Social Distancing Isn’t Enough to Prevent Infection – How to Detect COVID-19 Super-Spreaders

Visualizing Droplet Lifetimes

New fluid dynamics research highlights the limitations of social distancing indoors and offers strategies for detecting COVID-19 super-spreaders.

Understanding Dangerous Droplet Dynamics

New fluid dynamics research reveals why social distancing alone doesn’t necessarily prevent infection indoors and how to detect COVID-19 super-spreaders.

Researchers who study the physics of fluids are learning why certain situations increase the risk that droplets will transmit diseases like COVID-19.

At the 73rd Annual Meeting of the American Physical Society’s Division of Fluid Dynamics, the scientists offered new evidence showing why it’s dangerous to meet indoors — especially if it’s cold and humid, and even if you’re more than six feet away from other people. They suggested which masks will catch the most infectious droplets. And they provided new tools for measuring super-spreaders.

“Present epidemiological models for infectious respiratory diseases do not account for the underlying flow physics of disease transmission,” said University of Toronto engineering professor Swetaprovo Chaudhuri, one of the researchers.

But fluids and their dynamics are critical for shaping pathogen transport, which affects infectious disease transmission, explained mathematical physicist and professor Lydia Bourouiba, Director of The Fluid Dynamics of Disease Transmission Laboratory at MIT. She gave an invited talk on the body of work she has produced over the last ten years elucidating the fluid dynamics of infectious diseases and disease transmission.

Visualizing droplet lifetimes in cold weather, with RH = 90% and ambient temperature 10oC. Credit: Detlef Lohse

“My work has shown that exhalations are not isolated droplets but in fact come out as a turbulent, multiphase cloud. This gas cloud is critical in enhancing the range and changing the evaporation physics of the droplets within it,” said Bourouiba. “In the context of respiratory infectious diseases, particularly now COVID-19, this work underscores the importance of changing distancing and protection guidelines based on fluid dynamics research, particularly regarding the presence of this cloud.”

Bourouiba presented examples from a range of infectious diseases including COVID-19 and discussed the discovery that exhalation involves different flow regimes, in addition to rich unsteady fluid fragmentation of complex mucosalivary fluid. Her research reveals the importance of the gas phase, which can completely change the physical picture of exhalation and droplets.

Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics scientist Dhrubaditya Mitra and his team realized they could use the mathematical equations that govern perfume to calculate how long it would take for viral droplets to reach you indoors. It turns out: not very long at all.

“It showed us how futile most social distancing rules are once we are indoors.” — Dhrubaditya Mitra

Perfume worn by someone at the next table or cubicle reaches your nose thanks to turbulence in the air. Fine droplets spewed by an infected person spread in the same way. The researchers found that below a relative distance known as the integral scale, droplets move ballistically and very fast.

Even above the integral scale, there is danger. Consider an example where the integral scale is two meters. If you were standing three meters — just under ten feet — from an infected person, their droplets would almost certainly reach you in about a minute.

“It showed us how futile most social distancing rules are once we are indoors,” said Mitra, who conducted the research with colleague Akshay Bhatnagar at the Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics and Akhilesh Kumar Verma and Rahul Pandit at the Indian Institute of Science.

Besides traveling further and faster, droplets may also survive longer indoors than previously believed.

Research in the 1930s analyzed how long respiratory droplets survived before evaporating or hitting the ground. The nearly century-old findings form the basis of our current mantra to “stay six feet away” from others.

Physicists from the University of Twente revisited the issue. They conducted a numerical simulation indicating that droplet lifetimes can extend more than 100 times longer than 1930s standards would suggest.

“Current social distancing rules are based on a model which by now should be outdated,” said physicist Detlef Lohse, who led the team.

In a cold and humid space, exhaled droplets don’t evaporate as quickly. The hot moist puff produced also protects droplets and extends their lifetimes, as do collective effects.

“Current social distancing rules are based on a model which by now should be outdated.” — Detlef Lohse

Some droplets are more likely than others to make you sick. University of Toronto’s Chaudhuri, with researchers from the Indian Institute of Science and the University of California San Diego, investigated why, using human saliva droplet experiments and computational analyses.

They found that some of the most infectious droplets start out at 10 to 50 microns in size. “With certain assumptions, it appears that if everyone wears a mask that can prevent ejection of all droplets above 5 microns, the pandemic curve could be flattened,” said Chaudhuri.

Dried droplet residue also poses a serious risk: It persists much longer than droplets themselves and can infect large numbers of people if the virus remains potent.

The team used their findings to develop a disease transmission model. “Our work connects the microscale droplet physics and its fundamental role in determining the infection spread at a macroscale,” said Chaudhuri.

Wireless, Soft, Skin-Interfaced Sensor

Wireless, soft, skin-interfaced sensor platform designed for mounting on the suprasternal notch. The wearable device is leading to better understanding of droplet dynamics in the COVID-19 pandemic. Credit: KunHyuk Lee, Northwestern University

To better understand droplet dynamics in the COVID-19 pandemic, a team from Northwestern University and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign tested the capacities of a new wearable device. The thin, wireless, flexible sensor attaches like a sticker to the bottom of the neck to capture vital signals. Ongoing clinical studies are using the device with hospital patients.

The team found that the device distinguishes between coughing, talking, laughing, and other breathing activities with its machine learning algorithms. Researchers used particle tracking velocimetry and a decibel meter to analyze droplets produced by device wearers.

“Different types of speech can generate drastically different numbers and dynamics of droplets,” said biomedical engineering researcher Jin-Tae Kim, who led the investigation.

The device can help shed light on why some individuals become unusually infectious — the so-called super-spreaders. “Our findings further address the critical need for continuous skin-integrated sensors to better comprehend the pandemic,” said Kim.


The Fluid Dynamics of Disease Transmission

The Spreading of Viruses by Airborne Aerosols: Lessons from a First-Passage-Time Problem for Tracers in Turbulent Flows

Extended Lifetime of Respiratory Droplets in a Turbulent Vapor Puff

Analyzing the Dominant SARS-CoV-2 Transmission Routes Towards an Ab-Initio SEIR Model

Dynamics of Droplets on COVID-19 Transmission via a Soft Wireless Device and Particle Tracking Velocimetry

67 Comments on "Social Distancing Isn’t Enough to Prevent Infection – How to Detect COVID-19 Super-Spreaders"

  1. WOW! This article says a lot! Everybody mail this to Trump and his unrealistic Supreme Court Police Force of Judges From Another Reality who are out to mess up our lives with their opinions which turn into disasters in our lives! Obviously we can cut down on the transmission of this coronavirus if we were to make a contraption that would go through all areas where people mingle and constantly filter out the air of all germs, viruses and most anything else we don’t want to breathe. So let’s think outside the box and realize that what we need to make is a huge pillow sheet shape device that will move slowly, but fast enough, eight feet above the floor of all areas where people are. This pillow or umbrella or box shaped or whale opening its mouth looking shape gadget would take in all the air as it travels around an area in some way. This gadget would vacuum in the air, force the air through different chambers that will heat up the air and have the air travel through ultraviolet light and then forcefully travel through tiny air vents maze made up of a laser treated copper that can shred germs and viruses molecule structures thus destroying the germ or virus. Then put in a filter that will capture germs and viruses and I’m sure we will have a contraption that will enable us to mingle together without becoming ill from mingling so much. Then if we were all to wear facemask too, especially in cold weather times then I believe that the amount of people getting the virus will be lessened. But we first got to get laws quickly passed within days that make it a law that we are not to do foolish things like go into gatherings of any kind that allows you to talk, scream, sing, hug, or kiss others outside of YOUR safe bubble for any reason! We need to protect ourselves against the stupidity of others thoughts, commands and lifestyles before they harm us! Someone get out there and make this contraption now because we can’t rely on vaccines alone to yearly give us protection from germs and viruses. This is 2020! Can’t we do better than what we do? A simple floating germ or virus in the air has got us beat? Come on folks, we can do better than that! Create your way out of your problems instead of sitting in them wondering what to do!

    • Before you can arrogantly and sarcastically discuss medical research, you’ll need to complete your medical degree. Your foolish opinions help no one.

      • This article needs to be revised and have “droplets” replaced with “aerosols”. Covid spreads so easily because of aerosols.

    • Take our meds please.

    • Wow. Talk about ignorant. This imbecile begins his nonsense with a mn anti Trump tirade and ends it with floating pillow cases and gadgets that float around 8 feet above heads and clean the air. I’d suggest you double up your meds and your mask and just never speak.

    • Stop acting like a lunatic and blaming Trump for everything! Grow up and be a man/woman ya whiny little turd.
      You people…ARE THE VIRUS!

    • Norma Bennett RN | November 29, 2020 at 4:01 am | Reply

      Negative pressure using HEPA filters. EVERY TRUMP “superspreader” was either paralled or preceeded by an “opposing” crowd….A preSUPERSPREADER? Its not called BIOLOGICAL WARFARE for nothing! 74million AND MORE are not FOOLS OR BLIND!

    • With all do Respect
      You can not blame everything especially the Covid -19
      on President Trump!
      I understand he is disliked by quite a few. But he has been harassed & blamed for everything since he’s been in office. It just isn’t fair!
      The same day that The U.S. rec’d news about the Covid 19 the Dems were so busy lining up more witnesses to impeach President Trump & the moment he leaned of the provided facts given he ordered to close the Airports in particular the airline that the Chinese students that were due to arrive in the U S. & I think it was Pelosi I could be wrong but one of Democratic House Res stated Ridiculous, we’ll do no such thing. We will surely allow all of Chinese enter without interference. I watched the News that particular day & regret that I neglected to get the name of who said surely we welcome everyone that’s from out of the country in our United States. Sadly that decision cost the lives of so many innocent people & the Covid-19 spread was incomprehensible. Not to mention the millions the trials cost that was for nothing no Impeachment was conducted. And tax payers spent millions & tine & interest which could’ve spent that valuable time & devotion in other Pressing matters which became SO!
      All of this attention & funds spent because of the hatred & disrespect some of House
      U.S. Representative (s) have for our President of The U.S.
      Here we are today We all should be fighting TOGETHER TO CONQUER THIS COVID 19 instead it seems as though even this deadly Health Matter has become a division of which Political side one is on!
      * Am I WRONG tell me please!

  2. I am so tired of all the social media, so called scientific research and hype stuff. People are afraid to breath or walk outside their own homes. Its too much fear spreading, too much garbage to tell us to be fearful and not trust or associate with anyone. A society of frightened, untrusting and angry humans are coming out of this virus. Nit saying it isn’t serious but please let us humans that have the capabilities to play this smart, quit the everyday scare the public news media garbage and this thing will go away. Just like every other disease has. I for one put my faith and belief in our Father in Heaven. I can’t and will not read media or research articles anymore. Get a life and be smart just as if you loved every other human being. Have FAITH and be prayerful and show appreciation and gratitude for all we have.

    • Thanks for showing what it means to be pro-death during a pandemic. Pretty sick.

      • When you have 14 years of medical training, your opinion might make sense. Until then, it’s useless and stupid.

      • Thanks for showing how closed a closed mind can be. You’ll die in darkness…

      • “Pro death” this goon says…then he votes for a party and supports those who kill over a million babies every single year. Take your noble ass back to the pen and keep your mouth shut, bigot.

    • Spreading fear will not help in fighting this pandemic, there so many theories being given about this pandemic which are bringing confusion instead of solution. Covid -19 is real but information needs not to be confusing but advising.

    • I am a Christian,but God didn’t make me an Idiot’Cleaniness is next to Godliness’

      • I’m a scientist and engineer. I believe in cleanliness and I believe in getting dirty. I go to church some Sundays and others I’m sleep in. I think I have a better sightline on godliness than you do.
        PS. perhaps you should just go back to hiding under your bed, and let the rest of us get on with our lives…

  3. That is what our immune systems are for. They must be allowed to work. Vaccines are ok for the 60% that will take them. Only those with weakened immune systems need to further protect themselves. The rest of us need to get back to normal after the vulnerable are vaccinated. No one was complaining about the flu. We just delt with it like we will deal with this. Wash your hands before eating or touching your face, stay home when you are sick, eat right and get rest. And yes, it’s OK to be sick sometimes. That’s life. There is no life with masks and social distancing. Looking forward to the vaccine (not mandated though)so we can get back to normal.

  4. Our immune systems are designed to take care of this. I don’t object to vaccines helping out the process for those who are vulnerable and those who want to take them (about 60% historically). Therapeutics are preventing many deaths. This article suggested those who are highly vulnerable may want to further protect themselves. But the rest of us need to get back to normal. Wash your hands before eating or touching your face, stay home when you are sick, eat right, get good sleep. And yes, it’s OK to get sick sometimes. That’s life. There is no life with masks and social distancing. Looking forward to the vaccines (not mandated though )coming out so we can get back to normal. No one wore masks or social distanced with the flu. Just the common sense things listed above. And amen to Jo. God is good and to be trusted.

  5. “Quit the everyday scare the public news media garbage and this thing will go away. Just like every other disease has.”
    Sure, Jojo. Just like cholera,polio,tuberculosis and hundreds of other life-destroying diseases just “went away” – but as a result of medical research- not praying. If more people were like you there wouldn’t be any funding or research because everything will just ” go away”. Maybe by April 1st?.

    • I am going to God to get us thru this everyone is entitled tobthere opinions. All ofvtge name calling & disrespecting one another is just so unnecessary. Praying for everyone in Jesus name!

      • I meant l am going to trust God to get us thru this. Everyone is entitled to there own opinions. All of the name calling & disrespect is so unnecessary. I am praying for us all in Jesus name! God have mercy on us all!

      • I Thank The Lord!
        I couldn’t agree with you anymore more! The core of this global Virus should’ve open our eyes by now. But spite & selfishness, finding a way to agree to disagree to get along & the way we treat each other in this world today, we’re off track. We’ve gotten away from Respect,Love & Kindness to one another!
        The Politicians & TV media & On-line arrogance & going at each other negatively has reached it’s limits!
        So this behavior like poison has escalated to our youth & children of tomorrow.
        It:s just deplorable.
        Something has to “give” I don’t blame GOD for being fed up!
        And you don’t need a PHD, Masters or any other status to compare with to see the ruins of how things are on every facet of various levels that got us (HERE!)
        I know, they’re gonna blow my “comments” right off the page
        I PRAY for everyone & I mean EVERYONE I honestly (DID)!

    • Exactly!

  6. For the so-called thousands a day that get infected why is it I have yet to talk to anybody or meet anybody who has attracted attracted the virus or they themselves know anyone who has attracted the virus all these thousands of people being labeled as covid do you realize that H1N1 is also covid it’s a different covid but I guarantee you it creates a positive for covid-19 as well I don’t believe the numbers and I never will media lies they are controlled by a fascist regime and I therefore will make my own judgments this is stupid people this is all about trying to control the population to get them to conform and do what the government wants them to do at their will they don’t want people to have freedom anymore because it doesn’t fit into their plans it’s time for the b******* to stop people stand up for yourselves stop letting this fascist communism regime get a hold of our country thank you

    • Did you get this from the Lizard men in your pro-death cult? Wow, it is sick to see people who are fine with so many getting sick and dying.

    • Lynn, I hate to break the facts to you. Maybe you are lucky enough to be in a less affected part of the world, but I have had two family members with COVID. One died and the other is still recovering from a supposed mild case 5 months later. I am a high school teacher and had to go on quarantine 14 days because one of my students had it. I teach college at night and currently have a student in the hospital. This isn’t a hoax.

    • Please study and get your medical degree, complete 20 or more years of research, and then your opinion will be considered. Until then, stop the arrogant and negative and unsubstantiated babbling. You know nothing.

      • Please don’t pretend to be polite while you talk down on someone voicing their opinion. Their opinion is just as good if not better than your opinion. Just put the troll sign on and show the world your true inner self. Most medical degrees specialize in compassion skills, science and the scientific method are very far from the medical curricula. Then there’s the hippocratic Oath, which you obviously did not swear to. You viewpoint is only that, no better than others, and by expressing it that way your viewpoint gets discredited along with your entire profession. Good riddance Doctor!

        • Opinions are NOT equal. 
          There are opinions like your opinion of whether you like a certain color or food….those are on an equal playing field as mine on whether I like any particular color or food. Those opinions we own and no one can take away or can say they are wrong…..because they are personal opinions. 
          BUT professional opinions are different.   If you spend decades studying viruses then you and I can argue about our professional opinions of a situation and can back them up with experience in the field.    We can try to convince one another which is better or worse assessment based on science. 

          I could give a farmer my “opinion” on how much water to use on their crop based on my “feeling”….but it would be worthless since I have no training or background in farming crops!!!!!   It’s no more valuable to them than if I said my opinion is that I don’t like the color of that plant or I don’t like the taste of that plant.    Now an agronomist could certainly help out a farmer’s hydration needs with their professional opinion.   BIG DIFFERENCE in the value of those opinions isn’t there??

          The death of trusting experts will be the death of this country. Experts have to trust oter experts too. It’s not talking “down” to someone…’s SHARING expertise and experience in their fields!!!!!!!!

    • You must live in a bubble, I’d it cushy in there? I know many who have contracted and a few who have died from thos disease. There are many Corona viruses, the standard cold is a corona virus, and yes H1N1 was/is another, I believe it was Sars-1, versus our current Sars-2. The god-damned numbers are accurate, there is no conspiracy but maybe you won’t understand until people you love die.

    • I know the following proe who had it:
      My son, his 6 year old daughter, ex wife and ex father on law
      My neighbors daughter
      My good friends son, daughter in law and two daughters
      My brother in law, his wife and two daughters.
      Enough people for you?

  7. Lucille Gaither | November 28, 2020 at 4:42 pm | Reply

    Ask the theologians and bible scholars with PhD’s, especially the ones that know Greek, to explain the following: “And the fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star fall from heaven unto the earth: and to him was given the key of the bottomless pit. And he opened the bottomless pit; and there arose a smoke out of the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace; and the sun and the air were darkened by reason of the smoke of the pit. And there came out of the smoke locusts upon the earth: and unto them was given power, as the scorpions of the earth have power. And it was commanded them that they should not hurt the grass of the earth, neither any green thing, neither any tree; but only those men which have not the seal of God in their foreheads. And to them it was given that they should not kill them, but that they should be tormented five months: and their torment was as the torment of a scorpion, when he striketh a man. And in those days shall men seek death, and shall not find it; and shall desire to die, and death shall flee from them. And the shapes of the locusts were like unto horses prepared unto battle; and on their heads were as it were crowns like gold, and their faces were as the faces of men. And they had hair as the hair of women, and their teeth were as the teeth of lions. And they had breastplates, as it were breastplates of iron; and the sound of their wings was as the sound of chariots of many horses running to battle. And they had tails like unto scorpions, and there were stings in their tails: and their power was to hurt men five months. And they had a king over them, which is the angel of the bottomless pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue hath his name Apollyon. One woe is past; and, behold, there come two woes more hereafter. And the sixth angel sounded, and I heard a voice from the four horns of the golden altar which is before God, Saying to the sixth angel which had the trumpet, Loose the four angels which are bound in the great river Euphrates. And the four angels were loosed, which were prepared for an hour, and a day, and a month, and a year, for to slay the third part of men. And the number of the army of the horsemen were two hundred thousand thousand: and I heard the number of them. And thus I saw the horses in the vision, and them that sat on them, having breastplates of fire, and of jacinth, and brimstone: and the heads of the horses were as the heads of lions; and out of their mouths issued fire and smoke and brimstone. By these three was the third part of men killed, by the fire, and by the smoke, and by the brimstone, which issued out of their mouths. For their power is in their mouth, and in their tails: for their tails were like unto serpents, and had heads, and with them they do hurt. And the rest of the men which were not killed by these plagues yet repented not of the works of their hands, that they should not worship devils, and idols of gold, and silver, and brass, and stone, and of wood: which neither can see, nor hear, nor walk: Neither repented they of their murders, nor of their sorceries, nor of their fornication, nor of their thefts.”

    Theologians and scholars should be able to explain the coronavirus to scientists.

    • This disease has a 99.9% survival rate for those under the age of 70. This is nothing compared to an actual Biblical plague, a Biblical plague would be much worse than this.

  8. Faith in others who God had blessed us with as healers (doctors, nurses etc) and listening to their expertise is the way to go.
    Flu deaths in past 7 yrs COMBINED adds up to 249,000 deaths. Covid US deaths now 265k.
    US Leadership (lack of) is what has unnessarily and tragically has led to excessive deaths. I guess the Vietnam War could be considered a success with “only” 58,000 deaths over 6-7? years.
    Prior two administrations Obama/Bush knew another devastating pandemic would hit our shores. CDC funding was cut, pandemic teams eliminated, expert and US intelligence in January was ignored, danger downplayed ever since. The one best single thing to help today IS a mask and the man with the biggest megaphone on the planet mocks wearing one.
    Most Rich countries aren’t near as bad US.
    State of Illinois vs Country of Germany; Germany has .3xs more deaths than Illinois (16000 vs 12500) but has over 6xs population (83mill vs 12.6mill).
    This will not disappear on its own and ingesting bleach is dangerous.
    God Bless this nation and give us wisdom to improve, unite and heal.

  9. Jonnie knows it all | November 28, 2020 at 5:25 pm | Reply

    Well I was going to leave a comment and counter to this comment, but I think it speaks quite loudly for itself. No need to state the obvious.

  10. Also HUGE shout out to every dedicated scientists working overtime to solve this COVID19 riddle and how we as human race are impacted by this physical and economic devastation. THANK you women and men of science, your efforts I believe majority applaud your tireless efforts.

    • ScienceIsNotConsensus | November 29, 2020 at 12:55 pm | Reply

      Yah but why not 20 years ago? All these comments about how 20 years of medical experience is required to have an opinion, but it seems that doctors and nurses sure didn’t prepare or insist everyone was prepared. I’m looking forward to the 9/11 type report on pandemic preparedness and I think there will be just as much blame for academia, the medical industry, as well as the government. Knowing cloth masks would be useful in February sure would have been helpful no? Seems like the epidemiology world sure should have known that…where was all that grant money being spent if not how viral particles spread?

  11. My neighbor and his son spent Thanksgiving day scattering the ashes of their loved one who died from Covid. An avoidable death, just like the many of thousands of others who have died–and continue to die–as a result of a nay saying government. Having faith doesn’t rule out common sense nor is it incompatible with scientific protocol.

  12. Jonnie know it all | November 28, 2020 at 5:43 pm | Reply

    Actually my response was to the comment before the one above me, but I feel it necessary to inform my misinformed friend. In 1918 the h1n1 also known as the Spanish flu pandemic hit the world. This virus had never previously been seen by the modern world. And we all know by now the death toll was high. 50million world wide and 675000+ in the U.S.A. Now let’s examine why. First of all much like this Sars virus that’s behind this Covid pandemic, it has never been encountered by the world before. Therefore we had no immunity built up against it as a species. Lets fast forward to 2009 Obamas “panademic” this swine flu as it was called was guess what…yep the old h1n1 virus again, only this time the human race has had time to build some types if immunities to I making it far less deadly, plus the vaccines that had been discovered and used by us over the years also helped. Therefore when it hit and hit fast cdc estimates as many as 80 million Americans were infected, but due to almost a century of building immunity and vaccines, the death rate was extremely low this time as opposed to 1918. So when covid hit, much like in 1918 we have no immunities built up, this is why it is stupid to not expose the young and healthy to it on a limited basis to start achieving immunity. If we all stay locked up with no immunity being built, it’s still out there and is going to spread like fire. Fast forward to 2120 covid out breaks again and guess what, ill bet the death rate is 1/100 of what it is now just like h1n1. Wake up people, you have brains use them and quit listening to this trash the fake media and crooked left are feeding you.

  13. Amazing. Covid deniers are coming to science and technology magazine to spread their lunacy in the comments of a highly technical article about research on droplet spread. An article that has zero political bias and doesn’t mention death, doesn’t refer to any nation or particular indoor activity. As if ongoing research about droplet spread will never be useful beyond covid, and as if healthy people, (like those who take care of or live with a vulnerable person, or everyone who shares a household with a caretaker, or who comes in contact with a caretaker’s housemates) aren’t themselves dying from this. And the declining percentage of infected people dying couldn’t possibly be because we have only recently begun to get in the vicinity of necessary testing, which is still insufficient and still suffering shortages, as opposed to dramatic improvement in treatment, which does not include HCQ, injecting cleaning products or radical internal tanning beds. Like the deep state secret US government has perpetrated a fraud on the entire planet or in coordination with the entire planet, which includes every other countries government, every single hospital, doctor, scientist, academic institution, all medical laboratories, factories and producers of medical supplies and PPE, funeral directors, morticians, gravediggers, urn and headstone and casket makers… Oh and don’t forget about the mink farmers lying to the media about perverse massive culls and mink bodies rising back from underground because they weren’t buried deep enough, more communist lies to control US citizens. It just hurts my head trying to understand how some people’s idea of independent thought is to repeat DJT and other idiot conspiracies as if by thorough examination they actually came to believe the conspiracies have serious plausibility, even more so than reality.

    • You forgot that Lynn also thinks you can use “fascist communism” to describe a “regime”.

      Im sorry. That’s my favorite part of everyone’s comments. Clearly science isn’t the only subject people have trouble grasping.

      • Herd Immunity beats herd stupidity | November 29, 2020 at 4:46 am | Reply

        Actually fascist communism regimes perfectly describe what the EU, WEF, WHO, the “DEEP STATE” are

  14. Tristan Z Singsaas | November 28, 2020 at 6:27 pm | Reply

    Honestly this is all barely new, it’s common sense. Its like hearing santa doesn’t exist when your 7, you sort of knew it already.

  15. Lynnette Capriotti | November 28, 2020 at 7:29 pm | Reply

    Words of Wisdom! Wish more people would think like you.God bless those who show respect and compassion towards others.

  16. Wow!! No wonder we have over 263,000 dead people. Hate to upset you, put prayer and theologians will not help us. We need to follow the SCIENCE and use our BRAINS!! Without Trump, his hate groups and his white, Evangelical base we would have far fewer cases and deaths. America is now pitied all over the world. How the heck does it take away YOUR freedom to put a strip of cloth on your face to protect other people as well as yourself. It’s one thing to risk your own life but you are risking thousands of people with underlying conditions, including children with cancer and various diseases. Coronavirus IS NOT THE FLU. There is so much ignorance (lack of knowledge) and such an uncaring spirit, it is astonishing.

    • You are 100% correct. How can so many naysayers continually disagree with science and research and medical professionals?
      Some people are just oppositional. Sadly they have no intelligence of the real medical facts. And they, through their foolishness and lack of care, are killing others.

    • Herd Immunity beats herd stupidity | November 29, 2020 at 4:53 am | Reply

      Well I would rather die from covid contracted while attending a pretty fun MAGA event than die of boredom in my basement listening to sleepy Joe spew his BS. SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST…..

  17. I’m very sorry to tell the whole world that you have to die. I know you don’t want to hear it, but yes you are going to die some day. Some of us might die because of coronovirus itself, others of us might die because our gym and exercise venues have been shut down. When all is said and done. You’re going to die. There is one uncertainty in the equation, and that is how are you going to die? Are you going to die hiding under your bed in the basement contracting coronavirus from a field mouse, Or are you going to die living your life to the fullest into your golden years? Some will prattle on about science with no scientific degree, some will just talk about their aunt who’s a hundred and eight years old, some will just say, that’s what they told me to do. Choose wisely.

  18. I’m very pleased to tell the whole world that you have a life to live. I know you don’t want to hear it, but yes today is your day. Seize it!. Some of us might fear to be exposed to some virus or germs, but in so doing you are living and your body is learning, don’t fear the reaper! Never stop learning as long as you can. Epidemiologist will try to confine you politicians will not really wine and dine you. Choose your own path…

  19. WOW!! That’s the most inane little article I’ve ever read!

  20. The government, scientists and social media blabber mouths ARE NOT God. Whether you like ot or not you’re going to die. Most people aren’t afraid of dying, however. They’re afraid of living.

  21. After reading these comments, this reader has a better understating why discussing science with a Bonobo is an exercise in futility. Truthfully, I believe the Bonobo would evidence better insight and understanding than someone functioning two standard deviations below the mean IQ.

  22. Mask wearing causes bacterial infections, just ask the good dr. Fauchi 😷=🤒

  23. How come that people who pray to God make so many spelling mistakes? And they seem to think that science is a belief system! Needless to say, they have never heard of Newton, Galileo, Copernicus, Einstein, or they would understand that science is nothing else but keen observation of reality.

  24. Everyone is so radically poetic. The “Andromeda Strain” in Spain stays mainly in the plain (or was that plane?).
    Is this article describing the flow & eddies dynamics characteristic of disease-a-genic aerosol particles, or is it champanioning the adoption of Andromeda fashion & architecture?
    Who speaks for God?
    Who needs to?
    What would the nature of such a God be?

    Be well (even unto death)
    your friend,

  25. I believe if things were done right from the word go, we would have contained this wild spread of Covid-19.
    This is my advice, we should have isolation centre’s for those with covid, immediately one test positive, they should be taken somewhere away from others, where they are well taken care of.
    For anyone who tests positive, no going out to public places until you test negative.
    Facilities like nursing homes, Adult Foster homes, all institutions, once a case is discovered, they are taken for quarantine, and there should be sprays that kill the germs in the air.
    In short, we should have borrowed a leaf from China, and even we would have done it better, since we are a great country,.Yes, AA.

  26. I like being distanced from the crudmongers of this world because I am clean and if I sneeze or cough I know how to avoid spreading my germs. I even carry a handkerchief which many do not even know what that is. Most people are dirtbags who do not shower or bathe daily nor do they brush their teeth. Despite the massive funk population the Corona/covid/Wuhan IS INTENTIONAL and the disease is and continues to be released upon the public worldwide. Just ask W.H.O and the CDC and Fauci. You could also check in with the vaccine lunatic Billy Gates who delights in vaccinating everyone on the planet so he can own more real estate. Anyone who still thinks this crap came from some ‘Bat’ or other animal is dumber than Biden.

  27. What mask is recommended?

  28. I wish that when referencing the Bible, people would actually read the Bible. When Christ the son of God was threatened as a baby, God had him moved into Egypt out of Harm’s Way. Not because he had to but as an example to us on how to act in dangerous situations. You would be hard-pressed to find an instance in the Bible where God granted blessings without actions on our part. When you have done all that you can then just stand.

  29. This isnt anything new. This virus didnt change the way droplets come out of our mouths,how they are spread,or even how they spread more indoors (unventilated,smaller area,everyone dispersing droplets when speaking or laughing than outdoors.THIS IS NOT NEW TO THIS VIRUS! Stop letting them feed you this “new information” bullcrap on how things are passed one to another. Use your brains people and remember everything you have been taught already thru your lives. Yes its dangerous to some,yes it spreads faster due to the compound it was made into in the lab and we havent been exposed to this man made s*** before. But there is a 98% recovery rate for crying out loud. What dont you get?? Their stories come out as the public asks more questions…then poof they have an answer without ever being asked directly..I pray the mass of you open your eyes to the truth before its too late. We are being played like fools. And they will keep pushing more and pushing more,one day you will open your eyes and realize it is a whole new world with a whole new set of rules. Everything we have stood for in generations past to the founding fathers and stand for today taken from us and no hope for our future grandkids and their kids and so on. And then there will be no fighting for ourselves because there wont be anything left to fight for. WAKE UP AMERICA!!

  30. 1. Science deals in uncertainty. Those that are saying that this is all so confusing, and why don’t the “so-called” experts just make up their minds have clearly not spent time doing lab or field research. Every new bit of information we learn about this virus feeds into a body of knowledge that we can draw from to make recommendations. Some of the information is conflicting, and I understand why a lay audience would be frustrated by this. For a scientist though, this is not at all surprising, and we are used to wading through the details as we work to figure things out.
    2. “The truth? You can’t handle truth!” We are talking about uncertainty, variability, probability. Very few things in science are absolute (outside of physics, and even there probabilities end up being central). Training in sciences helps to expand your ability to accept and manage information that is conflicting. Two studies arrive at different conclusions. Is one of them always wrong? Until you dig into the details, and replicate the work, it’s sometimes impossible to say.
    3. Those saying that scientists are close minded to outside opinions, you are right. We are close-minded to opinions that are not rooted in reality. We are experts in our fields and understand intricacies that a lay audience will not. Should we really waste breath on debunking every false lease that gets sent our way? Or should be be focused on the real science that has a chance to help guide better decision making?
    4. Unless you have spent the years needed to really understand fluid-dynamics, aerosol-science, and infectious-diseases, why are you commenting on this article? You will find a more receptive audience on Facebook or Twitter. The only thing you are accomplishing here is frustrating researchers and those that are able to genuinely understand and follow their research.
    5. The lack of respect shown towards science is enlightening. Scientists in general do not visit religious forums to attack the beliefs of others. We get that there’s a difference between what we do and faith. Faith is powerful, and can have a tremendous impact in people’s lives, and more power to you if you derive benefit from faith. But using your faith as a shield to attack science (on a forum and media that would be impossible without advancements achieved by science itself nonetheless) just helps to illustrate your hubris.
    6. You will convert no one here to your cause. Whether your pet issue is pro-Trump, anti-Trump, anti-abortion, or whatever other else your faith tells you to hate, you will change no minds on this forum. If you are motivated by your faith, get out and go and help the homeless, the hungry, the less-fortunate. You should aim to impact the world in the best way that you can – and frankly, coming across as an idiot on a science-oriented forum does not become you.

  31. I am not a scientist. But I have a very questioning mind. And I do not doubt that COVID 19 is real and horrible. To SOME. I just wish they could figure out why it attacks some so severely and others have a simple cold type symptom. ( yes, I’m aware of underlying conditions- this is for seemingly healthy individuals also) And I hate to hear of any death whatsoever – but I feel USA has not done a horrible job- 265,000 dead out of 328,200,000………is actually quite good ? And the positives that have not been hospitalized. Also good ……I do believe early on they said 60% herd immunity would be ideal. Has this been changed ? We are currently at 13,700,000………A long ways from 196,920,000 but well on our way- especially if we count how many have had symptoms and not tested. There is hope !!

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