Cheaper and More Efficient: New Camera Could Help Scientists Forecast Volcano Eruptions Affecting Millions

SO2 Camera Installation on Kīlauea Volcano

The SO2 camera installation on Kīlauea volcano, Hawaii, US. The gas plume can be faintly seen rising from the crater at the center of the image and drifting to the left. The flank of Moana Loa can be seen in the background. Credit: Dr. Tom Pering

Researchers have made long-term volcano monitoring a possibility by creating a more efficient and cost-effective camera.

Gas emissions are a manifestation of the activity taking place beneath a volcano’s surface, and measuring them provides valuable insight into what cannot be observed from the surface. This information is critical for monitoring hazards and predicting future eruptions. Since the mid-2000s, ultraviolet SOcameras have become crucial tools to measure emissions.

However, these measurement campaigns require the presence of a user, making SO2 cameras unsuitable for acquiring long-term data sets. Additionally, the cost of building and operating this type of camera can reach up to $20,000, resulting in very few permanently installed cameras.

To get better long-term monitoring data, an international team of researchers has developed an SOcamera to continually measure emission rates from volcanoes. They have now published an article about the camera design and two initial datasets in Frontiers in Earth Science.

Kīlauea Lava Lake at Night

Kīlauea lava lake captured at night, with the relatively substantial gaseous emissions clearly visible. Credit: Dr. Tom Pering

“Our instrument uses a sensor not dissimilar to smartphone camera sensors. It is modified to make it sensitive to ultraviolet light, therefore enabling SO2 detection,” said Dr. Thomas Wilkes, a researcher at the University of Sheffield and lead author of the study.

Less costly and power intensive

Compared to previous models, the researchers’ SO2 camera is significantly cheaper and uses less power. The new design comes with a price tag of around $5,000, reducing the cost of parts needed to build the camera down to approximately a fourth of previous models.

“Wherever possible we 3D print parts too, to keep costs as low as we can,” Wilkes explained. “We also introduce a user-friendly, freely available software for controlling the instrument and processing the acquired data in a robust manner.” The affordability and user-friendliness make the camera accessible to more volcanologists who otherwise might not have access to datasets containing accurate gas emission rates.

SO2 Camera Installation on Lascar Volcano

The SO2 camera installation on Lascar Volcano, Chile. The camera is housed inside a protective metal casing, which also holds the battery for powering the instrument; a solar panel for battery charging is located to the left of the box. Credit: Dr. Thomas Wilkes

Additionally, the power consumption of the system is low, with an average of 3.75 Watts. This is about half of what was needed to power systems presented previously. On sites where there is little solar power to be harnessed this will be especially beneficial, the researchers wrote. Their camera runs on fewer or smaller solar panels or batteries, reducing the overall cost further.

While there are other instruments to measure volcanic emissions, “the SO2 camera can provide higher time- and spatial-resolution data which could facilitate new volcanological research when installed permanently,” said Wilkes.

SO2 Camera Installation Team

The SO2 camera installation team for Kīlauea volcano (left to right: Dr. Christoph Kern (USGS), Dr. Patricia Nadeau (USGS), Dr. Tom Pering (University of Sheffield)). Credit: Dr. Tom Pering

Data from Chile and Hawaii

Wilkes and his team also presented two preliminary data sets from Lascar, a stratovolcano in Chile, and Kilauea, a shield volcano on Hawaii’s Big Island, where their camera is in continuous operation.

“Before now, only three volcanoes have had permanent SO2 cameras installed on them,” Wilkes said. “Discrete field campaigns have been carried out, and whilst they can be invaluable for a range of research questions, it is important to be able to measure volcanic activity continuously, since it can vary substantially from minutes to decades to centuries and beyond.”

Despite being cost-efficient and easy to use, the researchers pointed to some limitations of SO2 cameras: “They are dependent on meteorological conditions, and work best under clear blue skies when the volcanic gas plume moves in a 90-degree angle to the viewing direction of the camera,” said Wilkes.

Reference: “A new permanent, low-cost, low-power SO2 camera for continuous measurement of volcanic emissions” by Thomas Charles Wilkes, Tom David Pering, Felipe Aguilera, Susana Layana, Patricia Nadeau, Christoph Kern, Andrew John Samuel McGonigle, Mauricio Aguilera and Chengxi Zhu, 4 April 2023, Frontiers in Earth Science.
DOI: 10.3389/feart.2023.1088992

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