HYPER (HighlY Interactive ParticlE Relics) – A New Model for Dark Matter

Astrophysics Space Dark Matter Concept

A team of researchers has now proposed a new candidate for dark matter: HYPER, or “HighlY Interactive ParticlE Relics.”

Phase transition in early universe changes strength of interaction between dark and normal matter.

Dark matter remains one of the greatest mysteries of modern physics. It is clear that it must exist, because without dark matter, for example, the motion of galaxies cannot be explained. But it has never been possible to detect dark matter in an experiment.

Currently, there are many proposals for new experiments: They aim to detect dark matter directly via its scattering from the constituents of the atomic nuclei of a detection medium, i.e., protons and neutrons.

A team of researchers—Robert McGehee and Aaron Pierce of the University of Michigan and Gilly Elor of Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz in Germany—has now proposed a new candidate for dark matter: HYPER, or “HighlY Interactive ParticlE Relics.”

In the HYPER model, sometime after the formation of dark matter in the early universe, the strength of its interaction with normal matter increases abruptly—which on the one hand, makes it potentially detectable today and at the same time can explain the abundance of dark matter.

Hubble Dark Matter Map Abell 1689

This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows the distribution of dark matter in the center of the giant galaxy cluster Abell 1689, containing about 1,000 galaxies and trillions of stars.
Dark matter is an invisible form of matter that accounts for most of the universe’s mass. Hubble cannot see the dark matter directly. Astronomers inferred its location by analyzing the effect of gravitational lensing, where light from galaxies behind Abell 1689 is distorted by intervening matter within the cluster.
Researchers used the observed positions of 135 lensed images of 42 background galaxies to calculate the location and amount of dark matter in the cluster. They superimposed a map of these inferred dark matter concentrations, tinted blue, on an image of the cluster taken by Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys. If the cluster’s gravity came only from the visible galaxies, the lensing distortions would be much weaker. The map reveals that the densest concentration of dark matter is in the cluster’s core.
Abell 1689 resides 2.2 billion light-years from Earth. The image was taken in June 2002.
Credit: NASA, ESA, D. Coe (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, and Space Telescope Science Institute), N. Benitez (Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia, Spain), T. Broadhurst (University of the Basque Country, Spain), and H. Ford (Johns Hopkins University)

The new diversity in the dark matter sector

Since the search for heavy dark matter particles, or so-called WIMPS, has not yet led to success, the research community is looking for alternative dark matter particles, especially lighter ones. At the same time, one generically expects phase transitions in the dark sector—after all, there are several in the visible sector, the researchers say. But previous studies have tended to neglect them.

“There has not been a consistent dark matter model for the mass range that some planned experiments hope to access. “However, our HYPER model illustrates that a phase transition can actually help make the dark matter more easily detectable,” said Elor, a postdoctoral researcher in theoretical physics at JGU.

The challenge for a suitable model: If dark matter interacts too strongly with normal matter, its (precisely known) amount formed in the early universe would be too small, contradicting astrophysical observations. However, if it is produced in just the right amount, the interaction would conversely be too weak to detect dark matter in present-day experiments.

“Our central idea, which underlies the HYPER model, is that the interaction changes abruptly once—so we can have the best of both worlds: the right amount of dark matter and a large interaction so we might detect it,” McGehee said.

And this is how the researchers envision it: In particle physics, an interaction is usually mediated by a specific particle, a so-called mediator—and so is the interaction of dark matter with normal matter. Both the formation of dark matter and its detection function via this mediator, with the strength of the interaction depending on its mass: The larger the mass, the weaker the interaction.

The mediator must first be heavy enough so that the correct amount of dark matter is formed and later light enough so that dark matter is detectable at all. The solution: There was a phase transition after the formation of dark matter, during which the mass of the mediator suddenly decreased.

“Thus, on the one hand, the amount of dark matter is kept constant, and on the other hand, the interaction is boosted or strengthened in such a way that dark matter should be directly detectable,” Pierce said.

New model covers almost the full parameter range of planned experiments

“The HYPER model of dark matter is able to cover almost the entire range that the new experiments make accessible,” Elor said.

Specifically, the research team first considered the maximum cross-section of the mediator-mediated interaction with the protons and neutrons of an atomic nucleus to be consistent with astrological observations and certain particle-physics decays. The next step was to consider whether there was a model for dark matter that exhibited this interaction.

“And here we came up with the idea of the phase transition,” McGehee said. “We then calculated the amount of dark matter that exists in the universe and then simulated the phase transition using our calculations.”

There are a great many constraints to consider, such as a constant amount of dark matter.

“Here, we have to systematically consider and include very many scenarios, for example, asking the question whether it is really certain that our mediator does not suddenly lead to the formation of new dark matter, which of course must not be,” Elor said. “But in the end, we were convinced that our HYPER model works.”

The research is published in the journal Physical Review Letters.

Reference: “Maximizing Direct Detection with Highly Interactive Particle Relic Dark Matter” by Gilly Elor, Robert McGehee and Aaron Pierce, 20 January 2023, Physical Review Letters.
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.031803

6 Comments on "HYPER (HighlY Interactive ParticlE Relics) – A New Model for Dark Matter"

  1. The origin of the asymmetry of matter and antimatter is one of the most challenging problems in particle physics and cosmology. According to the topological vortex field theory,the interaction and balance between topological vortex fields, covering all long-distance and short-range contributions of space-time motion, and is the basis for the formation and evolution of cosmic matter. In the formation and evolution of cosmic matter, matter and antimatter are mainly shown between the topological vortex and its identical twin anti-vortex, not between the high-dimensional space-time matters formed by their interaction. The material hierarchy and its interaction ways are vital for understanding matter and antimatter. It is believed with the improvement of theoretical level and the progress of science and technology, the understanding for matter and antimatter will usher a vast frontiers in physics. If you are interested, you can browse https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/463666584.

  2. The nature of topological vortex is gravitational field. Gravitation is the beginning of all things, and is the most raw power for maintaining and connecting the world. If there is no physical environment with dark matter and dark energy topological vortex gravitational fields, there can be neither all kinds of celestial bodies and microscopic particles nor the interaction of them.

  3. As the early universe cooled the gaseous dark matter all condensed at about the same time forming the cosmic web. Once stars and black holes had formed they began vaporizing the liquid dark matter. Over time the ratio of Gaseous Dark Matter to Liquid Dark Matter has been increasing..

  4. Luca S. Palermo | January 24, 2023 at 11:21 pm | Reply

    Another intriguing model of Dark Matter (and Dark Energy) can be found here:

  5. Fixed gravity for you. | January 24, 2023 at 11:31 pm | Reply

    I’d probably consider reading the study, but the unique idea of cold-matter-focusable gravity flows carried by Planck-scaled vacuum energy dipoles constrained to carry a galaxy-scaled dipole-roll is an idea that lacks the bent-universe religious baggage of general relativity.

    For sure the village general relativity worshipping troll MoND eyewear fanatic should be along shortly to administer appropriate corrective lensing action on this page.

  6. Howard Jeffrey Bender, Ph.D. | January 25, 2023 at 8:19 am | Reply

    Yet another model for Dark Matter, eh?

    Another possibility, from a view of String Theory, is that Dark Matter appears to us as an effect of string/anti-string annihilations. As you may know, quantum mechanics requires that strings must be formed as pairs in the quantum foam – a string and an anti-string – that immediately annihilate each other. Quantum mechanics also requires both the string and anti-string to be surrounded by “jitters” that reduce their monstrous vibrating energies. What if this jitter remains for a fraction of an instant after their string/anti-string annihilations? This temporary jitter would be seen by us as matter, via E=mc2, for that instant before it too returns to the foam. That’s why we never see it – the “mass” lasts only for that instant but is repeated over and over and over, all over. Specifics on this can be found by searching YouTube for “Dark Matter – A String Theory Way”

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