Neurology News

New Research Shows Nitrous Oxide Changes Brainwaves

July 6, 2015

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Researchers Reveal Brainwave Changes in Patients Receiving Nitrous Oxide

New research from MIT details brainwave changes in patients receiving nitrous oxide, revealing that EEG recordings show large-amplitude slow-delta waves after the administration of nitrous oxide at anesthetic doses. Nitrous oxide, commonly known as “laughing gas,” has been used in anesthesiology practice since the 1800s, but the way it works to create altered states is […]

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Study Shows Muscle Contraction May Contribute to Stroke Damage

June 29, 2015

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New Research Shows Muscle Contraction May Contribute to Stroke Damage

The precise regulation of cerebral blood flow is critical for normal brain function, and its disruption underlies many neuropathologies. Using optical imaging, researchers from Yale University found that capillary pericytes in mice and humans do not express smooth muscle actin and are morphologically and functionally distinct from adjacent precapillary smooth muscle cells (SMCs). An investigation […]

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Neuroscientists Show Multiple Cortical Regions Are Needed to Process Information

June 19, 2015

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Scientists Show Multiple Cortical Regions Needed to Process Information

Neuroscientists from MIT show that multiple cortical regions work together simultaneously to process sensorimotor information despite their predetermined specialized roles. Researchers at MIT have proven that the brain’s cortex doesn’t process specific tasks in highly specialized modules — showing that the cortex is, in fact, quite dynamic when sharing information. Previous studies of the brain […]

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Artificially Reactivating Positive Memories Can Reverse Depression

June 18, 2015

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Recalling Happier Memories to Reverse Depression

By artificially reactivating happy memories that were formed before the onset of depression, MIT neuroscientists have shown that they can cure the symptoms of depression in mice. The findings, described in the June 18 issue of Nature, offer a possible explanation for the success of psychotherapies in which depression patients are encouraged to recall pleasant […]

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Pupil Diameter Linked to Task Performance

June 15, 2015

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Pupil Diameter Predicts Task Performance

Researchers from the Yale School of Medicine reveal how changes in the activity of individual neurons during performance of a task correspond exactly to the diameter of the pupil, showing signatures of high arousal for a wide diameter and low arousal for a small diameter. If you want to know who is ready to perform […]

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Study Shows Poor Sleep Linked to Alzheimer’s Disease

June 3, 2015

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Poor Sleep Linked to Alzheimer’s and Memory Loss

A newly published study from UC Berkeley reveals a new pathway through which Alzheimer’s disease may cause memory decline later in life. UC Berkeley scientists have found compelling evidence that poor sleep — particularly a deficit of the deep, restorative slumber needed to hit the save button on memories — is a channel through which […]

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Key Areas of the Brain Develop Differently in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

May 29, 2015

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Brain Development During Adolescence in Bipolar Disorder

A newly published study from Yale University shows that key areas of the brain that help regulate emotions develop differently in adolescents with bipolar disorder. In brain areas that regulate emotions, adolescents with bipolar disorder lose larger-than-anticipated volumes of gray matter, or neurons, and show no increase in white matter connections, which is a hallmark […]

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Neuroscientists Identify Brain Circuit That Controls Decision-Making Under Conflict

May 28, 2015

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Scientists Identify Brain Circuit that Controls Emotional Decisions

A newly published study details how neuroscientists from MIT identified a neural circuit that controls decision-making under conflict. Some decisions arouse far more anxiety than others. Among the most anxiety-provoking are those that involve options with both positive and negative elements, such choosing to take a higher-paying job in a city far from family and […]

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Brain Activity Predicts Weight Gain

May 20, 2015

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New Study Shows How the Brain Responds to Food Cues

A new study set to appear in The Journal Neuroscience illustrates that it is the way the brain responds to food cues when individuals are not hungry that predicts weight gain and that the reasons why people gain weight can be fundamentally different. The way the brain responds while sipping a delicious milkshake can predict […]

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A Promising New Treatment for Multiple Sclerosis

May 15, 2015

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Researchers Solve Multiple Sclerosis Puzzle

New research shows that auto-reactive T cells in MS patients produce different types of inflammatory hormones called cytokines than they do in healthy subjects, opening the door to new treatments for the disease. Evidence has long suggested multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease, but researchers have been puzzled because they found the same T […]

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Galactic Cosmic Rays Can Cause Dementia-Like Symptoms During Extended Space Travel

May 14, 2015

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Study Shows Extended Space Travel May Warp Astronauts' Brains

A new study from UC Irvine shows that galactic cosmic rays can cause dementia-like symptoms, making extended space trips to locations such as Mars more difficult to accomplish. What happens to an astronaut’s brain during a mission to Mars? Nothing good. It’s besieged by destructive particles that can forever impair cognition, according to a UC […]

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Targeting Brain Metastases with Stem Cell Therapy

April 27, 2015

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Targeting Breast to Brain Metastatic Tumor

Researchers have developed an in vivo imageable breast-to-brain metastasis mouse model. Using real time in vivo imaging and subsequent composite fluorescence imaging, they show a widespread distribution of micro- and macro-metastasis in different stages of metastatic progression. Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI) researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) have developed an “imageable” mouse model of […]

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Neuroscientists Show How Brain Cells Control the Flood of Information

April 27, 2015

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Controlling the Thalamus with Dynamic Synapses

Neuroscientists from Brown University show how cells in the brain’s cortex can either stifle or enhance sensory information incoming from the thalamus, thereby allowing it to focus on just some of the many sensory inputs it might choose to consider. Providence, Rhode Island (Brown University) — We consider only some of the sights, sounds, and […]

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New Research Shows Odor Receptors Do Much More Than Pick Up Scents

April 21, 2015

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Scientists Shed New Light on Sensory Neural Development

New research from Yale University sheds light on sensory neural development and possible new ways to identify mechanisms that can repair damage to the central nervous system. Smell is the only sensory system with a back up, which throughout most of adult life forms new sensory neurons that express specific odor receptors. Now Yale researchers […]

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Ebola-Like Virus Safely Destroys Brain Tumors

April 17, 2015

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Virus Safely Destroys Brain Tumors

New research from Yale University details how scientists used a novel chimeric virus (VSV-LASV-GPC) containing genes from both Lassa and VSV to target and completely destroyed brain cancer without adverse actions within or outside the brain. Brain tumors are notoriously difficult for most drugs to reach, but Yale researchers have found a promising but unlikely […]

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New Method of High-Resolution Whole-Brain Staining

April 13, 2015

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New Staining Method to Reveal Circuit Diagram of the Brain

Researchers from the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology have developed a special staining method that brings the reconstruction of all nerve cells and their connections within reach. Learning, it is widely believed is based on changes in the connections between nerve cells. The knowing which nerve cells is connected to which other nerve cell would […]

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AZD05030 Restores Memory and Synapse Loss in Alzheimer Mice

April 2, 2015

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Experimental Cancer Drug Restores Memory

New research from Yale University reveals that the experimental cancer drug AZD05030 blocks damage triggered during the formation of amyloid-beta plaques, restoring synaptic connections and memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s. Memory and as well as connections between brain cells were restored in mice with a model of Alzheimer’s given an experimental cancer drug, […]

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New HIV Finding Dampens Hopes of an Impending Cure

March 27, 2015

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New Finding Dampens Hopes of an HIV Cure

New research from Yale University shows that HIV can establish itself in the brain as soon as four months after initial infection, dampening the hopes of an impending cure for a disease that afflicts more than 35 million people. Within two years of infection, a genetically distinct version of HIV replicates in the brains of […]

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