Intriguing Warp Drive Research Dashes Faster Than Light Travel Dreams – But Reveals Stranger Possibilities

Warp Speed Concept

In 1994, physicist Miguel Alcubierre proposed a radical technology that would allow faster than light travel: the warp drive, a hypothetical way to skirt around the universe’s ultimate speed limit by bending the fabric of reality.

It was an intriguing idea – even NASA has been researching it at the Eagleworks laboratory – but Alcubierre’s proposal contained problems that seemed insurmountable. Now, a recent paper by US-based physicists Alexey Bobrick and Gianni Martire has resolved many of those issues and generated a lot of buzz.

But while Bobrick and Martire have managed to substantially demystify warp technology, their work actually suggests that faster-than-light travel will remain out of reach for beings like us, at least for the time being.

There is, however, a silver lining: warp technology may have radical applications beyond space travel.

Across the universe?

The story of warp drives starts with Einstein’s crowning achievement: general relativity. The equations of general relativity capture the way in which spacetime – the very fabric of reality – bends in response to the presence of matter and energy which, in turn, explains how matter and energy move.

General relativity places two constraints on interstellar travel. First, nothing can be accelerated past the speed of light (around 300,000 km per second). Even traveling at this dizzying speed it would still take us four years to arrive at Proxima Centauri, the nearest star to our Sun.

Second, the clock on a spaceship traveling close to the speed of light would slow down relative to a clock on Earth (this is known as time dilation). Assuming a constant state of acceleration, this makes it possible to travel the stars. One can reach a distant star that is 150 light years away within one’s lifetime. The catch, however, is that upon one’s return more than 300 years will have passed on Earth.

A new hope

This is where Alcubierre came in. He argued that the mathematics of general relativity allowed for “warp bubbles” – regions where matter and energy were arranged in such a way as to bend spacetime in front of the bubble and expand it to the rear in a way that allowed a “flat” area inside the bubble to travel faster than light.

To get a sense of what “flat” means in this context, note that spacetime is sort of like a rubber mat. The mat curves in the presence of matter and energy (think of putting a bowling ball on the mat). Gravity is nothing more than the tendency objects have to roll into the dents created by things like stars and planets. A flat region is like a part of the mat with nothing on it.

Such a drive would also avoid the uncomfortable consequences of time dilation. One could potentially make a round trip into deep space and still be greeted by one’s nearest and dearest at home.

A spacetime oddity

How does Alcubierre’s device work? Here discussion often relies on analogies, because the mathematics is so complex.

Imagine a rug with a cup on it. You’re on the rug and you want to get to the cup. You could move across the rug, or tug the rug toward you. The warp drive is like tugging on spacetime to bring your destination closer.

But analogies have their limits: a warp drive doesn’t really drag your destination toward you. It contracts spacetime to make your path shorter. There’s just less rug between you and the cup when you switch the drive on.

Alcubierre’s suggestion, while mathematically rigorous, is difficult to understand at an intuitive level. Bobrick and Martire’s work is set to change all that.

Starship bloopers

Bobrick and Martire show that any warp drive must be a shell of material in a constant state of motion, enclosing a flat region of spacetime. The energy of the shell modifies the properties of the spacetime region inside it.

This might not sound like much of a discovery, but until now it was unclear what warp drives might be, physically speaking. Their work tells us that a warp drive is, somewhat surprisingly, like a car. A car is also a shell of energy (in the form of matter) that encloses a flat region of spacetime. The difference is that getting inside a car does not make you age faster. That, however, is the kind of thing a warp drive might do.

Using their simple description, Bobrick and Martire demonstrate a method for using Einstein’s general relativity equations to find spacetimes that allow for arrangements of matter and energy that would act as warp bubbles. This gives us a mathematical key for finding and classifying warp technologies.

Their work manages to address one of the core problems for warp drives. To make the equations balance, Alcubierre’s device runs on “negative energy” – but we are yet to discover any viable sources of negative energy in the real world.

Alcubierre Drive Visualization

Worse, the negative energy requirements of Alcubierre’s device are immense. By some estimates, the entire energy in the known universe would be needed (though later work brings the number down a bit).

Bobrick and Martire show a warp drive could be made from positive energy (i.e. “normal” energy) or from a mixture of negative and positive energy. That said, the energy requirements would still be immense.

If Bobrick and Martire are right, then a warp drive is just like any other object in motion. It would be subject to the universal speed limit enforced by general relativity after all, and it would need some kind of conventional propulsion system to make it accelerate.

The news gets worse. Many kinds of warp drive can only modify the spacetime inside in a certain way: by slowing down the clock of the passenger in exactly the way that makes a trip into deep space a problem.

Bobrick and Martire do show that some warp drives could travel faster than light, but only if they are created already traveling at that speed – which is no help for any ordinary human hoping for a bit of interstellar tourism.

The end game

Remember that a warp drive can modify the region of flat spacetime it encloses. It can, in particular, speed up or slow down a clock inside the drive.

Consider what it would mean to have such an object available. Want to put someone with a terminal illness on ice? Stick them in a warp drive and slow their clock down. From their perspective, a few years will pass, while a hundred years will pass on Earth — time enough to find a cure.

Want to grow your crops overnight? Stick them in a warp drive and speed the clock up. A few days will pass for you, and a few weeks will pass for your seedlings.

There are even more exotic possibilities: by rotating the spacetime inside a drive one may be able to produce a battery capable of holding huge amounts of energy.

Faster-than-light travel remains a distant dream. But warp technology would be revolutionary in its own right.

Written by Sam Baron, Associate professor, Australian Catholic University.

Originally published on The Conversation.The Conversation

55 Comments on "Intriguing Warp Drive Research Dashes Faster Than Light Travel Dreams – But Reveals Stranger Possibilities"

  1. Xinhang Shen | April 16, 2021 at 6:01 pm | Reply

    Einstein’s relativity has made many people think illogically, though it is possible to have superluminal travels. I would like to point out that there is no such thing called spacetime in nature, not to mention the existence of expansion, curvature, ripples, singularities of spacetime, which are resulted from Einstein’s special relativity introducing a fake elastic time through Lorentz Transformation to replace our rigid physical time measured with physical clocks.

    We know time is a concept abstracted from the status changes of physical processes such as the change of the view angle of the sun, the increase of the height of a tree, the distance that a car has driven, the biological age of a person, the number of cycles of a clock, etc. All the changes of the statuses of physical processes are the products of time and changing rates. The effect of time can never be shown without status changing rate. Actually, every physical clock records the number of cycles of a periodical process and uses this number to indirectly calculate the elapsed physical time (i.e. T = tf/k where t is time of the reference frame of the clock, f is the frequency of the clock in that reference frame and k is a calibration constant). The number of cycles is the product of time and frequency. In special relativity, when observed from a stationary frame, relativistic time of a moving frame does become shorter t’ = t/γ but the relativistic frequency of a clock on the moving frame becomes faster f’ = γf to make the product of relativistic time and relativistic frequency the same as that of the stationary clock: T’ = t’f’/k = (t/γ)(γf)/k = tf/k = T. That is, clock time is invariant of Lorentz Transformation, absolute and independent of reference frames in special relativity. Therefore, relativistic time is a fake time (a mathematical variable without physical meaning) and special relativity is wrong. As our physical time is absolute, there is no such thing called spacetime in nature, and all relativistic spacetime based theories are wrong.

    The disproof of relativity directly leads us to know the existence of aether, a fluid filling up all the space in the visible universe, as the medium of light and all other electromagnetic phenomena. As light is waves of aether just as sound is waves of air, superluminal vehicles in aether are as possible as supersonic planes in air. It is just a matter of how long time it will take to realize it.

    • Perhaps you could provide some experimental evidence for your views?

      • Michael Scott | April 18, 2021 at 12:07 am | Reply

        Easier said than done. There a physical experiments and verifiable calculations that yield a same result but in different manners.
        Consider a clock that runs on a ten hour day as well as a ten hour night. Consider the earth put into ten sections so arranged that the rotation of the earth would not change the time table of seasons to interrupt the utilization of maximizing the daylight.
        Further consider how a calendar could be set to 13 months that include 28 days with a leap period of 14 days ever 11 years to offset the irregularities associated with the conventional calendar. Every certain thousand and million years those leap periods would be omitted to make a perfectly accurate instrument of measure that not only gives consistency but efficiency aligned with maximizing resource accountability.
        Back in a time when things were relatively inexpensive scientists of the 19th century during Tesla’s periods came up with experiments that yielded incredible results but only by using the resources of those with a desire to invest by risk to greatly add to their profit.
        In time things will be realized if only to make living more reasonable

      • Xinhang Shen | April 18, 2021 at 5:44 am | Reply

        The problem is that relativists burying their head in sand deny all evidences presented to them. The long time existing, most reliable and obvious experimental evidence is the universal synchronization of the atomic clocks on the GPS satellites which show the same absolute time relative to all reference frames, directly denies the claim of special relativity that clocks can never be synchronized relative to more than one inertial reference frame no matter how you correct them because “time is relative”.

        You can’t wake up a person who is pretending asleep!

    • Intrepid Explorator | April 17, 2021 at 5:28 pm | Reply

      I don’t know about that!

    • The rubber mat concept is brutally flawed, and it should be banned as a demonstration of gravity or space-time.

      However, aether/’fluid’ would not be a proper description either.

      I’ve got a hypothesis for what ‘space-time’ is, that explains why gravity happens, and unifies a few things. Good news is that it’s not ’empty’; we don’t need rockets anymore, warp bubbles should be possible, and even matter-transporters should be possible.

      Once my prototype for a rocketless impulse drive (anti-grav) is complete and can demonstrate lift, without external physical interaction on the material universe – just space-time itself – it’ll be time to hammer out the details of this hypothesis and make it workable.

      It’ll also be time to build a team to help with that, and to start building a whole new kind of spaceship.

    • One question, are you a member of a scientific community?

  2. Please give real world examples of concrete experiments that laymen can understand proving your theory that peacetime is not real

    • Xinhang Shen | April 18, 2021 at 5:49 am | Reply

      The problem is that relativists burying their head in sand deny all evidences presented to them. The long time existing, most reliable and obvious experimental evidence is the universal synchronization of the atomic clocks on the GPS satellites which show the same absolute time relative to all reference frames, directly denies the claim of special relativity that clocks can never be synchronized relative to more than one inertial reference frame no matter how you correct them because “time is relative”.

      You can’t wake up a person who is pretending asleep!

  3. Is it not possible that time itself is a non linear quantity like waves on the ocean and we merely perceive at best it like the up and down motion on a boat. Many animals do not perceive time in this way either but things like dejavu and the same task or journey in different times are a sign we have a conscious grasp of time.

    Again the mention of gravity being the way a spacetime rubber sheet is affected by mass is actually about as far as science has bothered to go with regards to the whole what makes gravity question. I had a theory on how to generate and positive and negative gravity without using mass but obviously the scientific community and certain government bodies wanted my silence at the time. So if you could control gravity, would that also affect spacetime?

  4. John Fitzgerald | April 17, 2021 at 7:33 am | Reply

    Xinhang Shen

    Huh?

    The units of time are time; seconds, minutes, etc. The units of frequency are the reciprocal of time. That is, f = 1/t. This is the definition of frequency. One second repeats itself every second. So, t*f = t*(1/t) = t/t=1, always. So your T and T’ are, of course always equivalent, they always equal 1.

    As such, T = 1 = T’.

    You have “proven” that 1 = 1. It better be.

    Oh, sure, you can throw in this “calibration constant”, whatever that is. In this case you get k=k, also good. I am, though, unsure what the physical basis for this “calibration constant” is. Even without knowing what this is, as it has a physical basis. It should be k and k’. In this case, you have proven that k=k’. That is also good. It’s the point. Whatever experiment you do in two different reference frame, yields identical results. Any conversion factor, calibration constant, like pi, 12 ft/in, whatever, will be measured as identical within each frame. Also good. And seeing as k=k’, then K’ can be replaced by k, and k=k, of course.

    Why you have chosen “T” and “T'” as the letters to represent this is entirely unclear. “T” and “t” are generally reserved to represent values of time, with units of sec, light-year, etc. By your definition, it isn’t. It introduces an opportunity for confusion, representing itself as being time or time like or something. It isn’t.

    You might want to look at the proof that 1=2. It’s similar.

    This kind of error is common. I can’t begin to say how many times I have worked a problem only to end up with a two page proof that 1=1. Doh!

    I’m not sure what else I can tell you. Perhaps that when you get this sort of result in your calculations, results that are contrary to the established science, you should reexamine your reasoning to figure out what you have done wrong. This is how learning works. You also might consider having someone check your calculations. There are physics forums where you can ask “What’d I do wrong here?” There is always someone that is happy to help.

    • Clyde Spencer | April 18, 2021 at 7:16 am | Reply

      Fitzgerald
      “Light year” is an astronomical distance, not a measure of time. I thought that you might know what you were talking about until you confused time and distance.

      Frequency is not the reciprocal of time. Instead, it is defined as being wave-cycles per unit of time, such as 60 Hertz, or 60 cycles per second. Yes, something can have a frequency of 1 cycle per unit of time, but your definition loses the associated units of cycles. That is, it fails the test of unit analysis.

  5. Kristine Smith | April 17, 2021 at 7:37 am | Reply

    Wow your super smart

  6. … but there is a bit of the hope, and that is the case in which we don’t understand the Universe enough and perhaps the Creators of the Universe were having some mercy for us…

  7. … there might be small hope that we don’t understand the Universe still, and that the creators have left some little fun for us…
    … this way is more boring, but more safe. I like safe…

  8. The ether “special people” are back…

  9. Give it up XS. You’ve been spouting the same tired criticism of Einstein in multiple articles. Nobody cares what you think. They really don’t.

  10. Broken Testicle | April 17, 2021 at 10:09 am | Reply

    Ready… Atomic clock… BOOM!!! TIME BABY!

  11. Broken Testicle | April 17, 2021 at 10:22 am | Reply

    While I’m on the subject of time… Its Hammer Time!!!! Boom! I had a dream about “negative dark static antimatter” could this be what’s clogging my toilet? No seriously, is there such a thing… If so how do I collect it… So i can list it on eBay…

  12. Kevin Scheele | April 17, 2021 at 10:33 am | Reply

    No wonder that I’ve had such a difficult time understanding Einstein! His equations are attempting to squeeze another dimension into our frame of reference. If there’s no “spacetime”, then time really IS a fourth dimension containing the other three physical dimensions.

    Why then do scientists again and again “prove* these equations by experimentation and observation if they are wrong? Would time exist without an observer to measure it? Could anything exist without time being involved?

    Curious minds want to know.

  13. Lots of “Big Brains” on this one. The single paragraph stating that a warp drive is just like standard motion, discredits everything else.

  14. So much theory, such little practice. These articles are getting old.

  15. This is why you should never permit pubic comments on a pop-sci article

  16. How do you define, prove or test for …. the aether? Or otherwise manipulate it?

  17. A glaring mistake in the article I feel it necessary to point out.

    The farmer putting crops in a warp drive will check it in a day to find out his crops have aged less than a second! If he got in it he could step out in a day to find fully grown crops (so long as someone else tended them for him.) Which really defeats the purpose.

    To the individual spouting gibberish in the first comment. We know unequivocally that space-time is real and behaves exactly as Einstein predicted due to gravitational waves. If there were an aether, or anything other than space-time gravitational waves would have had far different properties or not been detected at all.

    There is no place for “belief” in science. There is prove and disprove and what you are prattling on about has been 100% DISPROVEN. Go take your nonsense somewhere that it belongs like a church and off of science blogs!

  18. Mitch J Brooks | April 17, 2021 at 3:11 pm | Reply

    2 cesium nuclear clocks , 2 microsingularities, and you have faster then light travel…..but not at speed…..u have time travel

  19. Dennis Mummert | April 17, 2021 at 3:17 pm | Reply

    I got some enjoyment from reading your interpretation of relativity, but I’d like to point out that “you can’t define x in terms of x”. In other words, using the Lorentz Contraction to disprove special relativity is invalid, since that equation is, itself, based on core ideas and mathematics derived from the original equations. Nor have you in any regard offered a framework upon which to build your claim – such as establishing the set of mathematics you are using to define the spacetime you say doesn’t exist, and have not addressed the fact that every satellite in orbit must adjust their clocks, since their position in the gravity well allows them to run slightly, but measurably, faster. In one thing, we are in agreement. There may, in fact, be an “aether” – but we have no idea what to look for, or how to look for it.

  20. They have now proven the existence of gravity waves and ripples, you can even listen to the sound of a gravity wave.

  21. we measure space as the time it takes for x to cross from a to b. but perhaps the distance between a and b is insubstantial, and only our perception of time(universal change). one might then cross vast distances in an instant by controlling the other end of the equation (eg.time)instead.
    if space is nothingness- then nothingness does not exist- it is not a thing, but an effect (of matter on energy). What could that be ? gravity ?

  22. Michael Scott | April 17, 2021 at 11:39 pm | Reply

    Any perspective is just another language as is our mathematical science, however the language would be quite different with an alien technology. Travelling through space and time would mean you could manipulate time as easy as space. The existence of worm holes means the distance from one star system to another might be minuscule if the dimension is arranged to provide a short cut.
    Consider the idea that a force exists that utilises a type of energy that has never been conceived by human beings. The way that a magnetic attraction is ssf similar to polarity in atoms that carry both positive and negative energy at opposite ends and that arranged on the own would cause a reaction if left alone to over time cause a vast density immeasurable to man’s ability to calculate.

  23. Michael Scott | April 18, 2021 at 1:07 am | Reply

    Man has only been out of trees for a few thousand years. In the last 200 years we have made great advances yet although over that fraction of time we still have not solved the simplist of problems. War and energy. Hydrogen generators are easy and cheap and would result in no air pollution and no oil consumption yet we don’t use them because of greedy oil companies. We let crime run rampant because we allow criminal minds to lead. Democratic ideology is to lead at all costs even to a point of losing everything.

  24. Change your reality to access other possibilities: Matter can’t travel faster than light, only energy… 2nd, no speed in space only in earth;3rd You are more than a physical body in the energy of space;4th a “hole” in space is way better than a road😂

  25. Ernest Manigo Jr | April 18, 2021 at 4:39 am | Reply

    Xinhang Shen, I am sorry but you are restricted in your observation. You are applying a practical limited assumption to a theoretical hypothesis that use what you are essentially saying are impractical assumptions. You’re expected to just understand the theories, and expand possibilities. Here are the possibilities: 1) The idea of a space time continuum is not supposed to be an actual thing but a descriptive way of looking at a relationship between two or more perspectives “relative” to any of the infinite references that are possible. This forces your “measurement “ based understanding of time to translate to other applications such as volume dispersion or field theory. The entire “imaginary number system” where -1=i is used to make the square of a negative number relatable. Implications of what infinity= -1/12 can become enlightening to space time revelations. Discovery of what dark matter and dark energy has in it may connect the dots… these scientists are on the right track but far from their destination.

  26. Martin S. Johannessen | April 18, 2021 at 5:42 am | Reply

    Hey good article, but you missed this latest warp drive paper, Breaking the warp barrier: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6382/abe692

    This came after the recent paper, “Introducing physical warp drives” and solves FTL with only positive energy densities, which “Introducing Physical Warp Drives” didn’t do.

  27. Ammar AL Khani | April 18, 2021 at 6:43 am | Reply

    Mr. Xinguang, I think that we are in 2021s and not in 1921s!

  28. To Michael Scott. Once upon a time there used to be 13 months and 28 days. It was called paganism. The Christians, actually Pope Gregory created the Gregorian Calendar to further substantiate the Christian faith. There are 13 full moons(that’s why there’s a Blue moon now because the cycle has been changed), a woman normally cycles 13 times a year and there used to be 13 Zodiac signs. I think civilizations that came before us were more advanced than we give them credit for.

  29. … people know that physics is broken and it needs to be fixed, some years ago there was a priest that forced the Albert to fix his errors, now we need a lot of priests that will make physics correct…

  30. Space, time, and matter are products of energy dispersal.

    ‘Atlas Shrugged’, and sh*t started happening.

  31. Frosted Flake | April 19, 2021 at 9:48 am | Reply

    To dream the impossible dream
    To fight the unbeatable foe
    To bear the unbearable sorrow
    To run where the brave dare not go
    To write the unwritable wrong
    To be better far than you are
    To try when your arms are too weary
    The reach the unreachable star
    This is my quest, to follow that star
    No matter how hopeless,
    No matter how far
    To fight for the right
    Whithout question or pause
    To be willing to march into hell
    For a heavenly cause
    And I know if I’ll only be true
    To this glorious quest
    That my heart will be peaceful and calm
    When I’m laid to my rest
    And the world would be better for this
    That one man scorned and covered with scars
    Still strove with his last ounce of courage
    To reach the unreachable
    The unreachable
    The unreachable
    Star
    To dream the impossible dream
    To reach the unreachable star

    Song by Richard & Adam

  32. PsychoNautiSalamandr | April 19, 2021 at 2:29 pm | Reply

    Why can’t we just learn to manipulate energy into a bubble that we use to swim through space?. It would be like using oars to cut through and push the ocean around you, but using ions, and electromagnetic manipulation in space, instead

  33. Chris Kinney | April 20, 2021 at 4:03 am | Reply

    The movie Event Horizon shows what may happen if we go about bending “spacetime- the very fabric of reality”!

  34. This is ridiculous. His main evidence is that GPS works. They literally built in relativity correction into the hardware/software of the satellites to adjust the times of the clocks to account for relativistic affects. They tried it with and without it when they first built gps and everything was so off they turned it back on.
    httpss://physicscentral.com/explore/writers/will.cfm

    • Xinhang Shen | April 29, 2021 at 1:55 pm | Reply

      The correction of atomic clocks on the GPS satellites as the evidence of relativistic effects is misinterpretation of the correction. The universal synchronization of the atomic clocks on the GPS satellites showing the same absolute time relative to all reference frames actually denies the claim of special relativity that clocks can never be synchronized relative to more than one inertial reference frame no matter how you correct them because “time is relative”.

      Please take time to understand what it means that “time is relative”!!!!

  35. I just need a simple answer of yes or no. Will a be able to travel back in time to save some Humpbacks?…Whales not people… after they get this working?

  36. “…we are yet to discover any viable sources of negative energy in the real world.”

    Has anyone considered attempting to harness the negative energy that manifests within the comment section of a local news facebook post?

  37. Julius Rosen | April 24, 2021 at 7:48 am | Reply

    All things are possible or not. This is all a guesstimate. And believe it or not you do age more when you’re in a car specially if your wife is driving. But also jokes aside it’s imperceptible since the speed is way less than the speed of light

  38. This has got to be, hands down, the most rediculous, waste of time story that i have ever read…. its right up there with the Story of how Biden supposedly won the Election.

  39. Milkshakes and Steak | April 24, 2021 at 9:01 am | Reply

    Time is only effectively applicable on Earth to help us track our progression towards death. It’s not meant to be used to calculate the variables of travel in an environment that lacks the properties of Earth, which are extrinsic ageing factors and they have a tremendous effect on our rate of ageing, which is also unique to the individual. If you go through a wormhole, your intrinsic factors don’t change, only the extrinsic factors are changed. You won’t all of the sudden be an old person on the other side of the wormhole. If you went through a wormhole that took you from one side of Earth to the other, the “date and time” would be the same as your intrinsic and extrinsic factors would be the same, you wouldn’t be traveling into the future. Otherwise, going through a wormhole to the other side of Earth would be like sleeping on a flight to the same destination. A wormhole that takes us from Earth to an environment where your extrinsic factors are completely different would, in theory, have an effect on “time” that is relative to the length of each individuals unique lifespan. Who gives a shit about the lunar cycles if they aren’t in correlation with our physical deterioration towards death, in space.

  40. I agree with Shen even the bible talks about the aether or the dark waters above and below the firmament but there is a certain race of people on earth who think they know it all if you dont agree with their gods you are crazy and wrong thus restricting the world to a box of thinking its called w___te supremecy

  41. José Daniel Rodríguez Ruiz | April 24, 2021 at 6:57 pm | Reply

    First comment?; Is that an air bubble at the time a Super Hornet is breaking the sound barrier on those YouTube videos?

  42. José Daniel Rodríguez Ruiz | April 24, 2021 at 7:18 pm | Reply

    2nd comment?; What kind of aerodynamics would it require to break that dead space ( not the game) time in outer Space; there are point men; there are drones; what kind of extension, Signal, light, energy emissions would it require as an option; ever thought about it (combine) electromagnetic waves; I am no science teacher; it is some deep dead space brainstorming not a solar flare; what kind of Pandora’s Box?

  43. Synchronize Your Dogmas | May 6, 2021 at 8:35 am | Reply

    From the article, “Their work tells us that a warp drive is, somewhat surprisingly, like a car. A car is also a shell of energy (in the form of matter) that encloses a flat region of spacetime.” Thus is very helpful! When I’m driving time is moving faster for me than for my g/f waiting at home! If I come in at 2 AM and she asks where I’ve been for so long I can point to this and prove to her that I really haven’t been gone long at all! TY!

  44. Canklebutter | May 7, 2021 at 5:26 am | Reply

    Who knew there were so many pseudo-sciences these days, or so many middle school kids writing scientific thesis on their laptops while they are taking the short bus to their English as a third language class. The thing is, if you can’t even approximate the fairly simple logic and rules of basic grammar it’s pretty obvious your mind is taking a dump out of your mouth like your lips are a male cows puckered anus when you start “talking science” and making up theories and meaningless equations while your write the word Tesla over and over again, dry humping his name it like a dog in heat.

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