A newly published study shows that white blood cells and a cancer cells can fuse and initiate a tumor, providing the first proof in humans of a long proposed theory.
Yale Cancer Center scientists, together with colleagues at the Denver Police Crime Lab and the University of Colorado, have found evidence that a human metastatic tumor can arise when a leukocyte (white blood cell) and a cancer cell fuse to form a genetic hybrid. Their study, published in the journal PLOS ONE, may answer the question of how cancer cells travel from the primary tumor’s site of origin to distant organs and tissues of the body — the deadly process of metastasis.
Such a theory was first proposed as an explanation for metastasis more than a century ago. But until now, the theory was unproven in human cancer because genomic differences between cells from the same patient cannot be distinguished. To get around this problem, the researchers analyzed genomic DNA in the secondary malignancies of a patient who had a melanoma brain metastasis and had received a bone marrow transplant from his brother.
They found signature genes from both the patient and donor together in the tumor cells, providing the first evidence that leukocytes (in this case from the donor) can fuse with cancer cells and initiate a tumor.
“Our results provide the first proof in humans of a theory, proposed in 1911 by a German pathologist, that metastasis can occur when a leukocyte and cancer cell fuse and form a genetic hybrid,” said corresponding author John Pawelek, research faculty in the dermatology department of the Yale School of Medicine. “This could open the way to new therapy targets, but much work needs to be done to determine how fusion occurs, the frequency of such hybrids in human cancers, and the potential role of hybrids in metastasis,” he added.
First authors are Rossitza Lazova of Yale and Greggory LaBerge of the University of Colorado and Denver Police Department Crime Lab; other authors are Vincent Klump, Mario Sznol, Dennis Cooper, and Joseph Chang of Yale; Eric Duvall of the Denver Police Crime Lab; and Nicole Spoelstra and Richard Spritz of the University of Colorado.
The study was supported by an unrestricted gift from the Amway Corporation and from the University of Colorado Cancer Center NCI Support Grant (P30CA046934).
Reference: Lazova R, LaBerge GS, Duvall E, Spoelstra N, Klump V, et al. (2013) A Melanoma Brain Metastasis with a Donor-Patient Hybrid Genome following Bone Marrow Transplantation: First Evidence for Fusion in Human Cancer. PLoS ONE 8(6): e66731.
I think you are confusing “theory” with “hypothesis”. This is how we get nonsense arguments about evolution only being a theory, when a theory means that you have a model that can make accurate predictions (e.g. your mobile phone was built using quantum theory and electromagnetic theory).
Cancer researchers ignore Ferromagnetic Cancer Theory (Theory from The OLD TESTAMENT; Iron Conception). Any cancer is a subtle iron disease. Any cancer is initiated by accumulation of superparamagnetic, ferrimagnetic and ferromagnetic nanoparticles within pre-tumor cells. Intracellular molecules FeO;Fe2O3;Fe3O4 are the main creators of these nanoparticles. These nanoparticles chaotically distort DNA and shift chromosomes by local magnetic fields. Any cancer is intracellular superpara-ferri-ferromagnetic infection. Accurate anti-iron methods of The Old Testament can successfully beat any cancer. Anti-iron intratumoral injections [sulfur (2%) + olive oil (98%); 36.6C – 39.0C] (by ceramic needles) can suppress any tumors and large metastases; can give harmless infiltrations (deposits of cells that die; harmless necroses; benign capsules). Slow blood loss (even 75%) [hemoglobin control], goat milk diet and drinking water containing hydrogen sulfide can neutralize any micrometastases. Vadim Shapoval
Cancer Scientists and Vadim Shapoval. Scientists have found evidence that a human metastatic tumor can arise when a leukocyte (white blood cell) and a cancer cell fuse to form a genetic hybrid? Leukocytes can fuse with cancer cells and initiate a tumor? One of the current handicaps of cancer treatments is the difficulty of aiming these treatments at destroying malignant cells without killing healthy cells in the process. Contact inhibition is the natural process of arresting cell growth when two or more cells come into contact with each other. Contact inhibition controls cell growth by allowing cells to replicate as old cells die but keeps unnecessary tissues from forming in their place. Healthy cells have their own identity and obey the rule of contact inhibition. Healthy cells adhere to each other and expire at the end of their life cycles. Cancer cells typically lose these properties and thus grow in an uncontrolled manner even when in contact with neighboring cells. Cancer cells do not follow the rules of contact inhibition, adherence and self-destruction (apoptosis, programmed cell death). Usually, cancer cells contain faulty DNA and chromosomes (some chromosomes may be duplicated or deleted). Cancer cells spread through the body via the lymphatic and circulatory systems. Clearly, cancer cells evade the immune system (cancer cells can trick the immune system). Unlike healthy cells that are specialized, cancer cells are non-specialized and do not contribute to the functioning of a body part. Healthy cells have specialized behaviors and serve a purpose. Cancer cells have lost their specialized function. The first cancer cells (in the human body) are not very malignant cells; subsequent (mature) cancer cells are extremely malignant cells. Ordinarily, old healthy cells undergo apoptosis, a series of enzymatic reaction that lead to the death of the cell. Healthy cells will self-destruct if genetic / chromosomal abnormalities are found. Cancer cells fail to undergo apoptosis. Healthy cells divide about 50 times and then stop dividing and die. Cancer cells can enter the cell cycle repeatedly, and in this way, they are potentially immortal. Vadim Shapoval: according to the Ferromagnetic Cancer Theory (Theory from The Old Testament; Iron Conception), any cancer cells are cells with numerous intracellular superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles. Any healthy cells are cells with non-numerous intracellular superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles. Any cancer and ALS work by these nanoparticles. Cancer cells (cells with these nanoparticles; EXCESSIVELY negatively charged cells) do not follow the rules of contact inhibition and adherence. Enzyme activity can be affected by these nanoparticles (immortality of cancer cells). The immune system does not identify these nanoparticles within cellular organelles. The immune system cannot distinguish between dia-, para-, superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic micro- and nano-objects. Every superpara- / ferri- / ferromagnetic nanoparticle produces an invisible area of influence around itself. When DNA or chromosomes come close to this region of space, they feel a pull or a push from this nanoparticle. Thus, DNA and chromosomes get defects and disruptions. Invisible local magnetic fields kill cancer patients. Magnetism (a force that can attract or repel objects and nanoobjects) causes cancer. Intracellular superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles can chaotically-anarchically distort DNA and shift chromosomes by local magnetic fields (mistakes in DNA; chromosomal faults; deformed mitoses; non-specialization and ugliness of cancer cells). Oncologists-clinicians must beat cancer (a subtle iron disease) by non-complicated anti-iron methods of The Old Testament. SciTech Daily & Medical News Today & TIME & Vadim Shapoval
The Lancet Oncology, Iron/Cancer Data and Father of Oncology. The aim of the Lancet Oncology is to publish interesting, informative, and practice-changing articles on any topic connected with clinical oncology. According to a report published in the Lancet Oncology medical journal, collectively, China, India, and Russia account for around 40% of the world’s population, experience 46% of all new cancers worldwide, and account for 52% of cancer deaths globally. Cancer is a global epidemic. The impact of cancer on all populations is devastating but especially so for poor, vulnerable and socially disadvantaged people who get sicker and die sooner as a result of cancer. Ancient Egyptians blamed cancers on the gods, demons and spirits. Doctors and scientists now know that each cancer starts with changes in one cell or a small group of cells. Scientists can see from the differences between normal cells and tumor cells that the tumor cell seems to lose a number of vital control systems. This happens because iron overload affects cellular organelles. Iron overload affects genes: an astounding variety of genetic abnormalities may occur in tumor cells; some of the genes and chromosomes have been damaged or lost. Genes and cellular organelles (mitochondria, lysosomes, cytoskeleton fibers, etc.) are the victims of iron overload. Cancer is not a genetic disorder; however genes involved in carcinogenesis (genes involved in iron metabolism disorders) include many genes. Total body iron is about 3.5 g in healthy men and 2.5 g in women (iron loss through menses, pregnancy, and lactation). Disorders of iron homeostasis are among the most common diseases of humans. Genes involved in iron uptake, transport, and utilization AND lifestyle events (when excess iron is stored in the body’s tissues and organs) cause abnormalities of iron homeostasis, cause cancers. Unlike other elements, iron cannot be excreted naturally (exception: blood loss). Since tumor cells need iron to grow and multiply, a lifelong intake of iron (elevated iron levels) can therefore increase the development of cancers. Cancers are age-related, much more frequent in the old than in the young. Alterations in the import, export and storage of cellular iron may contribute to cancers development. It is possible to understand iron/cancer data. Numerous laboratory and clinical investigations over the past decades blame cancers on iron; primary tumors always develop at body sites of excessive iron deposits. Lancet Oncology medical journal can informatively help cancer patients in China, India, and Russia. Unfortunately, officially, the ideal chelator for treating local iron overload (cancer) in humans has not been identified yet. Clinical iron chelating agents and methods will beat cancers, common cancer misconceptions and fatalistic beliefs about cancer. Father of Oncology (Vadim Shapoval) says that cancer is a subtle iron disease, a form of iron lottery. According to the Ferromagnetic Cancer Theory (Theory from the Old Testament; Iron Conception), ceramic needles can suppress any tumors and large metastases; can quickly create harmless infiltrations (harmless necroses; deposits of cells that die; benign capsules); can enter solution [sulfur (2%) + olive oil (98%); 36.6C – 39.0C] to tumors and large metastases. Anti-iron slow blood loss (even 75%) [hemoglobin control], anti-iron goat’s milk diet and anti-iron drinking water containing hydrogen sulfide can neutralize any micro-metastases and isolated tumor cells. Together We (SciTech Daily, EnCognitive.com, Ovarian Cancer Facts, Medical News Today, The Scientist, TIME, Google, YouTube, YAHOO!, Facebook and Vadim Shapoval) Will Beat Cancer