Extraterrestrial Life: Alien Haze Reveals Secrets of Distant Watery Exoplanets

Hazy Exoplanets

An illustration of two water-rich exoplanets with hazy atmospheres. Credit: Roberto Molar Candanosa/Johns Hopkins University

Scientists have made a significant breakthrough in simulating hazy conditions on water-rich exoplanets, offering new insights into the challenges of observing these distant worlds in the search for extraterrestrial life.

Researchers have successfully simulated conditions that allow hazy skies to form in water-rich exoplanets. This is a crucial step in determining how haziness muddles observations by ground and space telescopes.

New Tools for Exoplanet Study

The research offers new tools to study the atmospheric chemistry of exoplanets and will help scientists model how water exoplanets form and evolve, findings that could help in the search for life beyond our solar system.

“The big picture is whether there is life outside the solar system, but trying to answer that kind of question requires really detailed modeling of all different types, specifically in planets with lots of water,” said co-author Sarah Hörst, a Johns Hopkins associate professor of Earth and planetary sciences. “This has been a huge challenge because we just don’t have the lab work to do that, so we are trying to use these new lab techniques to get more out of the data that we’re taking in with all these big fancy telescopes.”

The team published its findings on November 27 in the journal Nature Astronomy.

Groundbreaking Laboratory Work

Whether a planet’s atmosphere contains hazes or other particles has a marked influence on global temperatures, incoming levels of starlight, and other factors that can hinder or foster biological activity, the researchers said.

The team ran the experiments in a custom-designed chamber within Hörst’s lab. They are the first to determine how much haze can form in water planets beyond the solar system, Hörst said.

Haze consists of solid particles suspended in gas, and it alters the way light interacts with that gas. Different levels and kinds of haze can affect how the particles spread out through an atmosphere, changing what scientists can detect about distant planets with telescopes.

Challenges in Exoplanet Observation

“Water is the first thing we look for when we’re trying to see if a planet is habitable, and there are already exciting observations of water in exoplanet atmospheres. But our experiments and modeling suggest these planets most likely also contain haze,” said Chao He, a planetary scientist who led the research at Johns Hopkins. “This haze really complicates our observations, as it clouds our view of an exoplanet’s atmospheric chemistry and molecular features.”

Scientists study exoplanets with telescopes that look at how light passes through their atmosphere, spotting how atmospheric gases absorb different hues or wavelengths of that light. Distorted observations can lead to miscalculations of the amounts of important substances in the air, such as water and methane, and the type and levels of particles in the atmosphere. Such misinterpretations can impair scientists’ conclusions about global temperatures, the thickness of an atmosphere, and other planetary conditions, Hörst said.

Simulating Exoplanetary Atmospheres

The team concocted two gas mixtures containing water vapor and other compounds hypothesized to be common in exoplanets. They beamed those concoctions with ultraviolet light to simulate how light from a star would start the chemical reactions that produce haze particles. They then measured how much light the particles absorbed and reflected to understand how they would interact with light in the atmosphere.

The new data matched the chemical signatures of a well-studied exoplanet called GJ 1214 b more accurately than previous research, demonstrating that hazes with different optical properties can lead to misinterpretations of a planet’s atmosphere.

Future Research Directions

Alien atmospheres can be very different from those in our solar system, Hörst said, adding that there are more than 5,000 confirmed exoplanets with varying atmospheric chemistries.

The team is now working to create more lab-made haze “analogs” with gas mixtures that more accurately represent what they see with telescopes.

“People will be able to use that data when they model those atmospheres to try to understand things like what the temperature is like in the atmosphere and the surface of that planet, whether there are clouds, how high they are, and what they are made of, or how fast the winds go,” Hörst said. “All those kinds of things can help us really focus our attention on specific planets and make our experiments unique instead of just running generalized tests when trying to understand the big picture.”

Reference: “Optical properties of organic haze analogues in water-rich exoplanet atmospheres observable with JWST” by Chao He, Michael Radke, Sarah E. Moran, Sarah M. Hörst, Nikole K. Lewis, Julianne I. Moses, Mark S. Marley, Natasha E. Batalha, Eliza M.-R. Kempton, Caroline V. Morley, Jeff A. Valenti and Véronique Vuitton, 27 November 2023, Nature Astronomy.
DOI: 10.1038/s41550-023-02140-4

Other authors include Michael Radke and Sarah E. Moran, of Johns Hopkins; Nikole K. Lewis, of Cornell University; Julianne I. Moses of Space Science Institute; Mark S. Marley of University of Arizona; Natasha E. Batalha of NASA’s Ames Research Center; Eliza M.-R. Kempton of University of Maryland, College Park; Caroline V. Morley of the University of Texas at Austin; Jeff A. Valenti of the Space Telescope Science Institute; and Véronique Vuitton of Université Grenoble Alpes.

2 Comments on "Extraterrestrial Life: Alien Haze Reveals Secrets of Distant Watery Exoplanets"

  1. dr mehrdad kesiri | November 28, 2023 at 8:42 am | Reply

    Human life will be completely destroyed, but the planet will not be destroyed because the planets that collided with the sun and exploded will only throw meteorites and dust on the earth up to a height of two thousand meters, and the life of the earth will returnafterten million years of life on the earth.It starts with bacteria and single cells.This incident has happened on earth twice before and before those who lived on earth, when humans on earth reached with very powerful telescopes to see the star and planet that wentfrom the arm of the galaxy to the sun.It is about to happen that humans on earth have shaped the American continent in the shape of a bird and a human, so that we humans can show us humans with the shape of that bird and Indian, the head of the tribes of the earth,that that bird is flying into space in America, and the foot of that bird is the Panama bird.Originally, it means follow the foot of that bird, it will connect to the head and faceof that old man.When you follow Panama, follow its map, it will connect to South America.It means that humans lived on earth before us and the story of their life is shown by the formation of the American continent, how their life andthe next humans who are us will not be eternal on earth, the history and human civilization on earth willbe destroyed.It ends and those who lived on earth were aware of everything and it is interesting that in America all the flights take place in the sky.You who live in America in particular should look closely at the map of America and the secret of the formation of the continents by hundreds of millions of people.Understand that they were formed last year.In the previous comments, I fully explained to youscience and technology enthusiasts that there are several signs on the earth and in the solar system and the works that when we examine them, we realize that hundreds of stars that The sun is a hundred times smallerthan the sun, and one million of the weight andmass of those stars that collided with the planets Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, most of those stars were smaller than the sun, if they had a tenth of the weight and mass of thesun, there would never be life on earth.It didn’t happen.When we look at the map of Peru, it is clear that there is a feather shape in Farsi, which means Peru.Look at the feather on the ear of the head of the Peruvian Indian tribe.In Farsi, the eaglefeather on the ear is called the map of Paraguay.It is the shape of an eagle feather that the Indian puts on his cheek, that is, on his face.In Farsi Paraguay, it means a feather on the cheek.The Indians of Paraguayput the same eagle feather on their face below the eyes, near the nose, the man of the tribe puts eagle feathers on his face.It is the same map of Chile that has the shape of a long eagle feather that is placed from the Indian’shead and neck to his stomach.You can find other feathers that are shaped like the map of the countries of Ecuador and Belivi Bolibili.On the face of that old man is a map of Brazil dr kesiri mobil 00989332197646 thank you

  2. dr mehrdad kesiri | November 28, 2023 at 9:10 am | Reply

    The eye of the old Indian man is the capital of Brazil.Why did someone tell me about the destruction of life on earth and the shape of the continents and oceans and the map of the countries that I explained earlier.They shaped Asia, Africa and Europe into the shape of rhinoceros, camels and elephants.I said that the Arab man’s machete is the map of the Red Sea, and in front of the Arab man’s machete, which is obviously in the Arabian Sea, the Red Sea is like a sea machete.Elephant machete handle.In the map of the country of Eritrea, Kharton Kharton is an elephant holding a machete in front of him so as not to cut off the neck and head of a rhinoceros for the sale of its horns, and it is strange that in the continent ofAfrica, elephants and rhinoceros are killed for their horns, the black head On the map of the Persian Gulf, the Arab man’s face is connected to the Oman Sea, and Khadijah’s lap is on that woman’s lap.Persian gulf.The name of the word Persian Gulf is similar to the name of the wife of Muhammad Rasulullah.The name of the Persian Gulf is similar to Khadijah.May God protect you, Dr. Mehrdad Tehran, Shimiranat area, Darabad, Purabte Ahj St., Yas Building, No. 6, Shama, Unit 8, Apartment 8, 2nd floor, Dr. Kesiri’s house, Mehrdad Kathiri, Mr. Kesiri,why no one from America message us It doesn’t, I want to know the answer of you astronomers and archaeologists regarding the destruction of life on earth and the effects left by the collision of stars and planets of the arm of the galaxy?With the solar system, the Earth’s seas, which were created in the form of humans and quadrupeds, and America in the form of birds, were created by humans on Earth hundreds of millions of years ago.These very important and complex mysteries are created by God, who is a superior force created by humans through science and artificial intelligence.This matter was known to me and it was revealed to me by my God in Surah Mahal, which I wrote myself, and through the eighth Surah of the Messengers, who are the prophets of the world and Iran, because I am a prophet.of the Apocalypse, and with dozens of signs on earth and signs in my birth date.I am connected to time, that’s why some people say to me that Mehrdad is the Imam of time, but I said that I am the owner of time until the date of my birth and I am an ordinary person like you.n..r mobil dr mehrdad 00989332197646 thank you god by

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