“Mirror Image” of the Earth and Sun Discovered 3000 Light-Years Away

Earth Moon Sun Illustration

The star Kepler-160 and its companion KOI-456.04 are more reminiscent of the Sun-Earth system than any previously known exoplanet-star pair.

Among the more than 4,000 known exoplanets, KOI-456.04 is something special: less than twice the size of Earth, it orbits a Sun-like star. And it does so with a star-planet distance that could permit planetary surface temperatures conducive to life.

The object was discovered by a team led by the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in Göttingen. Its host star, called Kepler-160, actually emits visible light; the central stars of almost all other exoplanets, on the other hand, emit infrared radiation, are smaller and fainter than the Sun and therefore belong to the class of red dwarf stars.

Typical Exoplanets

Distant worlds: typical exoplanets orbiting around a Sun-like star are about the size of Neptune and are in close orbit (third picture from above). Almost all of the Earth-sized planets known to have potentially Earth-like surface temperatures are in orbit around red dwarf stars, which do not emit visible light but infrared radiation instead (bottom panel). The Earth is in the right distance from the Sun to have surface temperatures required for the existence of liquid water. The newly discovered planet candidate KOI-456.04 and its star Kepler-160 (second panel from above) have great similarities to Earth and Sun (top panel). Credit: MPS / René Heller

Space telescopes such as CoRoT, Kepler, and TESS have allowed scientists the discovery of about 4000 extrasolar planets (planets around distant stars) within the past 14 years. Most of these planets are the size of the gas giant planet Neptune, about four times the size of the Earth, and in relatively close orbits around their respective host stars. But scientists have also discovered some exoplanets as small as the Earth that could potentially be rocky. And a handful of these small planets are also at the right distance to their host star to potentially have moderate surface temperatures for the presence of liquid surface water – the essential ingredient for life on Earth.

“The full picture of habitability, however, involves a look at the qualities of the star too,” explains MPS scientist and lead author of the new study Dr. René Heller. So far, almost all exoplanets less than twice the size of Earth that have a potential for clement surface temperatures are in orbit around a red dwarf.

Red dwarf stars are known for their extremely long lifetimes. Life on an exoplanet in orbit around an old red dwarf star could potentially have had twice as much time than life on Earth to form and evolve. But the radiation from a red dwarf star is mostly infrared rather than visible light as we know it. Many red dwarfs are also notorious for emitting high-energy flares and for frying their planets, which would later become habitable, with enhanced stellar luminosities as long as these stars are young. Moreover, their faintness requires any habitable planet to be so close to the star that the stellar gravity starts to deform the planet substantially. The resulting tidal heating in the planet could trigger fatal global volcanism. All things combined, the habitability of planets around red dwarf stars is heavily debated in the scientific community.

In their new research article, the team of scientists from MPS, the Sonneberg Observatory, the University of Göttingen, the University of California in Santa Cruz, and from NASA now reports the discovery of a planet candidate less than twice the size of the Earth and with moderate illumination from a Sun-like star

At a distance of just over 3000 light-years from the solar system, the star Kepler-160 was located in the field of view of the Kepler primary mission and was continuously observed from 2009 to 2013. Its radius of 1.1 solar radii, its surface temperature of 5200 degrees Celsius (300 degrees less than the Sun), and its very Sun-like stellar luminosity make it an astrophysical portrayal of our own parent star.

Kepler-160 has been known for about six years to be a host star of two exoplanets, called Kepler-160b and Kepler-160c. Both of these planets are substantially bigger than Earth and in relatively close orbits around their star. Their surface temperatures would certainly make them hotter than a baking oven and everything but hospitable for life as we know it. But tiny variations in the orbital period of planet Kepler-160c gave scientists a signature of a third planet that had yet to be confirmed.

The team of German and US American scientists now returned to the archival Kepler data of Kepler-160 to search for additional planets around that star and to verify the planetary origin of the perturber of the orbit of Kepler-160c. Heller and his colleagues had previously been successful in finding a total of 18 exoplanets in old Kepler data.

When searching for exoplanets, scientists usually look for repeating brightness variations of stars. These temporary dimmings, usually just one percent or less of the apparent stellar brightness, can be caused by planets transiting the disks of their host stars as seen from Earth. The key idea of Michael Hippke, co-author of the new work, and Heller was to use a detailed physical model of the stellar brightness variation instead of searching for a step-like jump-to-dimming and then jump-back-to-normal brightness pattern in stellar light curves.

This box-like approximation used to be the standard search technique for almost two decades. “Our improvement is particularly important in the search for small, Earth-sized planets,” Heller explains. “The planetary signal is so faint that it’s almost entirely hidden in the noise of the data. Our new search mask is slightly better in separating a true exoplanetary signal from the noise in the critical cases,” Heller adds.

Their new search algorithm was crucial for the discovery of the new transiting planet candidate KOI-456.04. “Our analysis suggests that Kepler-160 is orbited not by two but by a total of four planets,” Heller summarizes the new study. One of the two planets that Heller and his colleagues found is Kepler-160d, the previously suspected planet responsible for the distorted orbit of Kepler-160c. Kepler-160d does not show any transits in the light curve of the star and so it has been confirmed indirectly.

The other planet, formally a planet candidate, is KOI-456.04, probably a transiting planet with a radius of 1.9 Earth radii and an orbital period of 378 days. Given its Sun-like host star, the very Earth-like orbital period results in a very Earth-like insolation from the star – both in terms of the amount of the light received and in terms of the light color. Light from Kepler-160 is visible light very much like sunlight. All things considered, KOI-456.04 sits in a region of the stellar habitable zone – the distance range around a star admitting liquid surface water on an Earth-like planet – that is comparable to the Earth’s position around the Sun.

“KOI-456.01 is relatively large compared to many other planets that are considered potentially habitable. But it’s the combination of this less-than-double the size of the Earth planet and its solar type host star that make it so special and familiar,” Heller clarifies. As a consequence, the surface conditions on KOI-456.04 could be similar to those known on Earth, provided its atmosphere is not too massive and non-Earth-like. The amount of light received from its host star is about 93 percent of the sunlight received on Earth. If KOI-456.04 has a mostly inert atmosphere with a mild Earth-like greenhouse effect, then its surface temperature would be +5 degrees Celsius on average, which is about ten degrees lower than the Earth’s mean global temperature.

It cannot currently be ruled out completely that KOI-456.04 is in fact a statistical fluke or a systematic measurement error instead of a genuine planet. The team estimates the chances of a planetary nature of KOI-456.04 to be about 85% pro planet. Obtaining a formal planetary status requires 99%. While some of the Earth’s most powerful ground-based telescopes might be able to validate this candidate with observations of one of its upcoming transits, there is also a good chance that the PLATO space mission of ESA will be capable of a confirmation. PLATO is scheduled for launch in 2026 and one of its major science goals is the discovery of Earth-sized planets around Sun-like stars. The MPS is currently building the PLATO Data Center and deeply involved in the PLATO mission. If PLATO will be oriented in such a way as to re-observe the field of view of the Kepler primary mission, then KOI-456.04 will have a chance of being confirmed and studied in even more detail with PLATO.

Reference: “Transit least-squares survey: III. A 1.9 R⊕ transit candidate in the habitable zone of Kepler-160 and a nontransiting planet characterized by transit-timing variations” by René Heller, Michael Hippke, Jantje Freudenthal, Kai Rodenbeck, Natalie M. Batalha and Steve Bryson, 4 June 2020, Astronomy & Astrophysics.
DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201936929

85 Comments on "“Mirror Image” of the Earth and Sun Discovered 3000 Light-Years Away"

  1. Amazing article. They also have mirror image.

  2. Blessed Life for all | June 7, 2020 at 2:04 pm | Reply

    Don’t they know that there is just a giant mirror at the end of the universe, if they could zoom closer they would see a bunch of MLB signs 😉

  3. Appealing to science fiction isn’t really science.

  4. jason roberts | June 7, 2020 at 3:08 pm | Reply

    @Richard M.

    But earth like planets around g-type stars(our sun) are not science fiction anymore

  5. Checkmate Atheist

  6. Is it possible at the time when measurements of the planet were being taken, KOI-456.04 has a moon hence the higher mass reading?

    • jason roberts | June 7, 2020 at 5:23 pm | Reply

      Good question, I hope you get an answer.

      I think it would need to be a pretty big moon for it to make any difference to the mass reading…

      There was an article a while back that there was a kind of race to detect the first exomoon, but we don’t have the telescope sensitive enough as yet.

      • Nick Reynoza | June 7, 2020 at 10:29 pm | Reply

        Okay guys lets get this with some home work .
        Rick , the mass has nothing to do with higher mass reading , Im not going to go into a big explanation , mass reading is done with time , light from the sun and the distance from earth !
        and now to Jason, Jason put : but we don’t have the telescope sensitive enough as yet .
        Well Jason let me give you another thought to look at ?
        there are many ” exomoon’s ” and planets and stars out there , but it has nothing to do with sensitive enough as yet , there are planets , moons and even astroids in space , the reason we can not see all of then is that they are so many light years away that our planet earth is younger than the light years distances to see planets , moons that are farther than the age of our planet earth .
        I mean no disrespect to all , only to consider what i’m sharing .

      • SallyAndJane | June 8, 2020 at 8:54 am | Reply

        It’s not the mass of the moon relative its host that makes finding exomoons a challenge.
        Data from our current exoplanet detection methods can not break down the different components of a planetary system.

  7. Stunning and hopeful article eclipsed a week from now by an even more curious one exclaiming that a large mirror in space was discovered between earth and Kepler-160 some 1500 light years away. Stay tuned…

  8. Donald Maxey | June 7, 2020 at 6:40 pm | Reply

    Where’s this image at ? All they ever show is artistic type image.
    There are supposedly over 26,000 satellite’s but try and find a live shot of the whole earth. Also at that many satellite’s you would see them constantly but during space walks by the ISS you never see one , not one.

    • Wow just wow. Apparently you’re not aware that the ISS is in a low Earth Orbit and almost all Satellites are in high Earth orbits. If you want a live feed of the Earth you can go to Zoom Earth web site and watch away. And you’re not going to see an image of a system thats 3000 light years away, doesn’t work like that.

  9. Wayne John Close | June 7, 2020 at 7:51 pm | Reply

    This guy is just to fixed on what is his reality…

  10. I have my suitcases packed ready to go. Can I bring my cat.

  11. Brandon Thompson | June 7, 2020 at 8:54 pm | Reply

    When we are “only” 25 light years or less call me. Then write an article.
    3000? Might as well be at the end of the universe. 25 would be super tough but humans could possibly it.
    3000…bah.

    • SallyAndJane | June 8, 2020 at 9:25 am | Reply

      On the scale of the galaxy, 3000 ly is a small hop.
      But as far as we’re concerned we’re not interstellar traveling anytime ever.

  12. I just came back to turn around | June 7, 2020 at 10:14 pm | Reply

    There’s a correlation with selfies, the russians know about it. 😁

  13. I bet China will have a border dispute with this new planet as well

  14. Why do people insist on using apostrophes when pluralizing objects? How do people expect to be taken seriously when they write words such as “planet’s” when there is no ownership implied?

    • I did not expect to see a grammar comment on this web site; however, your comment is apt. I am a High School English teacher and the issue of possessive and plural nouns is seriously problematic for students. I speculate it has something to do with the advent of texting, but am not sure. I suspect it is because of haste that students have stopped using apostrophes for possessive nouns but not too long ago I started seeing the rule reversed, as your example suggests. It is an example of a much greater problem and I am encouraged that you raised it. And by the way, I am thrilled to see the article on life and exoplanets. I wonder if they have grammar issues!

  15. Very cool stuff. It’s very obvious by now that life exists on other worlds. I mean with TRILLIONS of know galaxies, billions of stars in each galaxy, and perhaps minimum one planet for each star – the odds are in favor of life elsewhere. In fact, you’re more likely to win the lottery everyday for 30 straight years AND being struck my lighting every single time you cash in the ticket

    • User from Florida | June 8, 2020 at 8:54 pm | Reply

      Patrick Church, first of all I am a lady not a sir. I don’t consider stargazing as a waste of time. I am a very spiritual person, I love being outdoors soaking up every sound, sight and beautiful sight that the Universe and the Earth has blessed us with. That being said, if what I wrote was such a boring time waster, than you were free to keep scrolling. What I wrote and what I saw, I would swear on a stack of bibles. I now have questions that I want answered. These type of events are happening all over the world, more and more. Somebody knows something. What are they not telling us ? Do you not believe we should know if something is going on ? Did I offend you because the only explanation you will hear is didn’t happen, God is our creator end of story ? I pray to God all the time, as well as to the Universe. But seeing these things makes me wonder if there is something more. I am not saying there is no divine creator, but maybe we should be prepared for something else. I have accepted Jess Christ as my lord and savior, and I try my best to live accordingly but there are things happening that can’t be ignored. Sorry I wasted your time telling people what I saw hoping someone with an open mind would give me a legitimate reason for what I saw. Anyway, if Im wrong ill see you at the pearly gates

  16. You scientist will say anything you want & just because
    you’re scientists we suppose to believe it. Lmao

    • Johnny…
      Buddy…
      We know yesterday was Sunday and all; and the sermon is still, well… fresh. But you’re projecting again 🙂

    • Where is it written that God only created us? B I B L E Basic Instructions Before Leaving Earth

  17. wtf: “our planet earth is younger than the light years distances to see planets “

  18. Yeah well… isn’t that great news… as earthlings continue along in their quest for suffering, hatred, murders, warfare basically your run-of-the-mill self immolation!
    So these new exoplanets that HUMANITY (THANK GOD) WILL NEVER REACH TO SPOIL, seem to attract some foolish thread of hope that some number of psychopaths might escape this doomed world to pollute the next…! No, we’re not so deserving!

    • Noah’s Cat (scientist) | June 8, 2020 at 4:49 am | Reply

      Izzy, Izzy… My goodness, Izzy, lighten up… Why are you religious types so prone to pessimism?

      Maybe your god is giving us an out… have you considered that? By your definition Noah was a psychopath… have you no faith in your god?

      I would think you would trust in your higher power a little more than that, Izzy, just sayin’… 🙂

  19. Me and my gal went a huckleberry hunting. She stooped over and I saw something. And I realized that I have the vagina disease. I look like shit but I feel great !!

  20. Wow!!! I want to go there.. Amazing information dude.. Thanks for sharing 😊

  21. Nick Girdwood | June 8, 2020 at 4:08 am | Reply

    I’m not a doctor, but I’m pretty sure a sun and a star are the same fucking thing. So every star is “sun like”

  22. 3000 light years is too far. Can we have vehicle to reach that distance. Otherwise it will be just an oasis.

    • Billybob7788 | June 8, 2020 at 11:41 pm | Reply

      We’re not likely to get there. Even if we had a vehicle that travelled 99% the speed of light right now, it would take a little over 3,000 years to get there. And 3,000 more years to send pictures back. So the idea is just scientific curiosity and to point radio telescopes at it to catch a “War of the Worlds” broadcast or some laser communication they sent 3000 years ago. Currently they maybe annihilated themselves or left there to come here and use our planet since several thousand years from now we’ll have gone extinct and they’ll do an archeological survey and wonder, “Who was this jackass Trump and this crazy nutjob Pelosi. And then they will discover that cats and dogs ruled the Earth because we continually picked up their crap.

  23. It seems like a lot of people don’t realize how short 3,000 light years is in the grand scheme of things. If there’s life on this planet they’d be able to see the Greeks and Egyptians and know we have civilizations. Most of those examples are talked about in millions of light years with dinosaurs being viewed by aliens due to the distance, so 3000 is actually a decent improvement. We’d either need something impossibly fast, cryo, or a multigenerational voyage, but it is still much more feasible than the planets we’ve found so far.

    I do expect we will destroy each other before then, however.

  24. Scientists are currently building a Mars Rover designed to find and extract microbial organisms and have them sent back to Earth.

    The obvious question is – why would they want to bring back potentially deadly microbes to our planet that could wipe out all life on the Earth? These scientists are insane and very dangerous.

    As a result of this global pandemic, haven’t we learned our lesson to avoid new microbes? I guess not.

    • Come to think of it science was going to open one of the rocks brought back from the moon right before this virus was released

  25. Dale Anderson | June 8, 2020 at 6:23 am | Reply

    Keplerians are probably reptile like creatures due to the extreme heat. I believe Captain Kirk had to fight one of those things in Star trek first season.

  26. Quick blow it up, before they discover we exist O.O monkaS

  27. It’s funny that earth is “PEAR SHAPED” but it’s mirror image is a perfect sphere once again…your CGI games are over NEANDERTHALS…the gig is up

  28. Is it like when a race of people with up to 20% NEANDERTHAL DNA mirror real MELINATED HUMANS…but aren’t really HUMAN🧐

  29. Holyness Is The Way | June 8, 2020 at 7:28 am | Reply

    And i saw a New Heaven and a New Earth come on now everybody God is soon to come back and He is closer than we think….Please read Acts 2:36-38 verse…I Pray everyone Repent and be Baptized In the Name Of Jesus Christ for the Remisson of your Sins Receive The Precious Gift Of The Holy Ghost and try to live Holy the Best way you know how by God until he returns and you will receive your Gift of Eternal Life by Jesus Christ Our Lord and Savior the One and Only True God that Can Save Us All….In The Name Of Jesus🙏🙏🙏🙏 I Pray Amen….This Cry Goes Out to All Nations God Bless us all and may we all be ready when He Returns.

  30. God has nothing to do with religion. Religion is a man made device. Yes, God exists and is beyond your (and everyone elses) comprehension level.

  31. Snap some shots with the James Webb telescope. Once we get it up there. Then design a app similar to Google Earth that enables us to navigate the exoplanets.

  32. Lets hope whatever lives on it takes better care than we did with earth!!

  33. I thought I was going to read something intelligent but ended up with reading crap about religion, can whom it may concern remove these nut jobs so some of us can actually have a intellectual conversation .
    👍Cheers

  34. Well. If you can’t catch the bus to get there guess it’s all academic. Interesting though🌍

  35. Just for the record. There probably isn’t a god look up irreducible complexity and considering there are more galaxies than there are grains of sand on every Beach on Earth come on and when I die if I had one question to ask God I will have to ask why would you allow a thousands upon thousands of children to die in that tsunami and remember who the Dead Sea Scrolls it says holy God we talked to Lucifer he would whisper in his ear so no one would know God’s true nature pretty

  36. First we need to travel faster than the speed of light. Because at the speed of light, 3,000 years away is still impossible. Don’t get peoples hopes up.

  37. How many generations would it take to get there?

  38. As things go I am not suppose to comment or reveal what we have known for many years.We as earth beings have already been studied and DNA transfers are already taking place. If you see people that act funny or look strange don’t panic,also the virus you call CORONOVIRUS was for population control,as was aids virus.

  39. User from Florida | June 8, 2020 at 2:57 pm | Reply

    Something interesting I observed last night. After almost a week of torrential downpours and no visibility due to cloud cover, I was thrilled to see the sky was starting to clear as the last remaining clouds were moving away. I watched the sporatic cloud formations move not in front of the moon, Venus and the few other visible stars, but BEHIND THEM.Trust me, I stood there watching for almost an hour. Waiting for the next group of clouds to pass, thinking this can’t be right. If the moon, planets and stars are thousands of light years away then why are these clouds, obviously in our atmosphere, Planes fly through them every day, floating BEHIND AND NOT IN FRONT ?? Needless to say but MIND BLOWN !! I love watching the night sky, and try locating the planets and constellations. In fact, about 2 months ago when Mercury, Jupiter and Mars were all visible in a row, I came out in the pre dawn hours to see them. As I am watching this amazing formation, suddenly I saw what looked like lightning between the two larger planets. It was a brilliant blue green flash way up there. And then I swear on this something flew out of the light and took off so fast I would have missed it if not for the light show before it, and it traveled on a slight upward incline until I lost sight of it behind another star. Dumbfounded. I couldn’t believe what I had just seen. I was fully awake both times and do not use drugs. What was it that I saw ? A doorway to another dimension ? Alternate galaxy ? Time travel ? And also, what was up with the clouds behind the moon ? Something doesn’t feel right

    • Patrick Church | June 8, 2020 at 5:00 pm | Reply

      Apparently I have more time to waste than you, cause I actually read what you wrote. God bless you sir

  40. Richard Sumrall | June 8, 2020 at 3:27 pm | Reply

    I’m just here for the show to read all the comments the social media butterflies post like the they really have science backgrounds in this particular subject matter.

    • Patrick Church | June 8, 2020 at 4:57 pm | Reply

      So you’re saying YOU control the cosmos or am I reading to far into it 🤗🤣🤣🤣

  41. God only created 1, O-N-E, Gadda Da Vida!
    Ain’t no more out there, stop guessin, stop messin with people’s minds. We R it…

  42. Why do people think that things like this actually matter? This means that if we figure out how to travel at the speed of light, we can make it there in 3000 years. And this helps us how????

  43. Patrick Church | June 8, 2020 at 4:54 pm | Reply

    Heading there in the morning anybody need a lift?

  44. We seed them, they’ve seeded us and so on and so on… the circle of life. Imagine we have petri dishes in route. Thousands of years is seconds in the large scheme of the universe. It’s how God meant us to be fruitful and multiply. Genesis 1:28
    Amen

  45. Fake news, humans can’t even predict the weather on our planet. Smh

  46. Its not possible to travel at light speed, but galactic “tunnels” may well get us there. We are not far from discovery and mapping these galactic links. We nay soon have a drink with our universal friends.

  47. Judi Kufchak | June 8, 2020 at 5:20 pm | Reply

    In the book of Enoch he describes Heaven as being a planet about the size of the moon and it is directly on the other side of our sun. Is it possible you have just found our Heaven? Something to think about!

  48. Patrick Church…
    I spit my coffee out reading your post, LMFAO!
    My thoughts exactly.
    Nutcase verbage FTW!

    Think on it, any alien life we might eventually meet, we will have ZERO IN COMMON WITH
    our society built itself on our own thoughts and emotions.
    There are no “aliens” that even closely resemble us, their thought processes will be so far distant from our own.
    It’s lame I know, but read the book “Sphere” by Michael Crichton”
    Not the lame movie, the book.
    Yes it’s fiction, but the scientific principles are sound and logical.

    That being said, it would be pretty nifty to get a view of the planet and see what the hell is going on there.

    I’d be down for a cryogenic suicide mission to the planet.

  49. Huh perhaps they’ve actually found the ceiling of the Dome

  50. What will be the point of getting hyped about a planet that looks like earth which is 137 thousand years away from us. By the time we get there we will all be dead beside thos who make it to the exoplanet and hope that they don’t die! And carry on the human race.

  51. Richard Burnett | June 8, 2020 at 8:06 pm | Reply

    If we somehow can go faster than the speed of light someday…by warping the space-time continuum (think warp speed), we could arrive in 300 years…quite a few planets closer to checknout some day..
    When you are in a true dark-sky area(recommended) look up at the stars at midnight and ponder what we can possibly achieve in another 150 years…
    After all, 100 years ago, bleeding a person by incision was considered the best medical procedure mosy cases.

  52. Get this: either the universe has always existed, or it arose from nothing – not space, time or anything else; there are no other possibilities. Even if there is a god, the question then is, where does such a being come from?
    There is no answer to this question….

    • Billybob7788 | June 9, 2020 at 12:09 am | Reply

      God always existed, and always will. The universe is created by Him. And why do people assume God, the Son, and the Holy Spirit are diametrically opposed to science and vice versa. God created science and all knowledge. It’s part of the universe. Duh. He created scientific laws, Quarks, neutrinos, etc the laws that govern them and possibly particles that make up Quarks that have yet to be “discovered”. There are many scientists that believe in Jesus Christ and partly BECAUSE of science. And they are not nutjobs. I find many Christians to be highly educated. And there is absolutely nowhere in the bible that the Earth is flat. People take specific verses out of context. It gives believers a bad name. So stop with the flat Earth crap. The bible says the Earth hangs on nothing. Which is to say it is located in space-time, which is invisible to people who came before the 20 th century. And to those who laugh at the idea of God: He is laughing at ALL of us.

  53. It could be a great discovery if we try to find out if life exists on the planet or not.

  54. Billybob7788 | June 8, 2020 at 11:51 pm | Reply

    The Earth isn’t almost spherical, bulging slightly at the equator, and it isn’t flat either. Yep, it’s shaped like a giant burrito. “Bloom County” anyone…

  55. These are the planets where our UFOs are coming from. However, Stephen Hawking’s warning about the aliens makes me want to re-think about how to get our STEM technologies from aliens to be able to travel through space as easily as they do. Hmmm…🤔

  56. If we in fact live in a simulation we can get there within our lifetimes to confirm. We just need to find the right glitch, or all the religious hacks could pray REAL hard and have their god send us the cheat codes.

  57. Rebecca Rabinowitz | June 23, 2020 at 12:11 am | Reply

    A habitable planet orbiting a red dwarf would possibly be further away than the star’s so called habitable zone. That’s because of tidal effects and volcanism, both of which can help heat up a surface. So surface heat = starlight + volcanism + tidal flexing + greenhouse effect.

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