Witnessing the Birth of Baby Universes 46 Times: Space Is Information Encoded in a Lower-Dimensional Boundary?

Universe Birth Artist's Concept

Universe birth artist’s concept.

How did the universe begin? How does quantum mechanics, the study of the smallest things relate to gravity and the study of big things? These are some of the questions physicists have been working to solve ever since Einstein released his theory of relativity.

Formulas show that baby universes pop in and out of the main universe. However, we don’t realize or experience this as humans. To calculate how this scales, theoretical physicists devised the so-called JT gravity, which turns the universe into a toy-like model with only one dimension of time or space. These restricted parameters allow for a model in which scientists can test their theories.

Building on the work of others, Professor Kazumi Okuyama of Shinshu University and Kazuhiro Sakai of Meiji Gakuin University set out to show how JT gravity, KdV equation, and the macroscopic loop are related, thus pointing to the fact that gravity and quantum mechanics are unified. In the process, the duo succeeded in calculating the birth of baby universes 46 times which has never been done before, due to the fact the more times this is calculated the more things get increasingly complicated. Previously, Peter Zograf was able to calculate this 20 times.

The mathematical KdV equation formulated in the late 19th Century has been thought to be linked to the gravity since the 1990s. The KdV equation was first used to show how water waves behave, for example inside the canals in waterway-laden Holland, solitons can be observed, or how a crest of a water wave continues unchanged for a long time when not disturbed. The macroscopic loop was also said to be related to the gravity in the 1990s.

Waves and gravity are thought to be comparable in how they manifest themselves. The holographic principle was introduced by Gerard ‘t Hooft as a way to understand how gravity and quantum mechanics work. When these theories are combined, one can think of the 3D physical as the gravity and the information that it is sprung from; flat like how a hologram is on a credit card. This speaks to the dimensions in space. There is no formula yet for the holographic principle.

The bulk-boundary correspondence idea is similar to this in that the bulk is the three-dimensional manifestation of the boundary which is the information that gives rise to the hologram.

Professor Okuyama was able to show in this study that the JT gravity, KdV equation, and macroscopic loop are intimately connected, pointing to the fact that quantum mechanics and gravity are indeed unified holographically in this model. He hopes to keep working to solve this problem in physics by devising a method to calculate the birth of baby universes not just in the “toy model” but for the existent universe.

Reference: “JT gravity, KdV equations and macroscopic loop operators” by Kazumi Okuyama and Kazuhiro Sakai, 24 January 2020, Journal of High Energy Physics.
DOI: 10.1007/JHEP01(2020)156

3 Comments on "Witnessing the Birth of Baby Universes 46 Times: Space Is Information Encoded in a Lower-Dimensional Boundary?"

  1. Howard Jeffrey Bender | March 1, 2020 at 9:24 am | Reply

    Another novel possibility from String Theory concepts also suggests our current universe isn’t our first. As you may know, quantum mechanics proposes a roiling quantum foam energy field everywhere in the universe, and the right kind of energy spikes creates string/anti-string pairs. These pairs immediately annihilate each other, but I suggest a process similar to Hawking radiation that form permanent strings that are the basis of all the matter and energy we have. Surely you didn’t think all of this was stuffed in a single Big Bang! This is a Big Bang/Big Crunch cycle, eventually creating all our matter and energy.

    Interestingly, this same process can be used to form the galaxies we see. Gravity is far too weak to cause anything to combine rather than flying apart from the enormous force of the Big Bang. Specifics for the physical creation of the universe and the galaxies are shown in my YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cQUMq2Z11Jc&t=3s

  2. Scales go both ways; if smaller universes can pop into and out of our universe, what’s to say that’s exactly the way our universe started, it popped into a much larger one?

  3. Clay M. Halversen | March 1, 2020 at 3:53 pm | Reply

    Time is a variable and has not stopped increasing in it’s flow. affected by g.
    The less g the faster the t.
    Space is increasing and is also affected by g.
    Both t and s came from the big Everything.
    The big E acted as a singularity with it;s g effect which was internal until the fist particles were able to escape at a very slow t.
    I call the beginning the big burn, pure energy turning into exotic particles.
    The pressure and heat battled the g to expand and won.
    When this expansion passed the point of t=0 the s and t were released.
    pure e may or may not have g, but once particles were formed g did exist.
    s and t interact with g, but please to not use spacetime.
    one universe of g is 1ug which = x times gp0t or g to the point of t=0.
    x supermassive black holes = 1gp0t. once a true singularity or gp0t time stopes and
    it’s g seems to leave the universe or the there is no limit on a blackhole.
    If there is no limit than we will find a blackhole eating a galixy like we now see
    a blackhole eat a sun.
    Time increasing may be an explanition of our universe’s expansion increasing.
    A blackhole is an optics caused by g. There are several event barriers such as
    breaking the both types on bonds which release e, then breaking of the atomic
    bonds which release even more e, then breaking of neutrons and protons, which release
    more e. Then who knows. But what goes in – what comes out = what it is.
    I like to use the term gwell not blackhole.
    I have taken imaginary trips in and out of the universe.
    The multiuniverse I imagined was amazing. Would you like to hear about it?
    V/R Clay

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