Two University of Hawaii at Manoa researchers have identified and corrected a subtle error that was made when applying Einstein’s equations to model the growth of the universe.

Physicists usually assume that a cosmologically large system, such as the universe, is insensitive to details of the small systems contained within it. Kevin Croker, a postdoctoral research fellow in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Joel Weiner, a faculty member in the Department of Mathematics, have shown that this assumption can fail for the compact objects that remain after the collapse and explosion of very large stars.

“For 80 years, we’ve generally operated under the assumption that the universe, in broad strokes, was not affected by the particular details of any small region,” said Croker. “It is now clear that general relativity can observably connect collapsed stars—regions the size of Honolulu—to the behavior of the universe as a whole, over a thousand billion billion times larger.”

Croker and Weiner demonstrated that the growth rate of the universe can become sensitive to the averaged contribution of such compact objects. Likewise, the objects themselves can become linked to the growth of the universe, gaining or losing energy depending on the objects’ compositions. This result is significant since it reveals unexpected connections between cosmological and compact object physics, which in turn leads to many new observational predictions.

One consequence of this study is that the growth rate of the universe provides information about what happens to stars at the end of their lives. Astronomers typically assume that large stars form black holes when they die, but this is not the only possible outcome. In 1966, Erast Gliner, a young physicist at the Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute in Leningrad, proposed an alternative hypothesis that very large stars should collapse into what could now be called Generic Objects of Dark Energy (GEODEs). These appear to be black holes when viewed from the outside but, unlike black holes, they contain Dark Energy instead of a singularity.

In 1998, two independent teams of astronomers discovered that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, consistent with the presence of a uniform contribution of Dark Energy. It was not recognized, however, that GEODEs could contribute in this way. With the corrected formalism, Croker and Weiner showed that if a fraction of the oldest stars collapsed into GEODEs, instead of black holes, their averaged contribution today would naturally produce the required uniform Dark Energy.

The results of this study also apply to the colliding double star systems observable through gravitational waves by the LIGO-Virgo collaboration. In 2016, LIGO announced the first observation of what appeared to be a colliding double black hole system. Such systems were expected to exist, but the pair of objects was unexpectedly heavy—roughly five times larger than the black hole masses predicted in computer simulations. Using the corrected formalism, Croker and Weiner considered whether LIGO-Virgo is observing double GEODE collisions, instead of double black hole collisions. They found that GEODEs grow together with the universe during the time leading up to such collisions. When the collisions occur, the resulting GEODE masses become four to eight times larger, in rough agreement with the LIGO-Virgo observations.

Croker and Weiner were careful to separate their theoretical result from observational support of a GEODEs scenario, emphasizing that “black holes certainly aren’t dead. What we have shown is that if GEODEs do exist, then they can easily give rise to observed phenomena that presently lack convincing explanations. We anticipate numerous other observational consequences of a GEODEs scenario, including many ways to exclude it. We’ve barely begun to scratch the surface.”

Reference: “Implications of Symmetry and Pressure in Friedmann Cosmology. I. Formalism” by K. S. Croker and J. L. Weiner, 28 August 2019, *The Astrophysical Journal*.

DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab32da

Follow-up work that details the specific consequences of these results for Dark Energy surveys and gravitational wave observatories is presently in review.

I do not think that black holes are made of dark matter. I doubt that dark matter or dark energy exist. Please take a look at the hypothesis explained in this video. It is a modified gravity hypothesis that explains the effects now attributed to dark matter and dark energy. This hypothesis also explains the odd acceleration of Oumuamua, the interstellar asteroid that recently passed through our solar system:

https://youtu.be/6ijyYWKqwiI

This makes sense to me. There is no empty space anywhere in the universe, just areas where there is no matter (solid liquid or gas). But their spaces are filled with photon particles through which light and radiation travel. What if black holes actually crushed matter into sub-atomic photon particles which expand outwards from the black hole? While gravity would pull matter close to it, the expansion of space (sea of photon particles) would expand spacetime and over large distances galaxies would be travelling away as space in between them is expanding. So dark energy would be the conversion of matter into photon particles eg spacetime. I mean, that’s literally what we are observing.

This consideration is better understood by thinking of gravity a bit differently. Where the universe’s total energy is broken down to as 68% dark energy, 27% mass-energy via dark matter, and 5% mass-energy via ordinary matter. In which case, as black holes are significantly more energy dense than ordinary matter, it would be more logical that black holes would be a product of dark matter. If we assume that dark energy, being the largest distribution of total energy, represents the foundation for space-time and provides for a net zero inclusion of matter as a whole, or 100% of the total universal energy. Upon the advent of matter, as a whole, dark energy is then responsible for the increasing universal expansion of such matter within the cosmos.

Wherein the creation of matter, as a whole is composed of ordinary matter, or positive density matter, and dark matter, or negative density matter. It is a process that maintains the concept of retaining a zero sum net gain, by redistributing dark energy into complementarily paired positive and negative density matter. This redistribution is influenced within it’s fourth dimensional confines; e.g., like measuring two spheres within a single sphere. The inner spheres representing ordinary matter and the space outside the two spheres, but within the surrounding singular sphere, representing dark matter. Another way of looking at this relationship is that dark matter insulates the ordinary matter from being torn apart via its dark energy medium. Dark matter is the force created to insulate ordinary matter, or mass, by warping the foundation of the space-time fabric.

Thinking of gravity as the force involved in the paired creation of matter, as a whole, it then follows that this complementary dark matter is representative of the gravitational force that binds ordinary matter. Consequently, dark matter is what engenders the force of gravity through the displacement, or warping, of space-time. Subsequently when this complementary relationship is severed, ordinary matter is disintegrated and discarded out back into the cosmos, leaving dark matter to remain as a displacement in space-time. This is what happens when matter, as a whole, is separated upon the event horizon of a black hole.

Whereupon the black hole is not infinitely dense, but rather it is a degree of negative mass density. The greater the negative mass density, the greater the space-time displacement (or warping). Currently there is no known calculation as to what degree of negative mass density displacement is considered to much or too little. The greater the space-time warp, the deeper the gravity well and the greater the force of gravitational acceleration. So black holes can be very small or really chock-full of dark matter. The smaller it is the greater the chance it can reacquire its relationship with ordinary matter.

It is a relationship that intertwines itself even unto the smallest constituents of mass to accrete and form much larger molecular bodies, like planets. So, as it turns out, the gravitational force of a planet is also based on its negative mass density, where the greatest accumulation is situated at its gravitational center. Consequently, it is dark matter that engenders the force of gravity that allows ordinary matter to bind together.

Subsequently upon this hypothesis then one can expect that there is a required transition to separate ordinary matter from its complementary dark matter. And here is where the black hole plays its part. It starts first with the disintegration of matter, as a whole, as it interacts with the black hole’s event horizon. As ordinary matter is ‘squeezed’, for lack of a better description, upon its own gravitational acceleration toward the black hole, liken to the spaghettification effect, its structure is contorted and distorted to allow for its disintegration via transmutation. The transmutation provides for a massive release of photons due to the alpha and beta decay of its atomic structure. This ‘squeezing’ effect causes the extraction of the complementary dark matter from the whole matter, allowing for the ordinary matter to be reduced to its smallest constituent components. The dark matter is then absorbed into the black hole, as the remnants of ordinary matter are discarded and radiated out at high velocity back into the cosmos; ergo, total energy is conserved.

If you’re interested in exploring how this is all orchestrated in the grander scheme of the universe, you can review the alternative theories presented in the book, ‘The Evolutioning of Creation: Volume 2’, or even in the reimagined ramifications of these concepts in the sci-fi novel, ‘Shadow-Forge Revelations’.