Neurology News

Newly Identified Memory Pathway Could Prevent PTSD

September 1, 2015

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Newly Identified Pathway Could Prevent PTSD

In a newly published study, a team of researchers show that blocking amygdala cells’ interactions with serotonin after trauma may prevent post-traumatic stress disorder. About 8 million Americans suffer from nightmares and flashbacks to a traumatic event. This condition, known as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is particularly common among soldiers who have been in combat, […]

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Scientists Develop New Technique To Improve Kidney Research

August 25, 2015

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Scientists Develop New Technique for Kidney Research

Scientists at Yale School of Medicine have developed a new 3D-imaging technique to better understand and to help treat kidney disease. One in four patients treated with the widely used anti-cancer drug cisplatin develop chronic kidney disease. To better understand how the treatment leads to kidney damage, and possibly prevent it, a team of researchers […]

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Researchers Reveal That Cost Considerations Are Wired Into The Learning of Habits

August 21, 2015

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Researchers Discover Neurons That Drive Habits

A newly published study from MIT shows that habit formation in primates is driven by neurons that represent the cost of a habit, as well as the reward. We are creatures of habit, nearly mindlessly executing routine after routine. Some habits we feel good about; others, less so. Habits are, after all, thought to be […]

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International Research Collaboration Reveals Mutations in DCHS1 Cause Mitral Valve Prolapse

August 19, 2015

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Researchers Reveal Gene for Mitral Valve Prolapse

Researchers reveal that mutations of the DCHS1 gene cause a common form of mitral valve prolapse. An international research collaboration led by Harvard Medical School investigators at Massachusetts General Hospital has identified the first gene whose mutations cause the common form of mitral valve prolapse, a heart valve disorder that affects almost 2.5 percent of […]

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Researchers Identify a Potential Marker for Schizophrenia

August 12, 2015

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New Study Shows Brain Abnormalities Are Present Even Before Onset of Schizophrenia

New research from Yale University reveals that even before the onset of schizophrenia, irregularities in key brain areas are already present in individuals at higher risk of developing psychosis. The findings identify a potential marker for the debilitating disease that afflicts 1% of the world’s population and suggest at least a partial explanation for why […]

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Researchers Discover a Group of Local, Inhibitory Interneurons in the Fruit Fly

July 21, 2015

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A New Type of Neuron is Responsible for Selective Motion Vision

A team of researchers has discovered a new type of neuron is responsible for selective motion vision in fruit flies. Motion despite immobility. The illusion of self-motion is created, for example, in an IMAX cinema with the help of large-format movies. This is possible, because the brain calculates self-motion from the visual surround moving past […]

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Scientists Engineer Brain Cells to Produce Light

July 16, 2015

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Scientists Engineer Brain Cells to Produce Light like Fireflies

Neuroscientists from Brown University and Central Michigan University are working to make optogenetics even more powerful in the brain and beyond. Providence, Rhode Island (Brown University) — The revolution that optogenetics technology has brought to biology — neuroscience in particular — could be transformed all over again if a new project getting underway at Brown […]

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New Research Shows Nitrous Oxide Changes Brainwaves

July 6, 2015

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Researchers Reveal Brainwave Changes in Patients Receiving Nitrous Oxide

New research from MIT details brainwave changes in patients receiving nitrous oxide, revealing that EEG recordings show large-amplitude slow-delta waves after the administration of nitrous oxide at anesthetic doses. Nitrous oxide, commonly known as “laughing gas,” has been used in anesthesiology practice since the 1800s, but the way it works to create altered states is […]

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Study Shows Muscle Contraction May Contribute to Stroke Damage

June 29, 2015

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New Research Shows Muscle Contraction May Contribute to Stroke Damage

The precise regulation of cerebral blood flow is critical for normal brain function, and its disruption underlies many neuropathologies. Using optical imaging, researchers from Yale University found that capillary pericytes in mice and humans do not express smooth muscle actin and are morphologically and functionally distinct from adjacent precapillary smooth muscle cells (SMCs). An investigation […]

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Neuroscientists Show Multiple Cortical Regions Are Needed to Process Information

June 19, 2015

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Scientists Show Multiple Cortical Regions Needed to Process Information

Neuroscientists from MIT show that multiple cortical regions work together simultaneously to process sensorimotor information despite their predetermined specialized roles. Researchers at MIT have proven that the brain’s cortex doesn’t process specific tasks in highly specialized modules — showing that the cortex is, in fact, quite dynamic when sharing information. Previous studies of the brain […]

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Artificially Reactivating Positive Memories Can Reverse Depression

June 18, 2015

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Recalling Happier Memories to Reverse Depression

By artificially reactivating happy memories that were formed before the onset of depression, MIT neuroscientists have shown that they can cure the symptoms of depression in mice. The findings, described in the June 18 issue of Nature, offer a possible explanation for the success of psychotherapies in which depression patients are encouraged to recall pleasant […]

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Pupil Diameter Linked to Task Performance

June 15, 2015

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Pupil Diameter Predicts Task Performance

Researchers from the Yale School of Medicine reveal how changes in the activity of individual neurons during performance of a task correspond exactly to the diameter of the pupil, showing signatures of high arousal for a wide diameter and low arousal for a small diameter. If you want to know who is ready to perform […]

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Study Shows Poor Sleep Linked to Alzheimer’s Disease

June 3, 2015

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Poor Sleep Linked to Alzheimer’s and Memory Loss

A newly published study from UC Berkeley reveals a new pathway through which Alzheimer’s disease may cause memory decline later in life. UC Berkeley scientists have found compelling evidence that poor sleep — particularly a deficit of the deep, restorative slumber needed to hit the save button on memories — is a channel through which […]

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Key Areas of the Brain Develop Differently in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

May 29, 2015

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Brain Development During Adolescence in Bipolar Disorder

A newly published study from Yale University shows that key areas of the brain that help regulate emotions develop differently in adolescents with bipolar disorder. In brain areas that regulate emotions, adolescents with bipolar disorder lose larger-than-anticipated volumes of gray matter, or neurons, and show no increase in white matter connections, which is a hallmark […]

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Neuroscientists Identify Brain Circuit That Controls Decision-Making Under Conflict

May 28, 2015

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Scientists Identify Brain Circuit that Controls Emotional Decisions

A newly published study details how neuroscientists from MIT identified a neural circuit that controls decision-making under conflict. Some decisions arouse far more anxiety than others. Among the most anxiety-provoking are those that involve options with both positive and negative elements, such choosing to take a higher-paying job in a city far from family and […]

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Brain Activity Predicts Weight Gain

May 20, 2015

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New Study Shows How the Brain Responds to Food Cues

A new study set to appear in The Journal Neuroscience illustrates that it is the way the brain responds to food cues when individuals are not hungry that predicts weight gain and that the reasons why people gain weight can be fundamentally different. The way the brain responds while sipping a delicious milkshake can predict […]

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A Promising New Treatment for Multiple Sclerosis

May 15, 2015

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Researchers Solve Multiple Sclerosis Puzzle

New research shows that auto-reactive T cells in MS patients produce different types of inflammatory hormones called cytokines than they do in healthy subjects, opening the door to new treatments for the disease. Evidence has long suggested multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease, but researchers have been puzzled because they found the same T […]

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Galactic Cosmic Rays Can Cause Dementia-Like Symptoms During Extended Space Travel

May 14, 2015

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Study Shows Extended Space Travel May Warp Astronauts' Brains

A new study from UC Irvine shows that galactic cosmic rays can cause dementia-like symptoms, making extended space trips to locations such as Mars more difficult to accomplish. What happens to an astronaut’s brain during a mission to Mars? Nothing good. It’s besieged by destructive particles that can forever impair cognition, according to a UC […]

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