Spitzer and Swift Observe Microlensing Event, Pinpoint Brown Dwarf

NASA Pinpoints Elusive Brown Dwarf

This illustration depicts a newly discovered brown dwarf, an object that weighs in somewhere between our solar system’s most massive planet (Jupiter) and the least-massive known star.

Using NASA’s Spitzer and Swift Space Telescopes, astronomers discovered a brown dwarf when it and its star passed between Earth and a much more distant star in our galaxy. This passing created a microlensing event, where the gravity of the system amplified the light of the background star over the course of several weeks.

In a first-of-its-kind collaboration, NASA’s Spitzer and Swift space telescopes joined forces to observe a microlensing event, when a distant star brightens due to the gravitational field of at least one foreground cosmic object. This technique is useful for finding low-mass bodies orbiting stars, such as planets. In this case, the observations revealed a brown dwarf.

Brown dwarfs are thought to be the missing link between planets and stars, with masses up to 80 times that of Jupiter. But their centers are not hot or dense enough to generate energy through nuclear fusion the way stars do. Curiously, scientists have found that, for stars roughly the mass of our sun, less than 1 percent have a brown dwarf orbiting within 3 AU (1 AU is the distance between Earth and the sun). This phenomenon is called the “brown dwarf desert.”

The newly discovered brown dwarf, which orbits a host star, may inhabit this desert. Spitzer and Swift observed the microlensing event after being tipped off by ground-based microlensing surveys, including the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE). The discovery of this brown dwarf, with the unwieldy name OGLE-2015-BLG-1319, marks the first time two space telescopes have collaborated to observe a microlensing event.

“We want to understand how brown dwarfs form around stars, and why there is a gap in where they are found relative to their host stars,” said Yossi Shvartzvald, a NASA postdoctoral fellow based at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, and lead author of a study published in the Astrophysical Journal. “It’s possible that the ‘desert’ is not as dry as we think.”

NASA Space Telescopes Pinpoint Brown Dwarf

Two space-based telescopes teamed up with ground-based observatories to observe a microlensing event caused by a brown dwarf.

What is microlensing?

In a microlensing event, a background source star serves as a flashlight for the observer. When a massive object passes in front of the background star along the line of sight, the background star brightens because the foreground object deflects and focuses the light from the background source star. Depending on the mass and alignment of the intervening object, the background star can briefly appear thousands of times brighter.

One way to understand better the properties of the lensing system is to observe the microlensing event from more than one vantage point. By having multiple telescopes record the brightening of the background star, scientists can take advantage of “parallax,” the apparent difference in position of an object as seen from two points in space. When you hold your thumb in front of your nose and close your left eye, then open it and close your right eye, your thumb seems to move in space — but it stays put with two eyes open. In the context of microlensing, observing the same event from two or more widely separated locations will result in different magnification patterns.

“Anytime you have multiple observing locations, such as Earth and one, or in this case, two space telescopes, it’s like having multiple eyes to see how far away something is,” Shvartzvald said. “From models for how microlensing works, we can then use this to calculate the relationship between the mass of the object and its distance.”

The new study

Spitzer observed the binary system containing the brown dwarf in July 2015, during the last two weeks of the space telescope’s microlensing campaign for that year.

While Spitzer is over 1 AU away from Earth in an Earth-trailing orbit around the sun, Swift is in a low Earth orbit encircling our planet. Swift also saw the binary system in late June 2015 through microlensing, representing the first time this telescope had observed a microlensing event. But Swift is not far enough away from ground-based telescopes to get a significantly different view of this particular event, so no parallax was measured between the two. This gives scientists insights into the limits of the telescope’s capabilities for certain types of objects and distances.

“Our simulations suggest that Swift could measure this parallax for nearby, less massive objects, including ‘free-floating planets,’ which do not orbit stars,” Shvartzvald said.

By combining data from these space-based and ground-based telescopes, researchers determined that the newly discovered brown dwarf is between 30 and 65 Jupiter masses. They also found that the brown dwarf orbits a K dwarf, a type of star that tends to have about half the mass of the sun. Researchers found two possible distances between the brown dwarf and its host star, based on available data: 0.25 AU and 45 AU. The 0.25 AU distance would put this system in the brown dwarf desert.

“In the future, we hope to have more observations of microlensing events from multiple viewing perspectives, allowing us to probe further the characteristics of brown dwarfs and planetary systems,” said Geoffrey Bryden, JPL scientist and co-author of the study.

Study: First simultaneous microlensing observations by two space telescopes: Spitzer & Swift reveal a brown dwarf in event OGLE-2015-BLG-1319

Source: Elizabeth Landau, Jet Propulsion Laboratory

12 Comments on "Spitzer and Swift Observe Microlensing Event, Pinpoint Brown Dwarf"

  1. Sankravelayudhan Nandakumar | November 13, 2016 at 12:34 am | Reply

    Light amplification increasing the brightness along the coverging hologram a background source calls for measurement of crossing mass and increase by velocity of increase leading to increase in mass as function of brightness proving the the mass of the particle incresaes with increase in velocity star serves as a flashlight for the observer. Design and development of magnifying lenses by light amplification brightness passing electron clusters of laser source.Ionised gas under rotation can increase of rotating mass may decrease or increase the brightness of a bulb source as the gravity is increased and decreased. From the galaxy to outside as Jeans gravity variation is observed otherwise observed.Light amplification increasing the brightness along the converging hologram a background source star serves as a flashlight for the observer.

  2. Case ID: 532398 – Re: Citation: WASP 104b asymmetric magnetic field that is varied in its hemispheres as a fall and rise for a neutrality and more strength in between and there is possibility that gravity field may be varying along north and south pole hemisphere by induction
    Citation: WASP 104b asymmetric magnetic field that is varied in its hemispheres as a fall and rise for a neutrality and more strength in between and there is possibility that gravity field may be varying along north and south pole hemisphere by induction
    Catasclimic variable star under asymmetric the beauty of magneticfield-Waxing and waning suns hot spot and a similar one can be detected on lunar surface also-
    A duality of magnetic field may be observed during June-July during any retrograde elliptical motion energising Rahu and Kethu
    The reflection to refraction criticality along blackhole toplology:Distance topology variations such as eclipse dynamics requiring more investitigation.Sodium and potassium surrounded atmosphere does it vary the reflection is still seems to be enigmatic.(Wasp 104 b).Hawkings radiation may be varied along variations in topology requiring positive and negative refractive index by a variations of clockwise and anticlockwise spin topology has been found out. At the top of the magma ocean, buoyant minerals cooled and hardened into a “flotation crust” varied by an eclipse distance. Cooling of Mercury’s interior caused the planet’s single plate to contract and bend. This gives more information on wqaxing and waning dynamics of surface toplogy says Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar inspire by the findings of Hon.Teo Monick.Where contractional forces are greatest, crustal rocks are thrust upward while an emerging valley floor sags downward. The magneticfield is very strong will have a fall and the magneticfield will be varied in between Northern and Southern accordingly may be neutralized in between a peculiar variations that must be requiring more informative collection. Our study of Mercury’s magnetic field indicates iron is snowing throughout this fluid that is powering WASP 104b ,magnetic field in between a solids state and a liquids state in between high temperature and low temprtaures. Mercury’s peculiar magnetic field provides evidence that iron turns from a liquid to a solid at the core’s outer boundary. The cores of both contain light elements such as sulfur, in addition to iron; the presence of these light elements keeps the cores from being completely solid and “powers the active magnetic field-generation processes. WASP 104b asymmetric magnetic field that is varied in its hemispheres as a fall and rise for a neutrality and more strength in between and there is possibility that gravity field may be varying along north and south pole hemisphere.It is the swing of the magneticfliud that is snowing between soils state and liquid state that matters an interesting shift in dark planets.An interesting matrics diagonalisation of ,magneticfield generation that may be operative for mathematical applications. that brightness dips slightly when a planet passes in between us and the star it is orbit in and not by a shadow. Hence the refractive index on surface toplogy may be varied under induction for a brightness variation.This may give further clue on existence of shadow matter ejections such as Rahu and Kethu by the interactive lunar and solar dynamics.
    A possible microchip can be designed for retarding spreading of cacerous cells

  3. Citation:Mercury’s magneticfield may be compared with that of Venus during March –April and September
    The emission of Mercury and that of Venus has to be evaluated under a fliud flow
    Earth’s lithosphere is broken up into many tectonic plates, but Mercury’s lithosphere consists of just one plate. Cooling of Mercury’s interior caused the planet’s single plate to contract and bend. Where contractional forces are greatest, crustal rocks are thrust upward while an emerging valley floor sags downward.

    Mercury’s magneticfield is varied for a fall during March –April while Venus field is strengthened conversely Mercury’s magneticfield is very strong during September but Venus will have a fall and the magneticfield will be varied in between Northern and Southern accordingly may be neutralized in between a peculiar variations that must be requiring more informative collection between Venus and Mercury as a comparator says Sankravelayudhan Nandakumar interested in some improvement in update in formations.
    Mercury’s magnetic field is approximately three times stronger at its northern hemisphere than its southern one. The magnetic fields that surround and shield many planets from the sun’s energy-charged particles differ widely in strength. While Earth’s is powerful, Jupiter’s is more than 12 times stronger, and Mercury has a rather weak magnetic field. Venus likely has none at all. The magnetic fields of Earth, Jupiter and Saturn show very little difference between the planets’ two hemispheres. Mercury’s peculiar magnetic field provides evidence that iron turns from a liquid to a solid at the core’s outer boundary, Our study of Mercury’s magnetic field indicates iron is snowing throughout this fluid that is powering Mercury’s magnetic field in between a solids state and a liquids state in between high temperature and low temprtaures” Mercury’s peculiar magnetic field provides evidence that iron turns from a liquid to a solid at the core’s outer boundary. The cores of both Mercury and Earth contain light elements such as sulfur, in addition to iron; the presence of these light elements keeps the cores from being completely solid and “powers the active magnetic field-generation processes. Mercury’s asymmetric magnetic field that is varied in its hemispheres as a fall and rise for a neutrality and more strength in between
    Journal Reference:
    1. S. M. Bailey, B. Thurairajah, C. E. Randall, L. Holt, D. E. Siskind, V. L. Harvey, K. Venkataramani, M. E. Hervig, P. Rong, J. M. Russell. A multi tracer analysis of thermosphere to stratosphere descent triggered by the 2013 Stratospheric Sudden Warming. Geophysical Research Letters, 2014; DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059860
    2. Thomas R. Watters, Laurent G. J. Montési, Jürgen Oberst, and Frank Preusker. Fault-Bound Valley Associated with the Rembrandt Basin on Mercury. Geophysical Research Letters, 2016; DOI: 10.1002/2016GL070205

  4. Citaion:Twin ejection of Blue straggler and red straggller at the “dynamical stability limit turning towards unbalancing
    A new type of Quantum dynamical ejection at the meeting point of binary pairs dealing with pi dynamical unstability may be for a very important discovery paved the way for seeding rahu and kethu pi dinmaics a very important discovery as well as in pi dynamics of microchips
    Birth of a blue straggler star. Left: A normal star in a binary system gravitationally pulls in matter from an aging companion star that has swelled to a bloated red giant that is a few hundred times its original size. Right: After a couple hundred million years, the red giant star has burned out and collapsed to the white dwarf that shines intensely in ultraviolet wavelengths. The companion star has bulked up on hydrogen siphoned from the red giant to become much hotter, brighter and bluer. White dwarfs form when certain stars lose their outer atmospheres. The mass “must be going somewhere,” Sankaravelayudhan says, “and that’s to the companion normal star, which is close enough to attract the mass through gravity. Therefore, the white dwarf is left over after adding mass to a star, which becomes the blue straggler.”Third force acting in between rotating binary stars at 180 pi phases calls for a region that you just can’t cross — if you go in there, you get ejected from the system, left side or right side called the “dynamical stability limit” as clockwise rotational or anticlockwise rotational sometimes as 180 degree phase Twin ejection also says Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar
    Third force acting in between rotating binary stars calls for ejection of Rahu and Kethu out of solar and lunar ray interaction dynamics which is one of the greatest discovery of Quantum mechanics
    Birth of a blue straggler star. Left: A normal star in a binary system gravitationally pulls in matter from an aging companion star that has swelled to a bloated red giant that is a few hundred times its original size. Right: After a couple hundred million years, the red giant star has burned out and collapsed to the white dwarf that shines intensely in ultraviolet wavelengths. The companion star has bulked up on hydrogen siphoned from the red giant to become much hotter, brighter and bluer. White dwarfs form when certain stars lose their outer atmospheres. The mass “must be going somewhere,” Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar says, at the meeting balancing point of ejection becomes a dynamical unbalancing an attractive force becominga a net repulsive force of pi dynamics making it rotational clockwise or anticlockwise dynamics as the case may be. “and that’s to the companion normal star, which is close enough to attract the mass through gravity. Therefore, the white dwarf is left over after adding mass to a star, which becomes the blue straggler.”
    Hawking’s Blue straggler ejected from Sagittarius archer-reg – 00227563

    Journal Reference:
    1. David P. Fleming, Rory Barnes, David E. Graham, Rodrigo Luger, Thomas R. Quinn. On The Lack of Circumbinary Planets Orbiting Isolated Binary Stars. Astrophysical Journal, 2018 [link]
    2. Circumbinary castaways: Short-period binary systems can eject orbiting worlds
    3. Natalie M. Gosnell, Robert D. Mathieu, Aaron M. Geller, Alison Sills, Nathan Leigh, Christian Knigge. IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FORMATION OF BLUE STRAGGLER STARS FROMHSTULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS OF NGC 188. The Astrophysical Journal, 2015; 814 (2): 163 DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/163

    Hawking’s Blue straggler ejected from Sagittarius archer-reg – 00227563

  5. Citation:Diagonalisation of Conical twisters emissions of Mars and Saturn a dynamically forcible twisters of Space stimulated
    Going back to past historical discovery by Edward Teller at GWU, Teller predicted the Jahn–Teller effect (1937), which distorts molecules in certain situations; this affects the chemical reactions of metals, and in particular the coloration of certain metallic dyes. Teller and Hermann Arthur Jahn analyzed it as a piece of purely mathematical physics. In collaboration with Brunauer and Emmet, Teller also made an important contribution to surface physics and chemistry: the so-called Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) isotherm
    Third force acting in between rotating binary stars at 180 pi phases calls for a region that you just can’t cross — if you go in there, you get ejected from the system, left side or right side called the “dynamical stability limit but possibly by a new type of conical collisions may produce a more amplified force of ejection is contemplated at pi/4 collision dynamics unexpectedly says Sankravelayudhan Nandakumar.An interesting full spin and half spin Quasi emissions by interacting diagonolised twisters as cone shifted biosignatures of Saturn and Mars as partly envisaged by Prof. Jacob Scheuer partly further evaluated by Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar get amplified as diagonolised inputs of half spin and full spin emissions as jw plane conical shifts of pi/4between fiery quadrant and fourth quadrant may be compared with pi/4 connections requiring more investigation applying diagonalisation of swing dynamics . The journey of light from the very early universe to modern telescopes is long and winding. The ancient light traveled billions of years to reach us, and along the way, its path was distorted by the pull of matter, leading to a twisted light pattern. This twisted pattern of light, called B-modes, has at last been detected. The new study, led by Khee-Gan Lee and his team at the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in conjunction with researchers at Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley, will be published in an upcoming issue of Astrophysical Journal Letters.
    Journal Reference:
    1.J. Sikora, G. A. Wade, D. A. Bohlender, C. Neiner, M. E. Oksala, M. Shultz, D. H. Cohen, A. ud-Doula, J. Grunhut, D. Monin, S. Owocki, V. Petit, T. Rivinus, R. H. D. Townsend. Confirming HD 23478 as a new magnetic B star hosting an H -bright centrifugal magnetosphere. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 2015; 451 (2): 1928 DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv1051
    2.Jim Fuller, Matteo Cantiello, Dennis Stello, Rafael A. Garcia, Lars Bildsten. Asteroseismology can reveal strong internal magnetic fields in red giant stars. Science, 2015 DOI: 10.1126/science.aac6933
    3. V. Petit, D. H. Cohen, G. A. Wade, Y. Nazé, S. P. Owocki, J. O. Sundqvist, A. ud-Doula, A. Fullerton, M. Leutenegger, M. Gagné. X-ray emission from the giant magnetosphere of the magnetic O-type star NGC 1624-2. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 2015; 453 (3): 3288 DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv1741
    5.Siyu He, Shadab Alam, Simone Ferraro, Yen-Chi Chen & Shirley Ho. The detection of the imprint of filaments on cosmic microwave background lensing. Nature Astronomy, 2018 DOI: 10.1038/s41550-018-0426-z
    6.D. Hanson, S. Hoover, A. Crites, P. A. R. Ade, K. A. Aird, J. E. Austermann, J. A. Beall, A. N. Bender, B. A. Benson, L. E. Bleem, J. J. Bock, J. E. Carlstrom, C. L. Chang, H. C. Chiang, H-M. Cho, A. Conley, T. M. Crawford, T. de Haan, M. A. Dobbs, W. Everett, J. Gallicchio, J. Gao, E. M. George, N. W. Halverson, N. Harrington, J. W. Henning, G. C. Hilton, G. P. Holder, W. L. Holzapfel, J. D. Hrubes, N. Huang, J. Hubmayr, K. D. Irwin, R. Keisler, L. Knox, A. T. Lee, E. Leitch, D. Li, C. Liang, D. Luong-Van, G. Marsden, J. J. McMahon, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, L. Mocanu, T. E. Montroy, T. Natoli, J. P. Nibarger, V. Novosad, S. Padin, C. Pryke, C. L. Reichardt, J. E. Ruhl, B. R. Saliwanchik, J. T. Sayre, K. K. Schaffer, B. Schulz, G. Smecher, A. A. Stark, K. T. Story, C. Tucker, K. Vanderlinde, J. D. Vieira, M. P. Viero, G. Wang, V. Yefremenko, O. Zahn, M. Zemcov. Detection of B-Mode Polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background with Data from the South Pole Telescope. Physical Review Letters, 2013; 111 (14) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.141301

  6. Citation:a biosignature where the surface reflects a pattern on patterned fluctuations in the CMB as weak and high lensing effects of Alien genetic effect on Exoplanets
    The journey of light from the very early universe to modern telescopes is long and winding. The ancient light traveled billions of years to reach us, and along the way, its path was distorted by the pull of matter, leading to a twisted light pattern. This twisted pattern of light, called B-modes, has at last been detected. The new study, led by Khee-Gan Lee and his team at the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in conjunction with researchers at Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley, will be published in an upcoming issue of Astrophysical Journal Letters.
    Researchers used computers to study this weak lensing of the CMB and produce a map of filaments, of low density and high density hydrogen lensing The study used data from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, or BOSS
    The map shows a web of hydrogen gas that varies from low to high density that has been selected as weak lensing and high density lensing.We demonstrate wide-angle, broadband, and efficient reflection holography by utilizing coupled dipole-patch nanoantenna cells to impose an arbitrary phase profile on the reflected light. High-fidelity images were projected at angles of 45 and 20° with respect to the impinging light with efficiencies ranging between 40–50% over an optical bandwidth exceeding 180 nm. Excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions was found at a wide spectral range. The demonstration of such reflectarrays opens new avenues toward expanding the limits of large-angle holography. red-edge was expected to be shifted to a longer wavelength, since planets on the exoplanets use abundant IR radiation shifted shorter wave on ocean topology: The peak absorption spectrum (λmax) of the ocean of Exoplanet may give a clue over functional divergence of The key is detecting something called “red-edge” — a biosignature where the surface reflects a pattern that’s indicative of vegetation. Because photosynthetic processes absorb red light, scientists can pinpoint the red-edge effect on Earth occurring through observations between the red and infrared (IR) wavelengths shifted to short wavelength (416 nm) compared with that of the. contributed to creating a ridge of absorbance around 400 nm and below upto180 nm broadening its spectral sensitivity in the short and long wavelength direction. These results indicate that the evolutionary engineering approach is very effective in deciphering the process of functional divergence of visual pigments. Based on Bayesian statistics and performing site-directed mutagenes.
    The key is detecting something called “red-edge” — a biosignature where the surface reflects a pattern on patterned fluctuations in the CMB as weak lensing and high density effects, that are caused by the CMB light passing through exeeding 180 nm and below 400nm an interesting alien life may be generated on Exoplanets.
    .Citation:We demonstrate wide-angle, broadband, and efficient reflection holography by utilizing coupled dipole-patch nanoantenna cells to impose an arbitrary phase profile on the reflected light. High-fidelity images were projected at angles of 45 and 20° with respect to the impinging light with efficiencies ranging between 40–50% over an optical bandwidth exceeding 180 nm. Excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions was found at a wide spectral range. The demonstration of such reflectarrays opens new avenues toward expanding the limits of large-angle holography.
    Journal Reference:
    1. Siyu He, Shadab Alam, Simone Ferraro, Yen-Chi Chen & Shirley Ho. The detection of the imprint of filaments on cosmic microwave background lensing. Nature Astronomy, 2018 DOI: 10.1038/s41550-018-0426-z
    2. D. Hanson, S. Hoover, A. Crites, P. A. R. Ade, K. A. Aird, J. E. Austermann, J. A. Beall, A. N. Bender, B. A. Benson, L. E. Bleem, J. J. Bock, J. E. Carlstrom, C. L. Chang, H. C. Chiang, H-M. Cho, A. Conley, T. M. Crawford, T. de Haan, M. A. Dobbs, W. Everett, J. Gallicchio, J. Gao, E. M. George, N. W. Halverson, N. Harrington, J. W. Henning, G. C. Hilton, G. P. Holder, W. L. Holzapfel, J. D. Hrubes, N. Huang, J. Hubmayr, K. D. Irwin, R. Keisler, L. Knox, A. T. Lee, E. Leitch, D. Li, C. Liang, D. Luong-Van, G. Marsden, J. J. McMahon, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, L. Mocanu, T. E. Montroy, T. Natoli, J. P. Nibarger, V. Novosad, S. Padin, C. Pryke, C. L. Reichardt, J. E. Ruhl, B. R. Saliwanchik, J. T. Sayre, K. K. Schaffer, B. Schulz, G. Smecher, A. A. Stark, K. T. Story, C. Tucker, K. Vanderlinde, J. D. Vieira, M. P. Viero, G. Wang, V. Yefremenko, O. Zahn, M. Zemcov. Detection of B-Mode Polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background with Data from the South Pole Telescope. Physical Review Letters, 2013; 111 (14) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.141301

  7. Citation:Cosmic color changes from yellow to green by infra to ultrawave swing may be laser tuned to have eye power in curing diseases in Robots eyes during morning and evening using genetic changes
    Recommending Green color dominate TV screen to improve the eye sights
    “What excited us most is that we could see the green spots — the i-motifs — appearing and disappearing over time, decreasing activity in between day and night and most powerful in the evening with dominating green holograms so we know that they are forming, dissolving and forming again,”This may be more powerful in the evening as told by “Chandrakali syddhar” of Thiruvannamalai who was responsible for a curing holy water from “Chandrabaha river” The researchers showed that i-motifs mostly form at a particular point in the cell’s ‘life cycle’ — the late G1 phase, when DNA is being actively ‘read’. They also showed that i-motifs appear in some promoter regions (areas of DNA that control whether genes are switched on or off) and in telomeres, ‘end sections’ of chromosomes that are important in the aging process. The coming and going of the i-motifs is a clue to what they do. It seems likely that they are there to help switch genes on or off, and to affect whether a gene is actively read or not.” A biophysicist has shown that in viruses that infect both bacteria and humans, a phase transition at the temperature of infection allows the DNA to change from a rigid crystalline structure into a fluid-like structure that facilitates infection.
    This may also be used by blackhole dots and retraded hawking’s Emission may be simulated to cure disceases. An experimental gene therapy that uses viruses to introduce a therapeutic gene into the eye is safe and that it may be effective in preserving the vision of people with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is a leading cause of vision loss in the U.S., affecting an estimated 1.6 million Americans. The disease is marked by growth of abnormal blood vessels that leak fluid into the central portion of the retina called the macula, which we use for reading, driving and recognizing faces. An exciting new approach in which a virus, similar to the common cold, but altered in the lab so that it is unable to cause disease, is used as a carrier for a gene and is injected into the eye. The virus penetrates retinal cells and deposits a gene, which turns the cells into factories for productions of a therapeutic protein, called sFLT01. You disrupt this segment of the protein, by altering its amino acid sequence, using green rays you disrupt the ability of telomerase to function,”
    Deep inside the cells in our body lies our DNA. The information in the DNA code — all 6 billion A, C, G and T letters — provides precise instructions for how our bodies are built, and how they work. The iconic ‘double helix’ shape of DNA has captured the public imagination since 1953, when James Watson and Francis Crick famously uncovered the structure of DNA. However, it’s now known that short stretches of DNA can exist in other shapes, in the laboratory at least — and scientists suspect that these different shapes might play an important role in how and when the DNA code is ‘read’. “The i-motif is a four-stranded ‘knot’ of DNA,” “In the knot structure, C letters on the same strand of DNA bind to each other — so this is very different from a double helix, where ‘letters’ on opposite strands recognise each other, and where Cs bind to Gs [guanines by spooky action at a distance. The researchers developed a precise new tool — a fragment of an antibody molecule — that could specifically recognise and attach to i-motifs with a very high affinity. Until now, the lack of an antibody that is specific for i-motifs has severely hampered the understanding of their role. Using fluorescence techniques to pinpoint where the i-motifs were located, they identified numerous spots of green within the nucleus, which indicate the position of i-motifs.

    1. Jeffrey S Heier, Saleema Kherani, Shilpa Desai, Pravin Dugel, Shalesh Kaushal, Seng H Cheng, Cheryl Delacono, Annie Purvis, Susan Richards, Annaig Le-Halpere, John Connelly, Samuel C Wadsworth, Rafael Varona, Ronald Buggage, Abraham Scaria, Peter A Campochiaro. Intravitreous injection of AAV2-sFLT01 in patients with advanced neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a phase 1, open-label trial. The Lancet, 2017; DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30979-0
    2. Mahdi Zeraati, David B. Langley, Peter Schofield, Aaron L. Moye, Romain Rouet, William E. Hughes, Tracy M. Bryan, Marcel E. Dinger, Daniel Christ. I-motif DNA structures are formed in the nuclei of human cells. Nature Chemistry, 2018; DOI: 10.1038/s41557-018-0046-3
    3. Udom Sae-Ueng, Dong Li, Xiaobing Zuo, Jamie B Huffman, Fred L Homa, Donald Rau, Alex Evilevitch. Solid-to-fluid DNA transition inside HSV-1 capsid close to the temperature of infection. Nature Chemical Biology, 2014; 10 (10): 861 DOI: 10.1038/nchembio.1628
    4. T. Liu, U. Sae-Ueng, D. Li, G. C. Lander, X. Zuo, B. Jonsson, D. Rau, I. Shefer, A. Evilevitch. Solid-to-fluid-like DNA transition in viruses facilitates infection. Proceedings Academy of Sciences, 2014; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1321637111
    5.

  8. Citation:Possibility of Illuminating planetary emission out of phonon interactive dynamics similarly of stars rotation Clockwise or anticlockwise by basic element switch over by laser frequency selective dominance
    The superconductors allow electricity to flow through them with zero resistance, transferring currents at faster speeds and with less energy loss than the silicon chips used in the gadgets of todaylattice vibrations impact electron activity and disperse heat, but it was all through deduction evidence of how lattice vibrations impact electron activity and disperse heat, but it was all through deduction. We know that electrons in superconductors can overcome this by pairing up, but now we’ve got a closer look at it. inside bismuth based copper-oxide to observe changes in the energy and momentum of electrons passing through the metal, as well as changes in the metal at the atomic level using laser. “We found a nuanced atomic landscape, where certain high-frequency, ‘hot’ vibrations within the superconductor rapidly absorb energy from electrons and increase in intensity,” “We found a nuanced atomic landscape, where certain high-frequency, ‘hot’ vibrations within the superconductor rapidly absorb energy from electrons and increase in intensity,” The high-frequency vibrations increased their amplitude first in reaction to energy from electrons, while the amplitude of the lowest-frequency vibrations increased last. This showed the sample reacts differently to energy induced from light than from heat.
    atomic motion in separate phonon modes. At left (“LO” represents a longitudinal optical mode), selenium atoms exhibit a clockwise rotation while tungsten atoms stand still. At right (“LA” represents a longitudinal acoustic mode), tungsten atoms exhibit a clockwise rotation while selenium atoms rotate in a counterclockwise direction. in which the momentum and wavelike motion of electrons in a material can be sorted into opposite “valleys” in a material’s electronic structure, with each of these valleys representing the ones and zeroes in conventional binary data. It reports that some of the material’s phonons, a term describing collective vibrations in atomic crystals, are naturally rotating in a certain direction. “Phonons in solids are usually regarded as the collective linear motion of atoms which can be made to rotate clockwise or anticlockwise as the case may by laser simulation by selective selenium or tungsten crystal clusters. Our experiment discovered a new type of so-called chiral phonons where atoms move in circles in an atomic monolayer crystal of tungsten diselenide. One of the biggest advantages of chiral phonon is that the rotation is locked with the particle’s momentum and not easily disturbed.”by logner and short waves of lasers making it super conductive topological hot spots of a planet. And hence such elements separated during lunar solar interactions forming Rahu and Kethu ejection is very natural by a selective domination of tungsten and selenium collective layers getting delayed in emission during any neutral plane by analogy says Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar

  9. Citation: Effimov magneticfield interconnectioninterconnection ejecting multipole holograms on planetary topology
    The mathematical philosophy of polynomial functions scale factorization base on phase changing clusters as the frequency of spinning is increased that condense along polygon phases may be applied in Star forming feedback system of repetitive dynamical space as the periphery electrons of micro unit circle electron converges at 120 phase form as a typical “Nyquist regenerative ,self oscillating dynamics. A “quantum critical point,” the point at which a material undergoes a transition from one phase to another at absolute zero. The recent discovery of quantum critical points in a class of iron superconductors could allow physicists to develop a classification scheme for quantum criticality, a strange electronic state that may be intimately related to high-temperature superconductivityEffimavo magneticfield eject poly pahse hologram ejections on the planetary boundary as they are linked by Effimov magneticfield interconnections. Electrons fall within a quantum category called fermions. Heavy fermions are composite materials that contain rare earth elements. Their name stems from the fact that at extremely low temperatures, typically less than 1 kelvin, electrons move through the material as if they were 1,000 times more massive than normal. In the latest experiments, The current work succeeded in discovering superconductivity by reaching quantum criticality through the ordering of nuclear spins at ultralow temperatures, without applying an external magnetic field. The researchers are particularly interested in atoms that move in one plane parallel and perpendicular.
    The electrons interestingly winding up for inductive convergence as –R/L zero convergence and poles of -1/RC which may b suitably designed to produce self oscillating regenerative circuits to save energy.There musytbe more than Bardeen-Cooper electron split-up as a function phase changing phenomena involved as the frequency of spinning is varied.

    Generation of magneticpoles as the actual spin axis is varied along geometric pole axis differentiating multioutput holograms along the planetary boundaries as expressions of swing between northpole and south pole as a part of energy swing The electrons that wind up for different configuration s a function of temperature entropy which becomes the “Quantum critical points” of ployphases atypical one is comparable with that of Uranus.
    Cataclysmic variable star under asymmetric the beauty of magneticfield.There must be more information available due to spin axis variations of electrons calls for sudden jump over in its orbit that may be called Uranus Collier Nandakumar energy jump over accordingly. This gives more information on waxing and waning dynamics of surface toplogy says Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar inspired by the findings of Hon.Teo Monick. In general, auroras are a feature of the magnetosphere, the area surrounding a planet that is controlled by its magnetic field and shaped by the solar wind, a steady flow of charged particles emanating from the sun. Auroras are produced in the atmosphere as charged solar wind particles accelerate in the magnetosphere and are guided by the magnetic field close to the magnetic poles — that’s why the Earthly auroras are found around high latitudes. The magnetic axis is both offset from the center of the planet and lists at an angle of 60 degrees polygons of ejections as polygon holograms of multi poles generated from the rotational axis — an extreme tilt compared to the 11 degree difference on Earth.

    Images of hot spot structure on the Uranus surface (bottom at the left )and at different heights above the surface ( top row) obtained from show a dark central part (umbra) surrounded by filamentary penumbra, and an intrusion of hot plasma in the umbra (“light bridge”). The atmospheric images reveal fast plasma jets (bottom left), material accretion in the form of dense plasma sheets (second from the left) and very dynamic fibrils (two right panels). The light spot activity is exceptionally strong in the “light bridge” area, above which the IRIS satellite detected sharply enhanced UV radiation . Uranus rotating around our sun produces peculiar spectrum output with sudden drastic variation is the conclusion of this paper brings out sudden genetic variable in Exoplanetary system of multi hologram emissions.
    This particular FRB carried with it a polarization signature, which is characteristic of a wave that has traveled through a heavy field of electromagnetic radiation. The signal also exhibited telltale signs of Faraday rotation, which is an interaction between light and magnetism that twists radio waves into a corkscrew shape. these are not coming from our galaxy, they are extra-galactic of third projection.

    Still a long way to go
    Journal Reference:
    1. Laurent Lamy, George Randall Gladstone, Mathieu Barthelemy, Nick Achilleos, Patrick Guio, Michele K. Dougherty, Henrik Melin, Stanley W. H. Cowley, Tom S. Stallard, Jonathan D. Nichols, Gilda E. Ballester, Renee Prange, Kenneth C. Hansen, John T. Clarke, Philippe Zarka, Baptiste Cecconi, Jean Aboudarham, Nicolas André, Graziella Branduardi-Raymont. Earth-based detection of Uranus’ aurorae. Geophysical Research Letters, 2012; DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051312
    2. Christopher W. Peterson, Wladimir A. Benalcazar, Taylor L. Hughes & Gaurav Bahl. A quantized

  10. Citation:Infrared intensity on selenium tungsten layered microchips may generate on h-s poles reversing asymmetric peripheral magnetic poles in between c circular and linear periphery that may generate electricity in a newly designed space vehicle
    Atomic motion in separate phonon modes. At left (“LO” represents a longitudinal optical mode), selenium atoms exhibit a clockwise rotation while tungsten atoms stand still. At right (“LA” represents a longitudinal acoustic mode), tungsten atoms exhibit a clockwise rotation while selenium atoms rotate in a counterclockwise direction. in which the momentum and wavelike motion of electrons in a material can be sorted into opposite “valleys” in a material’s electronic structure, with each of these valleys representing the ones and zeroes in conventional some times for a neutrality stand still at neutral plane
    A mobile battery charger circuit is a device that can automatically recharge a mobile phone’s battery when the power in it gets low. Nowadays mobile phones have become an integral part of everyone’s life and hence require frequent charging of battery owing to longer duration usage. Battery chargers come as simple, …

    laser compression shrouding can be made for a test may be carried out as a part of experiment in Oxford laboratories using short frequency and along frequency laser simulation. We know that electrons in superconductors can overcome this by pairing up, but now we’ve got a closer look at it. inside bismuth based copper-oxide to observe changes in the energy and momentum of electrons passing through the metal, as well as changes in the metal at the atomic level using laser. “We found a nuanced atomic landscape, where certain high-frequency, ‘hot’ vibrations within the superconductor rapidly absorb energy from electrons and increase in intensity,” “We found a nuanced atomic landscape, where certain high-frequency, ‘hot’ vibrations within the superconductor rapidly absorb energy from electrons and increase in intensity,” The high-frequency vibrations increased their amplitude first in reaction to energy from electrons, while the amplitude of the lowest-frequency vibrations increased last. This showed the sample reacts differently to energy induced from light than from heat.

    Diagonal magneticfield becomes a linearity in between two boundaries of neutron star stretches for linearity where a matric mathematics is applicable as the periphery wobbles. “A newborn neutron star does not rotate uniformly — various parts of it spin with different speeds. This winds up and stretches the magnetic field inside the star in a way that resembles a tight ball of yarn. Through the computer simulations, we found that a highly wound magnetic field is unstable. It spontaneously generates knots, which emerge from the surface of the neutron star and form spots where the magnetic field is much stronger than the large-scale field. These magnetic spots produce strong electric currents, which eventually release heat, in the same way heat is produced when an electric current flows in a resistor.”
    Some previous theoretical studies have suggested that the magnetic field of a neutron star should break into smaller loops and dissipate as the star ages — a phenomenon known as “turbulent cascade.” Yet, there are several “middle-aged” neutron stars (roughly one million to a few million years old) that are known to have relatively strong magnetic fields, leaving scientists at a loss to reconcile the theoretical models with actual observations. “This result is also significant because it shows that the Hall effect, a phenomenon first discovered in terrestrial materials and which is thought to help weaken a magnetic field through turbulence, can actually lead to an attractor state with a stable magnetic-field structure.
    Journal Reference:
    1. Konstantinos N. Gourgouliatos, Rainer Hollerbach. Magnetic Axis Drift and Magnetic Spot Formation in Neutron Stars with Toroidal Fields. The Astrophysical Journal, 2017; 852 (1): 21 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa9d93
    2. Konstantinos N. Gourgouliatos, Andrew Cumming. Hall Attractor in Axially Symmetric Magnetic Fields in Neutron Star Crusts. Physical Review Letters, 2014; 112 (17) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.171101

  11. Matrics the king of mathematics for my phd students – 00320497
    The elevation of the matrix from mere tool to important mathematical theory owes a lot to the work of female mathematician Olga Taussky Todd (1906-1995), who began by using matrices to analyze vibrations on airplanes during World War II and became the torchbearer for matrix theory.
    Mathematics is the queen of the sciences and number theory is the queen of mathematics and Matrix is the king.. There is no study in the world which brings into more harmonious action all the faculties of the mind than [mathematics], … or, like this, seems to raise them, by successive steps of initiation, to higher and higher states of conscious intellectual being Mathematics is the music of reason.
    “Matrix” is the Latin word for womb, and it retains that sense in English. It can also mean more generally any place in which something is formed or produced. The orgins of mathematical matrices lie with the study of systems of simultaneous linear equations. An important Chinese text from between 300 BC and AD 200, Nine Chapters of the Mathematical Art (Chiu Chang Suan Shu), gives the first known example of the use of matrix methods to solve simultaneous equations. In the treatise’s seventh chapter, “Too much and not enough,” the concept of a determinant first appears, nearly two millennia before its supposed invention by the Japanese mathematician Seki Kowa in 1683 or his German contemporary Gottfried Leibnitz (who is also credited with the invention of differential calculus, separately from but simultaneously with Isaac Newton. More uses of matrix-like arrangements of numbers appear in chapter eight, “Methods of rectangular arrays,” in which a method is given for solving simultaneous equations using a counting board that is mathematically identical to the modern matrix method of solution outlined by Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855), also known as Gaussian elimination.
    The term “matrix” for such arrangements was introduced in 1850 by James Joseph SylvesterSylvester, incidentally, had a (very) brief career at the University of Virginia, which came to an abrupt end after an enraged Sylvester hit a newspaper-reading student with a sword stick and fled the country, believing he had killed the student! Since their first appearance in ancient China, matrices have remained important mathematical tools. Today, they are used not simply for solving systems of simultaneous linear equations, but also for describing the quantum mechanics of atomic structure, designing computer game graphics, analyzing relationships, and even plotting complicated dance steps!
    As usual in history of mathematics, one never knows for sure, when a particular structure appeared first. As for Pythagoras theorem, where Clay tablets indicate awareness of the theorem in special cases (but where Pythagoras realized first that it is a general theorem), also for determinants, there were early pre-versions. But writing down expressions like ac-bd in specific examples is not yet a general. The Metrics diagonalisation giving a force as changing a a square piece into trapezoidal determinant piece into a thin directional linearity.
    Leibnitz first wrote down expressions like -3 5 7 + 2 6 7 + 3 4 8 – 1 6 8 – 2 4 9 + 1 5 9 indicating he understood the general structure of Sarrus rule which can be used to write down equations and understand when equations have solutions. This is why Leibnitz is often credited as the one who introduced determinants. One could distinguish three discovery points: (i) when a result is used in specific examples or applications, (ii) when it has been understood as a general rule, (iii) when it is proven. It is interesting to me that determinants have appeared before matrix algebra or even matrices and that the multiplication rule for determinants predates the discovery of matrix multiplication. But in this case one can understand the reason: Cauchy-Binet is useful when trying to understand solutions of linear equations. The later can be understood also without matrix algebra, as it happened historically
    Because when it is first taught to students, the intuition behind matrix arithmetic is either not conveyed well or omitted entirely. Rather students are told to memorise the patterns and the rules, leaving students wondering where these rules come from. I think the problem is students are introduced to matrix arithmetic before vectors and vector spaces. I won’t go into the details, but a matrix is nothing more than a linear transformation on vectors. Almost everything you learn about matrices has some nice geometric intuition in terms of how they act on vectors. For example.
    • the number of collumns is equal to the number of dimensions in the input vector space
    • the number of rows is equal to the dimension of the output space.
    • the sum of two matrices is equivalent to addition of transformations ( (A+B)u=Au+Bu ).
    • matrix multiplication is equivalent to composition of transformations (with this it should be clear that in a product AB, the rows of B must equal the columns of A)
    • inverting a matix is equivalent to finding the inverse tranformation.
    • the determinant of a matrix gives you the volume of the transformed unit hypercube, and its sign indicates whether or not there is a change in orientation. Determinant of 0 indicates the transformation squashes the vector space into a space of lower dimension (think about how this implies Whether or not the matrix is invertible).
    • eigenvectors give you the directions that remain unchanged by the transformation, and the corresponding eigenvalues, how much those directions are stretched by. Think about how the product of the eigenvalues gives you the determinant.
    In physics, the S-matrix or scattering matrix relates the initial state and the final state of a physical system undergoing a scattering process. It is used in quantum mechanics, scattering theory and quantum field theory.
    The direction cosine application using Jacobean matrics and other methods
    The direction cosine method yields the direction cosine matrix (DCM), which defines the … are usually defined to develop the appropriate equations of vehicle (aircraft or missile) motion
    The direction cosine method yields the direction cosine matrix (DCM), which defines the … are usually defined to develop the appropriate equations of vehicle (aircraft or missile) motion To illustrate, consider the polar coordinate transformation, a Jocobian method is used to have directional radiation along x axis and y axis as a resultant of R matrix. is expressed by saying that the scalar components of a vector transform as do the coordinates of a point. …. direction cosine method yields the direction cosine matrix (DCM), which defines the … are usually defined to develop the appropriate equations of vehicle (aircraft or missile) motion. …. |VM|= VM = (u2 + v2 + w2)1/2. solve rocket problems.[13]:40 By late 1941, the … were useful to U.S. contractors in developing direction cosine matrix transformations and other inertial navigation architecture concepts that were applied to early U.S. …. The V1 and V2 Rockets of the Third Reich – WW2 The Direction Cosine Matrix Body to Wind block converts angle of attack and sideslip angle into a 3-by-3 direction cosine matrix (DCM). The DCM matrix performs the coordinate transformation of a vector in body axes (ox0, oy0, oz0) into a vector in wind axes (ox2, oy2, oz2). A rotation about oy0 through the angle of attack (α) to axes (ox1, oy1, oz1)
    1. A rotation about oz1 through the sideslip angle (β) to axes (ox2, oy2, oz2) 2.A rotation about oz1 through the sideslip angle (β) to axes (ox2, oy2, oz2)
    Flying Bomb (which made a characteristic buzzing sound), the V2 travelled faster than … to the amount of explosives that could be delivered by 10,000 V2 rockets. … to US contractors in developing direction cosine matrix transformations and ..
    Diagonal magneticfield becomes a linearity in between two boundaries of neutron star stretches for linearity where a matric mathematics is applicable as the periphery wobbles of asymmetric magneticpoles in between linear and circular boundaries a very importane finding in neutron star speed control.
    Physics astrophysics gas problems can be expressed in matrix form, where q I(qi 612 an), (6-5) ‘In and T is an n X Problems with multiple spatial dimensions can be formulated in terms of tridiagonal block matrices, which also have an easy inversion process. If x does not … Moreover, mixing matrices specified parametrically as in (4.44) can be treated very easily, with the additional … This formulation cannot be introduced in artificial intelligentia. Using matrix formulation, one can design various solution methods in arbitrary … The majority of the numerical approaches used in astrophysical fluid dynamics Using matrix formulation, one can design various solution methods in arbitrary … The majority of the numerical approaches used in astrophysical fluid dynamics. a method for relaxing the Courant-Friedrich-Levy (CFL) condition,which limits the time step size in explicit numerical methods in computational fluid dynamics.The method is based on re-formulating explicit methods in matrix form. Internal flows inside gravitationally stable astrophysical objects, such as the Sun,
    normal and compact stars, are rotating, highly compressed and extremely subsonic. Such
    low Mach number flows are usually encountered when studying, for example, the dynamo. Stellar atmospheres provide a unique and valuable testing ground for radiation
    hydrodynamics and MHD. Spectral line synthesis based on reasonably affordable 3‐D
    models can potentially reach very high accuracy, with widths, strengths, and shapes of . A method for enhancing the stability and robustness of explicit schemes in computational fluid dynamics is presented. The method is based in reformulating explicit schemes in matrix form, which cane modified gradually into semi or strongly-implicit .

    Journal Reference:
    1. Konstantinos N. Gourgouliatos, Rainer Hollerbach. Magnetic Axis Drift and Magnetic Spot Formation in Neutron Stars with Toroidal Fields. The Astrophysical Journal, 2017; 852 (1): 21 DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa9d93
    2. Konstantinos N. Gourgouliatos, Andrew Cumming. Hall Attractor in Axially Symmetric Magnetic Fields in Neutron Star Crusts. Physical Review Letters, 2014; 112 (17) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.171101

  12. The Matrics diagonalisation giving a force as changing a a square piece into trapezoidal determinant piece into a thin directional linearity revolutionised science by matrics application

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