Deep valleys buried under the seafloor of the North Sea record how the ancient ice sheets that used to cover the UK and Europe expelled water to stop themselves from collapsing.
A new study greatly surprised the research team, who discovered that the valleys took just hundreds of years to form as they transported vast amounts of meltwater away from under the ice and out into the sea. This new understanding of when the vast ice sheets melted 20,000 years ago has implications for how glaciers may respond to climate warming today. The results were published on October 5, 2022, in the journal Quaternary Science Reviews.
Tunnel valleys are enormous channels that drain water from beneath melting ice sheets. They are sometimes up to 150km (93 miles) long, 6km (4 miles) wide, and 500m (1600 feet) deep (each several times larger than Loch Ness). There are thousands buried beneath the seafloor of the North Sea that record the melting of ice sheets that have covered the UK and Western Europe over the last two million years.
Lead author James Kirkham, from the University of Cambridge and the British Antarctic Survey (BAS), says:
“This is an exciting discovery. We know that these spectacular valleys are carved out during the death throes of ice sheets. By using a combination of state-of-the-art subsurface imaging techniques and a computer model, we have learned that tunnel valleys can be eroded rapidly beneath ice sheets experiencing extreme warmth.”
The research team analyzed ‘jaw-droppingly detailed’ seismic images that provide a 3D scan of the Earth’s buried layers. Informed by delicate clues discovered within the valleys, the scientists performed a series of computer modeling experiments to simulate valley development. This allowed them to test how quickly they formed as the last ice sheet to cover the UK melted away at the end of the most recent ice age about 20,000 years ago.
According to the findings, this process is quick by geological timescales, with the melting ice forming giant tunnel valleys within hundreds of years, expelling water that could otherwise accelerate rates of ice loss.
Traditionally, the drainage of water from beneath ice sheets is thought to stabilize ice flow, a process that could potentially buffer modern ice sheets from collapse in a warming climate. However, while inspecting the detailed seismic scans, the authors began to find tell-tale signatures of both stagnant and rapid ice movement within the valleys,. These complicated the picture of how these rapidly forming channels might affect future ice sheet behavior.
What is certain, is that the surprisingly fast rate at which these tunnels form means that scientists need to start considering their effects in models of how today’s ice sheets will evolve in the coming decades to centuries.
There are no modern analogs for this rapid process, but these ancient valleys, now buried hundreds of meters beneath the muds of the North Sea seafloor, record a mechanism for how ice sheets respond to extreme warmth that is missing from present-day ice sheet models. Such models do not currently resolve fine-scale water drainage processes, despite them appearing to be an important control on future ice loss rates and ultimately sea level rise.
James Kirkham continues:
“The pace at which these giant channels can form means that they are an important, yet currently ignored, mechanism that may potentially help to stabilize ice sheets in a warming world. As climate change continues to drive the retreat of the modern-day Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets at ever-increasing rates, our results call for renewed investigation of how tunnel valleys may help to stabilize contemporary ice losses, and therefore sea level rise, if they switch on beneath the Earth’s ice sheets in the future.”
Dr. Kelly Hogan, co-author and a geophysicist at BAS, says:
“We have been observing these huge meltwater channels from areas covered by ice sheets in the past for more than a century but we did not really understand how they formed. Our results show, for the first time, that the most important mechanism is probably summer melting at the ice surface that makes its way to the bed through cracks or chimneys-like conduits and then flows under the pressure of the ice sheet to cut the channels. Surface melting is already hugely important for the Greenland Ice Sheet today, and this process of water transport through the system will only increase as our climate warms. The crucial question now is will this “extra” meltwater flow in channels cause our ice sheets to flow more quickly, or more slowly, into the sea.”
The work highlights a currently overlooked process that can rapidly switch on beneath melting ice sheets. Whether these channels will act to stabilize or destabilize the Earth’s contemporary ice sheets in a warming world remains an important and open question.
Tunnel valley formation beneath deglaciating mid-latitude ice sheets: Observations and modelling by James D. Kirkham, Kelly A. Hogan, Robert D. Larter, Neil S. Arnold, Jeremy C. Ely, Chris D. Clark, Ed Self, Ken Games, Mads Huuse, Margaret A. Stewart, Dag Ottesen, Julian A. Dowdeswell is published in Quaternary Science Reviews here
“Tunnel valley formation beneath deglaciating mid-latitude ice sheets: Observations and modelling” by James D. Kirkham, Kelly A. Hogan, Robert D. Larter, Neil S. Arnold, Jeremy C. Ely, Chris D. Clark, Ed, Self, Ken Games, Mads Huuse, Margaret A. Stewart, Dag Ottesen and Julian A. Dowdeswell, 5 October 2022, Quaternary Science Reviews.
“Growth and retreat of the last British–Irish Ice Sheet, 31 000 to 15 000 years ago: the BRITICE-CHRONO reconstruction” by Chris D. Clark, Jeremy C. Ely, Richard C. A. Hindmarsh, Sarah Bradley, Adam Ignéczi, Derek Fabel, Colm Ó Cofaigh, Richard C. Chiverrell, James Scourse, Sara Benetti, Tom Bradwell, David J. A. Evans, David H. Roberts, Matt Burke, S. Louise Callard, Alicia Medialdea, Margot Saher, David Small, Rachel K. Smedley, Edward Gasson, Lauren Gregoire, Niall Gandy, Anna L. C. Hughes, Colin Ballantyne, Mark D. Bateman, Grant R. Bigg, Jenny Doole, Dayton Dove, Geoff A. T. Duller, Geraint T. H. Jenkins, Stephen L. Livingstone, Stephen McCarron, Steve Moreton, David Pollard, Daniel Praeg, Hans Petter Sejrup, Katrien J. J. Van Landeghem and Peter Wilson, 7 September 2022, BOREAS.
This work was developed from the study reported in the journal Geology in September 2021. This study provided a taste of the stunning detail achievable using the new 3D seismic reflection data, and revealed never-seen-before ice age landforms such as eskers, kettle holes, and crevasse squeeze ridges buried inside the North Sea tunnel valleys. These delicate landforms demonstrated for the first time that tunnel valleys alter how ice sheets flow. However, pressing questions remained over how the tunnels were cut, how quickly they formed, and how urgently scientists need to consider them when trying to predict how the Earth’s modern ice sheets will evolve in the future.
This new paper answers these questions by hunting for clues about how tunnel valleys are eroded in the 3D seismic reflection data, and using state-of-the-art computer simulations of the last ice sheet to cover the UK to calculate how quickly the tunnels form beneath a rapidly melting ice sheet. The results have important implications for how the modern Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets will evolve in the future. The authors highlight the need to consider important small-scale processes that cannot be resolved in the current generation of ice sheet models — in essence, a mechanism that is missing from models of how ice sheets will melt in the future and contribute to sea level rise.
The novel data used in this study were recycled from the oil and gas industry. The data were given a new lease of life by examining ancient ice age landscapes that offer a window into a future warmer world that we are heading towards due to climate change. These new data were combined with reconstructions from a state-of-the-art computer model of the ice sheet that used to cover the UK (the BRITICE-CHRONO project) led by researchers at the University of Sheffield.
The seismic data were originally collected by Gardline Limited, a UK-based site survey company that developed the first 3D high-resolution seismic system to operate successfully in the North Sea. The data were initially used for hazard assessments at drill sites but it was clear from the outset that the seismic data had far more to offer, particularly in the academic world.
This research was conducted by the British Antarctic Survey in collaboration with the Scott Polar Research Institute at the University of Cambridge, the University of Manchester, the University of Sheffield, the British Geological Survey, and the Geological Survey of Norway. The high-resolution 3D seismic reflection data was collected by Gardline Limited on behalf of companies including Harbour Energy, Equinor Energy AS, and bp.
“There are no modern analogs for this rapid process, but these ancient valleys, now buried hundreds of meters beneath the muds of the North Sea seafloor, record a mechanism for how ice sheets respond to extreme warmth that is missing from present-day ice sheet models.”
Interestingly, there are undersea canyons throughout the world, such as the Monterey Submarine Canyon off the coast of California; this area was never glaciated. It appears that it is still actively being formed by underwater sediment avalanches called turbidity currents. In the spirit of T. C. Chamberlain’s Method of Multiple Working Hypotheses, these researchers should perhaps consider other possibilities for the formation of their “tunnel valleys.”
When and where glacial ice is thicker than the depth of transition from brittle to plastic behavior (~50m), meltwater can and does flow above the bedrock contact because it is rare for crevasses to reach bedrock in the interior of continental glaciers. While eskers can be miles in length, they probably represent basal meltwater flow along the relatively thin margins of a melting glacier.