New Study: Vegan Diets Can Provide Adequate Nutrition for Dogs

Dog Eating Vegetables

A recent study from the University of Illinois confirmed that two human-grade, lightly cooked vegan diets provide complete and balanced nutrition for dogs, as per standards set by the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO). Dogs fed these vegan diets had desirable fecal characteristics, high nutrient digestibilities, and lower levels of blood triglycerides and cholesterol, while their fecal metabolites responsible for odor were reduced, suggesting potential health benefits, especially for obese pets.

In the contemporary pet food industry, an array of products exists to cater to virtually every lifestyle, belief system, and budget of pet owners, including vegan options. Recent research from the University of Illinois indicates that at least two human-grade, lightly cooked vegan diets provide adequate nutrition for dogs.

“The trends of vegan foods and human-grade foods are increasing for dogs. Because people are feeding these diets to their pets, it’s important they be tested like all other foods to make sure they’re safe and ‘complete and balanced,’” says study co-author Kelly Swanson, professor in the Department of Animal Sciences, part of the College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences at U of I.

Swanson’s group carried out tests on two human-grade vegan formulas, one with a grain ingredient and the other without, from Bramble. They compared these with a top-selling brand’s chicken-based kibble diet. The diets were fed to beagles for a span of three weeks, and the researchers subsequently analyzed the dogs’ blood chemistry, fecal quality, and microbiome – the assortment of microbes present in their feces. Their results are published in the Journal of Animal Science.

The team also analyzed the foods themselves – the vegan diets were veterinary nutritionist-formulated mixtures of whole foods like lentils, garbanzo beans, sweet potatoes, butternut squash, apples, blueberries, peas, and carrots – and confirmed both vegan diets and the chicken-based diet met standards set by the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) for “complete and balanced” nutrition.

“One thing to remember is that animals don’t have ingredient requirements, they have nutrient requirements. As long as they’re consuming the essential nutrients in the correct amounts and ratios, dogs can be vegan, vegetarian, or meat-eaters,” Swanson says. “Knowledge of ingredient composition and nutrient needs are critical, however. Anyone can slap together a vegan meal for their dog, but without careful formulation, you might have something that’s really imbalanced.”

In earlier studies, Swanson’s group showed human-grade, fresh dog foods to be highly digestible, resulting in dramatically less stool. That wasn’t exactly the case for the vegan diets in the current study. All diets were highly digestible, but the vegan diets didn’t generate any more or less stool than the chicken diet.

“It’s not a surprise, really. With these ingredients, there’s more fiber and oligosaccharides, which could be good for dogs that need to stay regular,” Swanson notes.

The research team was surprised to find certain blood metabolites – chemicals in the blood that can indicate health status – differed between the vegan diets and the chicken-based diet. Notably, blood triglycerides and cholesterol, measures of circulating fats, were significantly lower in dogs fed the vegan diets. Swanson says that could benefit obese pets and help maintain a healthy weight.

When they analyzed the fecal microbiome and the chemicals produced by those microbes, the team noted more positive changes.

“There were some interesting and beneficial changes in the microbial community that I think reflect the blend of fibers that were present in the vegan diets. The fecal metabolites phenol and indole, both of which contribute to fecal odor, were dramatically decreased in those diets too. It’s still going to smell, but probably less,” Swanson says. “Overall, it looked like there were some beneficial shifts from a gut health perspective in dogs fed the vegan diets.”

Swanson says he’d like to do head-to-head comparisons between human-grade diets with and without meat and dairy products, but for the first study showing how fresh vegan diets perform in dogs, the results are promising.

“No one had tested the digestibility of these diets in dogs before this. We showed that these vegan diets resulted in desirable fecal characteristics, high nutrient digestibilities, and positive changes to certain blood and fecal metabolites,” he says. “For people who are interested in feeding their pets a vegan diet that aligns with their personal values, the diets we tested are a good choice.”

Swanson reiterates the diets were formulated by veterinary nutritionists, and that homemade vegan dog foods may not provide complete and balanced nutrition for dogs.

Reference: “Apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility of mildly cooked human-grade vegan dog foods and their effects on the blood metabolites and fecal characteristics, microbiota, and metabolites of adult dogs” by Leah J Roberts, Patricia M Oba and Kelly S Swanson, 27 March 2023, Journal of Animal Science.
DOI: 10.1093/jas/skad093

The study was funded by Bramble, Inc.

5 Comments on "New Study: Vegan Diets Can Provide Adequate Nutrition for Dogs"

  1. Worth noting is that dogs will eat anything. Grass, wood, plastic, even thier own feces.

    • Clyde Spencer | June 11, 2023 at 11:37 am | Reply

      Yes, dogs are obligate omnivores. They will eat anything, even things that are not good for them. If one is not careful, they may go behind their owner’s backs and sneak some meat when available. I have observed my Ridgeback eat a ground squirrel in one gulp. I would say that there is good evidence that dogs are addicted to meat, preferring it over a bowl of bell peppers or cucumbers, which I won’t eat either.

  2. Rubbish! Canines are predators and their digestion has specialized for meat over the last 30 millions of years. They get everything they need from it, even if food processing industry claims otherwise. Processed dog food is full of rubbish dogs are not meant to eat. Meat and hay, that will do!

  3. Totally agree

  4. Hi,

    Thank you for covering this story! As a vegan dog companion parent myself, I’d like to confirm the benefits, and hope more animal lovers will open their minds and hearts to consider a vegan lifestyle for their dogs or cats:

    1. Going vegan is good for us and our furry companions. The environmental benefit is indisputable; ice caps are melting fast and we need all hands/paws aboard to avoid a point of no return.

    2. There’s a health incentive too- Animal by-products in pet foods can be from diseased animals, since those can’t be sold for human consumption. That means animal-based pet foods will increase the likelihood of your pet getting cancer and other illnesses. If you want your dogs or cats to live longer, feed them a vegan diet. Vegan pet kibbles, treats and canned foods are high quality, nutritionally balanced and tasty. My dogs will chew vegan sweet potato sticks any time and gobble up their kibbles defensively.

    3. Please check out these youtube videos from Professor Andrew Knight for detailed statistics behind why vegan is the best for animal companions:
    Could Vegan Pet Food Help The Planet:
    Are Vegan Diets Good For Cats:

    Thank you and sincerely with all my love for your furry companions,

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