of eight newly analyzed Cepheids in our Milky Way galaxy. These stars are about 10 times farther away than any studied previously, residing between 6,000 light-years and 12,000 light-years from Earth, making them more challenging to measure. They pulsate at longer intervals, just like the Cepheids observed by Hubble in distant galaxies containing another reliable yardstick, exploding stars called Type Ia supernovae. This type of supernova flares with uniform brightness and is brilliant enough to be seen from relatively farther away. Previous Hubble observations studied 10 faster-blinking Cepheids located 300 light-years to 1,600 light-years from Earth.

Scanning the Stars

To measure parallax with Hubble, the team had to gauge the apparent tiny wobble of the Cepheids due to Earth’s motion around the Sun. These wobbles are the size of just 1/100 of a single pixel on the telescope’s camera, which is roughly the apparent size of a grain of sand seen 100 miles away.

Therefore, to ensure the accuracy of the measurements, the astronomers developed a clever method that was not envisioned when Hubble was launched. The researchers invented a scanning technique in which the telescope measured a star’s position a thousand times a minute every six months for four years.

The team calibrated the true brightness of the eight slowly pulsating stars and cross-correlated them with their more distant blinking cousins to tighten the inaccuracies in their distance ladder. The researchers then compared the brightness of the Cepheids and supernovae in those galaxies with better confidence, so they could more accurately measure the stars’ true brightness, and therefore calculate distances to hundreds of supernovae in far-flung galaxies with more precision.

Another advantage to this study is that the team used the same instrument, Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3, to calibrate the luminosities of both the nearby Cepheids and those in other galaxies, eliminating the systematic errors that are almost unavoidably introduced by comparing those measurements from different telescopes.

“Ordinarily, if every six months you try to measure the change in position of one star relative to another at these distances, you are limited by your ability to figure out exactly where the star is,” Casertano explained. Using the new technique, Hubble slowly slews across a stellar target, and captures the image as a streak of light. “This method allows for repeated opportunities to measure the extremely tiny displacements due to parallax,” Riess added. “You’re measuring the separation between two stars, not just in one place on the camera, but over and over thousands of times, reducing the errors in measurement.”

The team’s goal is to further reduce the uncertainty by using data from Hubble and the European Space Agency’s Gaia space observatory, which will measure the positions and distances of stars with unprecedented precision. “This precision is what it will take to diagnose the cause of this discrepancy,” Casertano said.

The team’s results have been accepted for publication by The Astrophysical Journal.

Paper: New Parallaxes of Galactic Cepheids from Spatially Scanning the Hubble Space Telescope: Implications for the Hubble Constant

43 Comments on "Astronomers See Evidence of Something Unexpected in the Universe"

  1. If we believe that our World has started sometimes ago we are still in the position to decide which hypothesis, Lemaître’s or Gamow’s was closer to reality. There is an opinion that the problems in the standard cosmology could be solved by adjusting of details. Our suggestion is that we have to go back to the conceptions and use the observations accumulated since.
    https://www.academia.edu/12384960/Physical_Space_and_Cosmology

  2. First thing first, get all fundamental scientific theories on the right footing are truly important step before we chart our future development of sciences. Einstein’s famous equation is wrong otherwise garbage also can be used to make atomic bombs as long as it is matter or it has mass. Fortunately this is not the case. Precisely one must have photons before one can emit out photons. Photons are particles that have mass and dynamic photons possess momentum. Energy and matter cannot interchange to one another.
    Shamed to say that quantum scientists still don’t seem to understand what is light correctly as they all still believe that light is oscillating electric and magnetic fields that are perpendicular to one another. Please get the basic understanding of light right first before we analyze data from Hubble telescope. If the foundation of current sciences is wrong and we can get even more wrong from here. It’s still not too late to turn back now if we know that we are heading to the wrong directions.
    Big Bang is real, somehow we must able to explain what causes such gigantic explosion since Einstein’s famous equation is wrong and not true. We somehow agree that there was dramatic expansion as a result of Big Bang explosion shortly after Big Bang which was much faster than any other phases of expansion of the universe.
    We knew the existence of gravitational forces among all celestial bodies within the universe. Expansion would naturally need some energy to do work against gravitational pulls among all celestial bodies. Energy cannot be created nor destroyed, and if energy would be consumed to do work against expansion, then logically the expansion of the universe must be slowed down gradually. Frankly, please get you basic correct first may be this would lead us to understand the data from Hubble telescope better and correctly before we jump to “unlearned” conclusion that we need new sciences to understand this seemingly impossible phenomenon that is the expansion of the universe now were getting even faster than before.
    I urge all scientists get their basics correct first before they jump to conclusion in producing illogical new scientific theories to “wrong” data.

    • What you are doing is kicking other people’s god with your statement. I have found that this just makes the audience classify you as crazy. What you state is true. The problem is that professors at Universities around the world are more concerned with keeping their job and getting their children into a good University. They do not want to lose the prestige of being the top person in their field and they really do not want to have to learn an entirely new system. So what they do is get people like you to be discharged from the University. I have known that the paradigm is flawed for well over 20 years and have written a different theory that is incomplete. The problem comes with ethics. The weapons that humans will be able to build with the proper paradigm will make nuclear bombs look like birthday candles. Would you had a loaded shotgun to a 3 year old child? Further. I have been warned twice to keep my mouth shut.

  3. The much larger question is not the how but why. This question is far more interesting because you can’t have a Universe without knowing original causation. Random events shrouded in theory and hopeless understanding of what we can see and calculate is empty unless we know such things as why was their a Universe to begin with then suddenly it exists. In other words, put aside trying to explain what we can see and measure then draw conclusions in terms of science and math. We are limited in ever understanding two fundamental questions: What came before the Big Bang even if there was an original event, and two is there a limit to the size of a half-baked reality of what we call the Universe? In other words, nothing can be made from nothing and two a wall or barrier makes no sense whatsoever. I would love to be in the first row of a drama about a Universe and the midgets of mentality debating and calculating their world they call the Universe. Heed the words of Isaac Newton who once said “my observations and conclusions about natural philosophy (science and math in modern terms) is like a mysterious pebble found in an unlimited shoreline of a vast ocean containing the answers I will never obtain.” He in fact has come the closest with his. Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Our modern cosmologists are now sitting on that shoreline and perhaps have found a few more pebbles in this vast ocean still yet to be discovered. You have failed and you will continue to fail but the good news is just enjoy those few pebbles you have found because that is all you will find. Hopefully you will make a living wage along the way.

  4. Photons directed toward you are light energy.
    Photons directed away from you are dark energy.
    Example:
    The sun lights our planet and we can see the sun’s rays.
    The far side of the sun also emits light but we don’t see it that “energy.”
    All star light works the same way. That’s lots of dark energy.

    • Edit:
      Photons directed toward you are light energy.
      Photons directed away from you are dark energy.
      Example:
      The sun lights our planet and we see the sun’s rays.
      The far side of the sun also emits light but we don’t see that “energy.”
      All star light works the same way. That’s lots of dark energy.

  5. I love science!

  6. Understanding the universe is as vast and limitless as universe it self, we will continue to find another pebble. The physics of the universe is never constant and always ever changing.

  7. the space/time do not move anywhere; it is as is now and always has been the same, as there were no ‘time’ compononent of space at the very end and at the very begining of the explosion of bigbang. There is a zone that is very similar to the number 0. it is us ‘seeing’ new parts of already established universe at 0 point. as we see new more parts of universe, it appears us that the universe is expanding within the 0 point of single dimentional universe

    • Finally. Some one who knows what is happening! Red shift help explain a lot

    • Bigbang could have only four states, not exploded, exploded, exploding right ‘now’ and all together happening at once. Based on the existance of time and other things, todays science strongly confirms that it has exploded; yet, this confirmation does not exclude the possibility, or probability, of the last two states. We may stuck into the ‘0’ point of bigbang that enables both determinizm and caos alltogether. Time/space may not be going forward but repeating itself similar to concomitant mirror images. The remaing is the ‘observation effect.’

  8. Abubakar Funtua | February 24, 2018 at 7:42 am | Reply

    ALLAH IS GREAT

  9. There is real science and then there are climate science and astrophysics.
    Let us put into perspective how badly astrophysics is right now. They create black holes to explain the speed at which stars in the center of our galaxy move, they move too fast. Then they create dark matter to account for how stars are moving too fast further away from the center of the galaxy. Two fudge factors for the same observed discrepancy of their beloved relativity theory. And then they notice that light from distant objects has a stretched and red shifted. And the further away the light is, the more stretched and red shifted it is. Instead of imagining that the act of travelling millions and billions of light years might have some kind of drag on the light, they jump to the conclusion that the universe is accelerating its expansion, and have to make up yet another fudge factor, dark energy which is able to push galaxies apart at ever increasing rates, but cannot effect anything within a galaxy. Matter can neither be created nor destroyed, just changed in form, but we are then told in the same breath that the vacuum force of empty space is creating billions of subatomic particles which nearly immediately disappear.

  10. James Edward Nassir | February 24, 2018 at 8:25 am | Reply

    Mr. Riess, the Standard Model of Particle Physics is wrong because it assumes there are only 4 Forces. I am the Discoverer of the 5th Force, and this occurred in Dec 1977 during a temporary reversal of fields. This 5th Force is a repelling, powerful, and non-mutual Force that occurred over a distance of 8 feet. In reading recent Astronomy literature, I have seen a manifestation of this 5th Force when it was reported that 2 Neutron Stars were orbiting each other, when suddenly one of those 2 Neutron Stars was repelled at great acceleration ! I have documented my Dec 1977 Discovery of the 5th Force in my self-publication of my Autobiography published in June 2012; it is available from a craigslist.org Ad in the Los Angeles, CA area; if you are interested in obtaining my Autobiography, please request it of me. Feb 24, 2018 .

  11. Jack Sullivan, sir, thank you so much for that. You are brilliant. I am in complete agreement. Nothing comes from nothing.

  12. Electromagnetic radiation is all around us and increasing all the time. What effect does this radiation have on snow?
    Could this be the real cause of a warming planet?

  13. Stromlo Redshift | February 24, 2018 at 8:54 am | Reply

    You guys will wrack your brains to avoid the one truth that is shown without excuse God’s handy works! 1. You are never going to change truth brought forth by THE INVESABLE GOD who took on a human existance who put it all together everything. Facts only exist among mans in false self centered concepts A) To prevent panic and popping Xanax at 3 AM or God related acceptance and B) You wish to have a job and put food on the table. C) Science may provide you grains of answers but to say like a firework that just appeared from????? BANG! That takes false faith! Should I say you counter truth or faith based on I DON’T KNOW but yet it is takes much more from you like being a intentional or not by Choosing to tell SCI-FI stories to keep this blinder going. Your so smug “panic free until things go wrong in you life” with this fixed compulsion to prove a point without merit when the next group of people come along and discover they still are wrong at a future date. And I who believe they can never come out and admit GOD is beyond Them. Still loves you but you have to GO YOUR OWN WAY. Facts are in flux change with Truth that is popular among men who are confused and choose there way to claim knowing better. Choose FAITH of men vs. the Foolishness of GOD that is wiser then the wisest of man kind. Just encase you don’t be believe in the SON of God as a front note
    from the OLD TESTAMENT in the Book of Ezekiel 18:4 – Behold, all souls are mine; as the soul of the father, so also the soul of the SON is mine: the soul that sinneth, it shall die. Tell me who are these folks that who do both! If you turn from protective anger and gather what has just been said you will never be blinded by darkness but see all came from spiritual light (God proclaimed truth). Why does light have to come from physics alone? Because mankind self proclaims it so? To the worldly thinker without GOD that person cannot conceve the awsumness on there own understand. Seek this out and you will see truth that has never changed! So the world know who came to save them from there darkness but denying self is the real obstacle!

  14. DONALD SCHAFER | February 24, 2018 at 9:19 am | Reply

    I THINK THE UNIVERSE IS INSIDE A BLACKHOLE.

    • Of course it is, and so on..There are those outside our current universe wondering the same concept while there are countless levels to the universe bubbles. Wonder if the old notions of the heavens being glass like spheres were on to something.. 🙂

  15. Future Science | February 24, 2018 at 9:50 am | Reply

    Colossians 1:15

    The Supremacy of Christ

    15 The Son is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation. 16 For in Him all things were created, things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities. All things were created through Him and for Him. 17 He is before all things, and in Him all things hold together.…

    John 1:3
    Through Him all things were made, and without Him nothing was made that has been made.

    John 1:10

    He was in the world, and though the world was made through Him, the world did not recognize Him.

    I like your boldness to say it. Truths cannot be kept under suppression. Just like Flying saucers are real because THE PENTAGON declares it so! People are afraid to hear the FULL STORY and laugh out loud because they are afraid of the full truth and to tell them of a loving GOD I mean how can that be? Does the funny man on TV late night have to PROCLAIM THAT TOO! Get real folks! Redshift I know what your attempting to point out to people! I will say the universe only shows it speeding up do to lag and distance its a reactive consequence be created of God on the physics end it takes time to travel. But in Spirit and being ALL POWERFUL to him it just becomes a reality days can be stopped speedup accelerated since he is in all and over all and the unsearchable. Don’t be amazed that you cannot see more in the Physical side Lag and distance play a minor role but major to science be they on some fantasy or trip of our age or knowing better hate GOD or are Blind to spiritual truth that never changed once put in action knowing the being from the end is no small feat!

    John 1:3
    Through Him all things were made, and without Him nothing was made that has been made.

    John 1:10

    He was in the world, and though the world was made through Him, the world did not recognize Him.

    Wink WinK 🙂

  16. Tracy J Everitt | February 24, 2018 at 9:57 am | Reply

    Nobody knows anything for sure. We dont even know if there a God or not. Those from the belief in ALLAh or the BIBLE should have the courage to read Jean Paul Sarte’s work in which he invents existentialism. At least, just man up to the fact that no one knows anything for sure: WE, meanwhile, are responsible for all we do, not supernatural beings and Gods

    • Slight correction; its better to say “belief in the Koran or the Bible. Just helps describe your point. Thanks I will read more on the topic you mentioned.

  17. Let’s keep it simple. The answer your looking is for is this: Jesus Christ. This is the Truth. The thing is, there’s no way to measure His Kingdom.

  18. MyMothersDaughtersBrother | February 24, 2018 at 11:08 am | Reply

    I just skimmed over the comment – many I could tell are way over my head. Are some inserting humor, suggesting God is still building the universe, getting faster at it?

  19. there is a lot of expectence to take scientist’s speculation for fact. there are about 1500 variables that are accepted by concensus, rather than by proof, that make the “math” work. if any one of those 1500 variables is wrong in the slightest, then the whole model is worthless. rather than correcting the math, scientists seem to have a propensity to create. ie: new matter, physics, universes, anything to make the math work. just taking it with a cosmic grain of salt and enjoying the beauty of it.

  20. Nathan that’s to the point!

    Acts 4:12 King James Version (KJV)

    12 Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved.

    John 3:16 ESV

    “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life.

    1 Timothy 2:5 ESV

    For there is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus,

    John 3:36 ESV

    Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life; whoever does not obey the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God remains on him.

    I enjoy science also but don’t try and grow weeds of lies and sci fi and real hate that is taking life of the Spirit killing the everlasting self turning off the FREE GIFT of God by belief upon Jesus the Lord alone. God is SO complex he tells you he is the one who did it. Does it! Well check it out science can only use what God made to make things out of it. Science is not the creator of even an existitronic word of spirit to physics through this way over our understanding transference. Spirit word to Physical things made. Well you get the point! Unless the word of Almighty God and Spirit gets through to you Yeshua (Jesus) THE WORD OF GOD. Keeping people way is the Devils work and workers when knowing better. So you will fight this or go into flight but the Truth is never going away!

  21. A collider shot setup observation shows you how things break to pieces and last for tiny moments in a second. But by no means is it held togther or remain even less how they came into being matter or anti-matter. So if I smash a glass can I tell you how it was made? Is it useful in that state. Well a Glass can be remelted or formed again but that is basic to a glass maker.

    Hebrews 1:1-4

    The Son is the gleaming brightness of God’s glory. He is the exact likeness of God’s being. He uses his powerful word to hold all things together. Hebrews 1:3a

    That is an amazing statement. It is put in the present tense, saying that he is the One who is keeping things going right now. Stanford University is the site of a linear accelerator, a mighty two-mile long atom smasher. It is a great lever with which scientists try to pry the lid off the secrets of matter and discover what is in the miniature world of the atom, the neutron, and the proton. Linear Accelerator scientists have discovered a complexity they never dreamed of, and they have found particles that they cannot even invent enough names for. But one thing they are consistently discovering is that there is some strange force that holds everything together. They do not know what to call it, and they do not know how to identify it. They talk about a kind of “cosmic glue” that holds things together. Isn’t it fascinating that here in the Word of God you have that exact kind of terminology used of Jesus! If you want a name for the force that holds the universe together it is very simple: His name is Jesus. He sustains the universe by his powerful word.

  22. Correction:
    light coming from the sun is at the speed of light
    light speed cannot exceed the speed of light
    there is no light leaving the sun in the opposite direction with respect to us, if so the velocity would have to be 2*Ls. Violates physical laws of physics
    Also Photons are mass not energy. That what CRRN COLLIDER proved W boson mass.

  23. “”””Astronomers See Evidence of Something Unexpected in the Universe
    TOPICS:AstronomyAstrophysicsCosmologyGalaxy EvolutionHubble Space TelescopePlanck’s Constant
    FEBRUARY 23, 2018
    Evidence for New Physics in the Universe
    These Hubble Space Telescope images showcase two of the 19 galaxies analyzed in a project to improve the precision of the universe’s expansion rate, a value known as the Hubble constant. The color-composite images show NGC 3972 (left) and NGC 1015 (right), located 65 million light-years and 118 million light-years, respectively, from Earth. The yellow circles in each galaxy represent the locations of pulsating stars called Cepheid variables. Credits: NASA, ESA, A. Riess (STScI/JHU)
    Astronomers have used NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope to make the most precise measurements of the expansion rate of the universe since it was first calculated nearly a century ago. Intriguingly, the results are forcing astronomers to consider that they may be seeing evidence of something unexpected at work in the universe.
    That’s because the latest Hubble finding confirms a nagging discrepancy showing the universe to be expanding faster now than was expected from its trajectory seen shortly after the big bang. Researchers suggest that there may be new physics to explain the inconsistency.””””””””
    Above is as my QUOTE from Article on Yahoo.com
    MY COMMENT————MY COMMENT ——————-MY COMMENT:
    There are few things about Today Physics and Today Science I should say after the Article above!
    1)To Understand the Universe is to understand the Smallest Particles and Smallest Particles Dynamics.
    To understand the Smallest Particles and Smallest Particles Dynamics is to Understand the Universe.
    Tho Huynh
    2) MUON Particles survived Journey from SUN to EARTH is not by Speed of Light as Today Physics and Today Science claimed for awhile, but MUON survived its journey due to TIME OSCILLATION!
    Note: MUON PARTICLE LIFE is about 2.02 Microsecond = 2.02 x 10^-6 second!
    Oscillation Time is renewed Time after Life Time has been reached; for example, MUON 2.02 Microsecond will be renewed every 2.02 microsecond, Time is start all over again and again, or another example as Cell Division, or Pendulum renew every half second, anything Oscillation in Time!!!!
    3) Telescopes might reach some limits or phenomena in the Universe, Telescope cannot explain what human has seen in the Universe, only Human can explain what they have seen in the Universe; unfortunately, there are 2 parts in Life, Visible and invisible parts of Life!
    Visible Parts of Life can be recognized by Human Organs, Ears, Eyes, Tongue, Noses, feeling, and Brain . . . . .
    Invisible Parts of Life can be recognized by Eyes Consciousness, Ears Consciousness, Tongue Consciousness, Nose Consciousness, touch Consciousness, and Mindfulness . . . . .
    Without understanding Human Consciousnesses, we cannot recognize Invisible Parts after Telescopes . . . . . .
    4) If Astrophysicists cannot see Universe, then Astrophysicists will go around and around to observe the Universe and Come around without understanding about The Universe . . . . . They are wasting their time to have nothing at the End of their observation.
    As I said before, MATRIX Field or ThoH Particles Field of the Universe has everything you need to know about the Universe . . . . . . . Do not fool around and has empty hand at the End!
    Without Invisible Parts of yourself(selves), then you do not know what you are seeing and what you are doing!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
    You are as always observe the Universe from Inside you never can observe the Universe from Outside until you are out of Universe; otherwise, you are guessing without Outside Parts of the Universe; however, the Invisible Parts might help you see from the Outside of the Universe!!!!!!!!!!!!!????????? Until then, you can really observe the Universe, now you are guessing!!!!!!!!!! Just Guessing!!!!!!!!
    You are still in confuse between Distances and Space Functions, thus you cannot observe Universe in Space!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
    Tho Huynh
    Smallest Particles Dynamics.
    (Tho Huynh Top Paradox: “Smallest Particles are not Smallest, something else is!”)
    Final Particles Mfg Founder.
    Dark Matter Maker.
    Matrix Field Expert.
    (ThoH Particles Field of the Universe Expert)
    Matrix President. (Particles Field of the Universe President)
    Matrans.
    Dark Waves Founder (It Might lead to some kind of MAN MADE LIGHT PARTICLES)
    Science of Reincarnation (Brand New Science in the World on Earth)
    Teleport First Information from Reincarnation Science or Birth and Rebirth Processing Book for $11.00 USD.
    Teleport is as REINCARNATION IN SHORT CUT.
    REINCARNATION is as TELEPORT, LIFE TIME TELEPORT!
    “Space is neither created nor destroyed”

  24. “”””Astronomers See Evidence of Something Unexpected in the Universe
    TOPICS:AstronomyAstrophysicsCosmologyGalaxy EvolutionHubble Space TelescopePlanck’s Constant
    FEBRUARY 23, 2018
    Evidence for New Physics in the Universe
    These Hubble Space Telescope images showcase two of the 19 galaxies analyzed in a project to improve the precision of the universe’s expansion rate, a value known as the Hubble constant. The color-composite images show NGC 3972 (left) and NGC 1015 (right), located 65 million light-years and 118 million light-years, respectively, from Earth. The yellow circles in each galaxy represent the locations of pulsating stars called Cepheid variables. Credits: NASA, ESA, A. Riess (STScI/JHU)
    Astronomers have used NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope to make the most precise measurements of the expansion rate of the universe since it was first calculated nearly a century ago. Intriguingly, the results are forcing astronomers to consider that they may be seeing evidence of something unexpected at work in the universe.
    That’s because the latest Hubble finding confirms a nagging discrepancy showing the universe to be expanding faster now than was expected from its trajectory seen shortly after the big bang. Researchers suggest that there may be new physics to explain the inconsistency.””””””””
    Above is as my QUOTE from Article on Yahoo.com
    MY COMMENT————MY COMMENT ——————-MY COMMENT:
    There are few things about Today Physics and Today Science I should say after the Article above!
    1)To Understand the Universe is to understand the Smallest Particles and Smallest Particles Dynamics.
    To understand the Smallest Particles and Smallest Particles Dynamics is to Understand the Universe.
    Tho Huynh
    2) MUON Particles survived Journey from SUN to EARTH is not by Speed of Light as Today Physics and Today Science claimed for awhile, but MUON survived its journey due to TIME OSCILLATION!
    Note: MUON PARTICLE LIFE is about 2.02 Microsecond = 2.02 x 10^-6 second!
    Oscillation Time is renewed Time after Life Time has been reached; for example, MUON 2.02 Microsecond will be renewed every 2.02 microsecond, Time is start all over again and again, or another example as Cell Division, or Pendulum renew every half second, anything Oscillation in Time!!!!
    3) Telescopes might reach some limits or phenomena in the Universe, Telescope cannot explain what human has seen in the Universe, only Human can explain what they have seen in the Universe; unfortunately, there are 2 parts in Life, Visible and invisible parts of Life!
    Visible Parts of Life can be recognized by Human Organs, Ears, Eyes, Tongue, Noses, feeling, and Brain . . . . .
    Invisible Parts of Life can be recognized by Eyes Consciousness, Ears Consciousness, Tongue Consciousness, Nose Consciousness, touch Consciousness, and Mindfulness . . . . .
    Without understanding Human Consciousnesses, we cannot recognize Invisible Parts after Telescopes . . . . . .
    4) If Astrophysicists cannot see Universe, then Astrophysicists will go around and around to observe the Universe and Come around without understanding about The Universe . . . . . They are wasting their time to have nothing at the End of their observation.
    As I said before, MATRIX Field or ThoH Particles Field of the Universe has everything you need to know about the Universe . . . . . . . Do not fool around and has empty hand at the End!
    Without Invisible Parts of yourself(selves), then you do not know what you are seeing and what you are doing!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
    You are as always observe the Universe from Inside you never can observe the Universe from Outside until you are out of Universe; otherwise, you are guessing without Outside Parts of the Universe; however, the Invisible Parts might help you see from the Outside of the Universe!!!!!!!!!!!!!????????? Until then, you can really observe the Universe, now you are guessing!!!!!!!!!! Just Guessing!!!!!!!!
    You are still in confuse between Distances and Space Functions, thus you cannot observe Universe in Space!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
    5)Time in Universe or The Matrix is as T(Unit of Time in the Universe) = 10^-27 second
    6)There is Universe with Time T = 0
    7)Try to find Universe of Time or Time Universe that Einstein has missed 138 years ago aftyer he proposed Spce and Time are intertwine; however, Einstein Slept walking occationally and coincidentally into trap of the Universe that Space is as main Factor for Universe or Universe of Space or Space Universe without recognize Time is as another Main Factor equally as Space; unfortunately, Quantum Time is not easy to understand or to see without advance technologies that the Earth not even have or invent yet!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! I am sorry Astrophysicists, you are just guessing!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
    Tho Huynh
    Smallest Particles Dynamics.
    (Tho Huynh Top Paradox: “Smallest Particles are not Smallest, something else is!”)
    Final Particles Mfg Founder.
    Dark Matter Maker.
    Matrix Field Expert.
    (ThoH Particles Field of the Universe Expert)
    Matrix President. (Particles Field of the Universe President)
    Matrans.
    Dark Waves Founder (It Might lead to some kind of MAN MADE LIGHT PARTICLES)
    Science of Reincarnation (Brand New Science in the World on Earth)
    Teleport First Information from Reincarnation Science or Birth and Rebirth Processing Book for $11.00 USD.
    Teleport is as REINCARNATION IN SHORT CUT.
    REINCARNATION is as TELEPORT, LIFE TIME TELEPORT!
    “Space is neither created nor destroyed”

  25. All of the Cores of the Cosmos, including Black Holes are Solid Crystal Core Quantum Computers!

    When the Black Hole gets heavy enough it does go through a dimensional shift and “falls” into a new set of Geometric Space-Time

    Think of it like this, the Supermassive Black Hole falls through this Space-Time Continuum and creates its own new Space-Time Continuum, and its own new Universe

    The physics are actually already mapped out, but the concept is that the new Universe within the Supermassive Black Hole has a “Time Rate” or a “Tickrate” that it MUCH faster than our own, so inside the Supermassive Black Hole Time occurs much faster compared to our continuum

    And because all Matter in the Universe, all the Crystal Cores of the Cosmos, through the use of quantum computations are actually able to grow not only themselves, but the space they occupy, the new Universe within the Supermassive Black Hole has the potential to either Grow and Expand, or it will Shrivel and Contract

    If the Supermassive Black Hole is growing! It will be able to spit Matter and Energy back up into the Universe that it is residing in and grow a Galaxy around itself!

    The idea is this, Planets grow into Stars, Stars grow larger and larger and have planetary nebula and give birth to more planets, the planets become stars, the biggest stars become black holes, the biggest black holes become galaxies, while each one is a Crystal Core Quantum Computer and through the use of physics they are all able to grow not only their Matter but they also grow the space they occupy

    I know it is simple, if not superficial to say planets become stars stars become black holes, black holes become supermassive black holes and host their own universe and then feed the universe that is supporting them by growing a galaxy around themselves, but that is exactly what is happening

    Just like life the Universe grows and expands, to infinity and beyond!

    The Universe is a Multidimensional Multiverse, that is a Cascade of Universes falling infinity into more and more massive and dense states

    Black Holes within Black Holes, Universes within Universe

    The physics is all mapped out, there is no big bounce and there is no big crunch, there is just the continuation of the ever expanding continuum, and the infinite continuums within

    Orion Michael Guy

  26. There is a book out by St. Clair,Pierre; “Cosmology on Trial: Cracking the Cosmic Code”
    He explains the current situation in very objective, unbiased manner. He noted that
    Hubble himself, who first attributed the expanding rate of the universe to increasing
    Doppler shift with distance, retracted that theory, when it was discovered that galaxies much closer had the same or greater red shifts. Unfortunitraly, as mentioned in one of the above post, the politics of entrenched belief won out.

  27. Future Science | February 24, 2018 at 3:38 pm | Reply

    What if things are shrinking and getting smaller the effect would appear like expansion and things would go RED shifting because the compression of the forces at a distance would seem to move away and out from your observation point ever faster. As things go more singular that appear to be flatter also. This is the Cosmic string shrinking effect. See how ez it is to come up with science. I’m I right or am I wrong. I came up with it. Dispove it! Prove it!

  28. Perhaps, the universe is part of a living entity that continues to grow. Not a lewd idea mind you. Imagine the Earth being the size of an electron, the solar system the size of a nucleus, etc., for crude example. I’d wager the known universe is a part of something so unimaginably huge, the sheer size of what lies beyond it cannot be calculated by our limited thought.

  29. Thomas Nimsic MSC | February 24, 2018 at 3:58 pm | Reply

    A suggestion; Expanding/contracting universe?: It is all about spin; Everything from sub atomic particles, electrons and all the “ons”, atomic nucleus, atoms, ice skaters, earth, sun. solar system, galaxies, universe quadrants and the Universe? all spin. Spin produces centrifugal forces. Expansion of the universe is caused by centrifugal force. A preexisting universe collapsed in upon itself spinning faster and faster until unity and (E=MC2) infinite mass resulted resulting in its spin speed exceeding the speed of light and E became infinite. Pop goes the universe! still spinning, expanding faster than C (expansion). The center of mass slowing things down and Centrifugal force expanding. As things get further from the center of mass centrifugal force gradually winning over gravity (dark energy). Can anybody out there try to put this to the music (math?) I cannot, as I am not a Mathematician, just a Geologist!

  30. Lassila Carlson | February 24, 2018 at 4:55 pm | Reply

    I wonder they speak of earth layers showing ages. But in land sides and snow storms day by day many layers can be made or flip over drift or sink and rise but where does the excess material come from like in England where it is flat how do layers form there so fast say in just a few thousand years only oceans and wind? If the earth is so old. How can one tell? How you can get meteors compress or transform into earths many minerals and land formations by lava or magma with water going to get all this done on its own and create life naturally. A few billion years seems very fast! Yet a if a metaphorical 3d printer was God infused one could form it in 6 days. Why does the speed of something in formation depend on man made assumptions anyway like rates of outcomes? I would think the more powerful you are the less time anything would take and be sorted out even if it is geological and physical Spiritual art turned to minerals and life there upon we call earth. For every action an equal an opposite reaction. There must be an absolute spirit or power with and exacting nothing at allness in order to get the wide range of all there is in existence like Quantum 1 and 0. Spiritual held at one end everlasting and blip gone at the other and all the physical forms in the mix transverse along in-between. Just there are so many parts inside parts of sub and macro world building blocks there interactions require each other at some point as well too form formation and stability. Just as the Bible says the elements will be melted by fervent heat. That when the new heavens and earth come into being sometime in the future tense. So earth is someplace closer to a 0 than eternal a 1. 1 God 1 Truth. Evil is like a virus and must be fixed or it go’s back to 0. It is really quite logical in a small way.

  31. Inherit Substance | February 24, 2018 at 7:33 pm | Reply

    “Is our universe expanding or static? If it is expanding, is there sufficient mass to cause it all to collapse back in upon itself under gravity’s influence? If the universe is static and not now expanding, is it stable?

    What holds it all together-if anything?

    These are questions gaining more attention these days as our knowledge data base in astronomy and astrophysics increases, and old theories are brought into question. There is much that can be said about these questions from the Biblical revelation.

    New Testament References

    Several separate passages in the New Testament make reference to the creation of the universe. For example, John’s gospel speaks of an earlier state of existence than is described in Verse 1 of Genesis:

    “In the beginning was the Word, [logos] and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God; [i.e., before creation] all things were made through him, and without him was not anything made that was made.” John 1:1-3

    This passage teaches that Jesus was eternally existent with God the Father prior to the creation of “all things.” There was a time when our material and spiritual universe did not exist. It had a definite beginning. But before that, God was. In fact, God is-because time itself was created by God.

    Chapter One of Paul’s Epistle to the Colossians gives a further description of the role of Jesus in creation, consistent with that of John’s gospel:

    [Jesus] is the image of the invisible God, the first-born [prototokos] of all creation; for in him all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or authorities [these words in Greek refer to the hierarchical angelic powers]-all things were created through him and for him. He is before all things, and in him all things hold together. Colossians 1:15-17

    The Holy Spirit, in giving us this inspired passage of Scripture, explains that all things (both visible and invisible) in the entire universe were created through this same Jesus, the eternal Word. We may think of the universe and its intricate design as being conceived in the mind of the Father, then spoken into existence by the Son (who makes the invisible, visible). The Holy Spirit is the One who energizes and supplies life to the creation, not only at the time of creation but also moment by moment after that.

    We are also told that all things were created for Jesus. He is “the heir of all things.” That means that we are house guests in Someone Else’s universe! This implies a future accountability for all of us-history is headed somewhere-at the end of the road stands Jesus, to whom all power and authority has already been given (see John 5:22-29).

    A. W. Tozer, Pastor at Moody Bible Church in Chicago some 50 years ago, once wrote of this as follows:

    The teaching of the New Testament is that now, at this very moment, there is a Man in heaven appearing in the presence of God for us. He is as certainly a man as was Adam or Moses or Paul; he is a man glorified, but his glorification did not de-humanize him. Today he is a real man, of the race of mankind, bearing our lineaments and dimensions, a visible and audible man, whom any other man would recognize instantly as one of us.

    But more than this, he is the heir of all things, Lord of all lords, head of the church, firstborn of the new creation. He is the way to God, the life of the believer, the hope of Israel, and the high priest of every true worshiper. He holds the keys of death and hell, and stands as advocate and surety for everyone who believes on him in truth. Salvation comes not by accepting the finished work, or deciding for Christ; it comes by believing on the Lord Jesus Christ, the whole, living, victorious Lord who, as God and man, fought our fight and won it, accepted our debt as his own and paid it, took our sins and died under them, and rose again to set us free. This is the true Christ; nothing less will do.

    All Things “Hold Together”

    One of the key words in the Colossians passage above (“…and in Christ all things hold together”) is the Greek word sunistemi which means “to stand-together,” “to be compacted together,” “to cohere,” “to be constituted with.”

    This passage can be applied to the structure of the atom, for example. The nucleus of every atom is held together by what physicists call “weak” and “strong” forces.

    [Physicists today are familiar with four basic forces in the natural world: gravity and electrical forces, plus a “strong” and a “weak” nuclear force. The first two forces decrease in strength inversely with the square of the distance between two objects; the latter two forces act only at very short ranges.]

    The nucleus of the atom contains positively charged and neutral particles-to use a simplistic model. Mutual electrostatic repulsion between the like-positive protons would drive the nucleus apart if it were not for the “strong force” which binds the nucleus together.

    There is thus an active force imposed on the universe, which actively holds the very atoms of the material world together moment by moment, day by day, century by century.

    Similarly, accelerated electrons circling the nucleus should quickly radiate all their energy away and fall into the nucleus unless there exists an invisible energy source to counteract this.

    The third New Testament creation-related passage which talks about atomic structure and physics is found in the Apostle Peter’s Second Epistle:

    But the day of the Lord will come like a thief, and then the heavens will pass away with a loud noise [rhoizedon, a rushing roar] and the elements [stoicheion, atoms] will be dissolved with fire and the earth and the works that are upon it will be burned up. 2 Peter 3:10 The Greek word translated “elements” in the above mentioned passage from Colossians (and in 2 Peter also) is stoicheion, which can mean “the building blocks of the universe,” or “the ordered arrangement of things.” It can also mean the “atomic elements.” The word translated “dissolved” in 2 Peter 3:10 is literally (in Greek) luo, meaning “unloosed.” This language suggests that there will come a time in the future when God lets go of the nuclear forces which hold the atom together. This passage, like the one in Colossians, strongly suggests that the active power of God is behind the mysterious strong force that holds every atomic nucleus together. If this is so, all the other fundamental forces of nature are likewise forces that originate with Christ and His sustaining direction of the old creation.

    Sustaining the Universe

    If God “sustains the universe by His mighty word of power,” moment by moment, were He to merely relax His grasp on the universe, every atom would come apart “by fire” (that is, by nuclear fire). It is inescapable that the Bible claims that God dynamically sustains the universe, including the very atoms themselves. Atoms, it would seem, are “stable” only because force and energy are being supplied into their physical nuclear binding fields from “outside” the system.

    Whatever we may think of God and physics, the Bible leaves us with no room to doubt that God does care about the sparrow that falls to the ground, the widow, the orphan, and the homeless. He does not lose track of His children and watches over them with infinite, patient, intimate Fatherly care. Not only does He sustain the universe by His mighty word of power, God also alters the status quo from time to time and, in response to prayer, frequently changes the course of entire nations. In a future day his intrusive reinterven-tion will be very radical indeed.

    Another important claim of Scripture about the old creation is that God is the present Sustainer of the universe. That is, He is not uninvolved, remote, detached and impersonal-leaving things to run by themselves by any means.

    Among secular scientists today there are many who acknowledge that God exists. But He is usually considered as only a First Cause-the One who brought the universe into existence and set it into motion. But most of these same scientists assume God was not involved after the initial act of creation.

    This is contrary to clear statements in the Bible that God is very much involved in every event that takes place in the ongoing history of the entire universe. Causality links everything together, because God “works (Gr: energizes) all things according to the counsel of His will.” (Ephesians 1:11.)

    The opening verses of the Letter to the Hebrews give us another New Testament picture of God’s role in the creation:

    [But] in the last of these days He has spoken to us in [the person of a] Son, Whom He appointed Heir and lawful Owner of all things, also by and through Whom He created the worlds and the reaches of space and the ages of time-[that is] [He made, produced, built, operated, and arranged them in order]. He is the sole expression of the glory of God-[the Light-being, the out-raying or radiance of the divine],-and He is the perfect imprint and very image of [God’s] nature, upholding and maintaining and guiding and propelling the universe by His mighty word of power…” Hebrews 1:2-3 (Amplified Bible)

    A fifth great New Testament passage concerning Jesus and His place in creation is found in Revelation Chapter 1:

    “I am the Alpha and the Omega,” says the Lord God, who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty. I John, your brother, who share with you in Jesus the tribulation and the kingdom and the patient endurance, was on the island called Patmos on account of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus. I was in the Spirit on the Lord’s day, and I heard behind me a loud voice like a trumpet… When I saw him, I fell at his feet as though dead. But he laid his right hand upon me, saying, “Fear not, I am the first and the last, and the living one; I died, and behold I am alive for evermore, and I have the keys of Death and Hades.” Revelation 1:8-10,17-18

    Here Jesus is called “the Alpha and Omega,” “the First and the Last.” Not only is Jesus the Son of God to be found at the beginning of history, He also stands at the end of history and at the end of every life. He is the Judge of all, and He is the heir of all things.

    Science and the Bible

    Truth from science must in the long run agree with Biblical revelation-if the Bible is true. If the Bible “says what it means and means what it says” (to quote Chuck Missler) then it is Jesus who holds the universe in his hands just as the old American folk spiritual says.

    Our moment-by-moment existence depends on His gracious sustenance of every electron, every atom, every molecule and every spiritual entity as well. We are safe when we place our trust in Him and put our whole lives into His hands! Can we not then stand in awe of our great God and Creator, along with the Psalmist who wrote:

    “O come, let us sing to the LORD; let us make a joyful noise to the rock of our salvation! Let us come into his presence with thanksgiving; let us make a joyful noise to him with songs of praise! For the LORD is a great God, and a great King above all gods. In his hand are the depths of the earth; the heights of the mountains are his also. The sea is his, for he made it; for his hands formed the dry land. O come, let us worship and bow down, let us kneel before the LORD, our Maker! For he is our God, and we are the people of his pasture, and the sheep of his hand. O that today you would hearken to his voice!” Psalm 95:1-7″

  32. Ruby Eyed Emerald | February 24, 2018 at 7:59 pm | Reply

    Why should you believe;

    God’s Fellow Workers

    1Brothers, I could not address you as spiritual, but as worldly—as infants in Christ. 2I gave you milk, not solid food, for you were not yet ready for solid food. In fact, you are still not ready, 3for you are still worldly. For since there is jealousy and dissension among you, are you not worldly? Are you not walking in the way of man? 4For when one of you says, “I follow Paul,” and another, “I follow Apollos,” are you not mere men?

    5What then is Apollos? And what is Paul? They are servants through whom you believed, as the Lord has assigned to each his role. 6I planted the seed and Apollos watered it, but God made it grow. 7So neither he who plants nor he who waters is anything, but only God, who makes things grow. 8He who plants and he who waters are one in purpose, and each will be rewarded according to his own labor. 9For we are God’s fellow workers; you are God’s field, God’s building.

    Christ Our Foundation
    (Isaiah 28:14-22; 1 Peter 2:4-12)

    10By the grace God has given me, I laid a foundation as a wise master builder, and someone else is building on it. But each one must be careful how he builds. 11For no one can lay a foundation other than the one already laid, which is Jesus Christ.

    12If anyone builds on this foundation using gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, or straw, 13his workmanship will be evident, because the Day will bring it to light. It will be revealed with fire, and the fire will prove the quality of each man’s work. 14If what he has built survives, he will receive a reward. 15If it is burned up, he will suffer loss. He himself will be saved, but only as one being snatched from the fire.

    You are God’s Temple
    (Romans 12:1-8; 1 Corinthians 6:18-20)

    16Do you not know that you yourselves are God’s temple, and that God’s Spirit dwells in you? 17If anyone destroys God’s temple, God will destroy him; for God’s temple is holy, and you are that temple.

    Worldly Wisdom

    18Let no one deceive himself. If any of you thinks he is wise in this age, he should become a fool, so that he may become wise. 19For the wisdom of this world is foolishness in God’s sight. As it is written: “He catches the wise in their craftiness.”a 20And again, “The Lord knows that the thoughts of the wise are futile.”b

    21Therefore stop boasting in men. All things are yours, 22whether Paul or Apollos or Cephas (PETER is his other name) or the world or life or death or the present or the future. All of them belong to you, 23and you belong to Christ, and Christ belongs to God.

    So scientists, men woman, and everyone prey that your eyes in the spirit are opened to know what this means including YOU! Look into these things yourself because you now know whats waiting for you when you do. 😉

  33. Stuff pops into and out of existence all the time. If more stuff pops in than pops out,
    the universe will expand. No need for a big bang.

  34. I have already given answer of this problem in chapter 6 of paper

  35. Ghee wiz. Comments to science articles are usually so verbose. People with their own slant on the science only being matched by the religious zealots. …. Interesting.
    However, dave kruse, You are the man. Your comment is spot on. … I love it! I love me some science too.

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