# Pair of Civil Servants Rewrite Quantum Mechanics in Their Spare Time

### A pair of civil servants solve a quantum mechanics problem that had bothered them since they were students.

As students, Jussi Lindgren and Jukka Liukkonen had found one element of their quantum mechanics lectures unsatisfying. “When we were taught physics, there were some fundamental elements you were told were true, and you had to accept they were true without it being shown why,” said Jussi Lindgren, “and I didn’t really like this.”

Working as a hobby alongside their jobs in the Finnish government, and Lindgren’s Ph.D. work in systems analysis at Aalto, the researchers devised a new method for expressing the laws of quantum mechanics using stochastic methods, a type of mathematics that deals with random chance and probability.

The study took Jussi Lindgren, left, and Jukka Liukkonen, right, back to the year 1941 when Stueckelberg’s wave equation was invented. The equation is the foundation for parameterized relativistic dynamics. Credit: Aalto University

The paper, published December 27, 2019, in Scientific Reports explores how stochastic methods can be used to derive a variety of equations in quantum mechanics from first principles, as opposed to having to build from ad hoc prior postulates. “The method will be useful for teachers or learners because it gives a better understanding of the reason why something is correct,” said Jukka Liukkonen.

Reference: “Quantum Mechanics can be understood through stochastic optimization on spacetimes” by Jussi Lindgren and Jukka Liukkonen, 27 December 2019, Scientific Reports.
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-56357-3

#### 14 Commentson "Pair of Civil Servants Rewrite Quantum Mechanics in Their Spare Time"

1. Not your typical civil servants! Carry on, the world needs more thinkers and fewer civil servants.

2. They ARE scientists and hobby city utility workers. Which is how it should be done.

• 🕯️🍨👹I think How I can Do More Transition of Angled Quants…📞👹 Many Wires You have Solved…☝️ Then Must be Attached Magnetic Could To Keep On That Physical Angle in Wire to 3% Deviation!

3. Go read the paper then.

4. Einstein was a civil servant processing paperwork in a govt. patent office, and worked on Relativity when he was bored out of his mind. So congrats to Jussie and Jukka as civil servants. Also, Penzius and Wilson were civil servants when they discovered the CMB.

5. Robert Speer: any references for Penzias and Wilson being civil servants when they discovered CMB? I’ve only ever heard of their working at Bell Labs. https://appel.nasa.gov/2016/10/20/this-month-in-nasa-history-cobe-scientists-were-celebrated-for-the-cmb/

6. Thomas Wilson | January 6, 2020 at 4:35 am | Reply

There is nothing wrong with civil servants. Albert Einstein started his career working as a civil servant in the Swiss patent office. Besides, someone must keep the water supply and sewers running, make sure the traffic lights are operational, run the public hospitals, and countless other things, without which modern society would soon collapse.

7. TarantulaWolf | January 6, 2020 at 8:37 am | Reply

Uhhhhhhh what’s a civil servant? 😅😅😅😅

8. This is a monumental discovery in the development of science(quantum mechanics) ,the two guys deserve my upper hand! keep on moving comrades! such endeavours are of crucial importance in human development curve!

9. Onyuka Jimmy Makonyuka | January 6, 2020 at 9:20 am | Reply

Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity cemented a base for future thinkers to continue developing. These two guys has set the tone to be emulated by other think tanks! congrats!

10. Many upon many significant breakthroughs come from civil servants and independent researchers…once upon a time they were very sought after for consultation purposes, while scholars often took the credit. Information comes from Nature and the Universe and they aren’t prejudice about giving it up to anyone who is sincerely looking to do the math on any field of knowledge — congrats J & J

11. This is a great advance in quantum mechanics. It removes several critical gaps in QM that made it incomplete and challenging. I hope, that stochastic control theory will allow the rational presentation of non-local quantum relations such as entanglement.

12. There is a huge diference between simplification and ocam razor principle . they are wrong and john bell is not happy .