MICROSCOPE Mission Presents Most Precise Test of General Relativity’s Weak Equivalence Principle
In new research, a team of scientists demonstrates the most precise test ever of the Weak Equivalence Principle, a key component of the theory of general relativity. A pair of new studies on the research will be published today (September 14) in Physical Review Letters and a special issue of Classical and Quantum Gravity. The report describes the final results from the MICROSCOPE mission, which tested the principle by measuring accelerations of free-falling objects in a satellite orbiting Earth. The team found that the accelerations of pairs of objects differed by no more than about one part in 1015 ruling out any violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle or deviations from the current understanding of general relativity at that level.
“We have new and much better constraints for any future theory, because these theories must not violate the equivalence principle at this level,” says Gilles Métris. He is a scientist at Côte d’Azur Observatory and member of the MICROSCOPE team.
Published by Albert Einstein in 1915, the theory of general relativity describes how gravity works and relates to time and space. However, it does not account for the observations of quantum phenomena. Therefore, scientists look for deviations from the theory at increasing levels of precision and in various situations. Such violations would indicate new interactions or forces that could unite relativity with quantum physics. Testing the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) is one way to search for potential expansions to general relativity.
Objects in a gravitational field fall in the same way when no other forces are acting on them, even if they have different masses or compositions, according to the WEP. To test the principle, the MICROSCOPE team designed their experiment to measure the Eötvös ratio — which relates the accelerations of two free-falling objects — to an extremely high precision. If the acceleration of one object differs from the other’s by more than about one part in 1015, the experiment would measure it and detect this violation of the WEP.
To measure the Eötvös ratio, the researchers monitored the accelerations of platinum and titanium alloy test masses as they orbited Earth in the MICROSCOPE satellite. Electrostatic forces were used by the experimental instrument to keep pairs of test masses in the same position relative to each other and looked for potential differences in these forces, which would indicate differences in the objects’ accelerations.
A significant challenge of the experiment was finding ways to test the instrument on Earth to make sure it would work as designed in space. “The difficulty is that the instrument we launch cannot operate on the ground,” says Manuel Rodrigues, a scientist at the French aerospace lab ONERA and member of the MICROSCOPE team. “So it’s a kind of blind test.”
Once the instrument was ready, it was launched by the team in 2016. They released preliminary results in 2017, but they continued to analyze the data, accounting for glitches and systematic uncertainties, after the mission ended in 2018. They ultimately found no violation of the WEP, setting the most stringent constraints on the principle yet.
The team’s work paves the way for even more precise tests of the WEP with satellite experiments. Their analysis includes ways to improve the experimental setup, like reducing crackles in the satellite’s coating that affected acceleration measurements and replacing wires in the setup with contactless devices. A satellite experiment that implements these upgrades should be able to measure potential violations of the WEP at the level of one part in 1017, the researchers say. But the MICROSCOPE results will likely remain the most precise constraints on the WEP for a while.
“For at least one decade or maybe two, we don’t see any improvement with a space satellite experiment,” Rodrigues says.
14 September 2022, Physical Review Letters.
14 September 2022, Classical and Quantum Gravity.
1. Topological vortex and anti-vortex field pairs generate or annihilate at the limit points, and encounter, split or merge at the bifurcation points of the 3-dimensional vector order parameter. They can form unstable point defects system.
2. The most raw field and interaction in the universe can be written in terms of the topological vortex and anti-vortex field pairs.
3. The gravitation that comes from the topological vortex and anti-vortex field pairs is the beginning of all things, and is the most raw power for maintaining and connecting the world.
4. The unified field theory can be written in terms of the interaction for topological vortex and anti-vortex field pairs that is topological vortex and anti-vortex field = matter and anti-matter = monopole particles = graviton.
In the development of human being sciences and humanities, the shameful act of calling a stag as a horse has begun more and more objectionable.
The shameful and unbridled behavior is an extreme disrespect for science. The physical meaning of parity conservation is left and right symmetry. For elementary particles, the spin direction does not affect the physical properties of particles.
The complex interaction of topological vortices is the basis of the formation and evolution of cosmic matter. One is vortex, more is different. This is the physical essence of the theory of condensed matter. Scientific research cannot be separated from seeking truth from facts. We should see the essence through phenomena and act according to nature low. Many strange things are actually not strange.
From accretion disks to quantum spins, countless facts show that the interaction and balance of topological vortex gravitational fields are indispensable in the formation and evolution of cosmic matter. The mathematics has also clearly told us that the topological vortex gravitational field can evolve into a complex space-time structure from the cusp singularity. However, contemporary physics has always regarded understanding as muddle headed, starting from the top-level design and developing wantonly towards pseudoscience. Wrong world outlook and scientific outlook may mislead a generation, even several generations. If you are interested, you can browse https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/463666584.
1. To measure the speed of light in vacuum, the range of vacuum must be determined first.
2. If the range of vacuum cannot be determined, do not tell the public that the speed of light you measure is the speed of light in vacuum.
3. As long as there are lights, rays, beam or various energy waves in the space, it cannot be called vacuum.
4. According to the topological vortex gravitational field theory, the speed of light in vacuum is an intrinsic attribute of light, which is independent of the selected reference system.
5. According to the theory of topological vortex gravitational field, the vacuum range between the two ends of light is uncertain, which can be infinite great or infinitely small, depending on the physical environment of the space where light is located.
The origin of the asymmetry of matter and antimatter is one of the most challenging problems in particle physics and cosmology. The hierarchical structure of matter and the way it interacts are crucial to understand matter and antimatter. Topological vortices are points in 2D fields and lines in 3D fields (as they have codimension two). Studies had confirmed that the interactions with two point vortices as the initial condition can form complex space-time structures. Symmetry is mainly expressed between topological vortex and anti-vortex, rather than between the high-dimensional space-time matter formed by their interaction. Topological vortex can be infinitely large or infinitely small. From the cosmic space accretion disk to the quantum spin, nothing is different.
According to the topological vortex field theory, the topological vortex gravitational field is the source of all things. They form a new space-time structure through superposition, deflection and kink, and are the inexhaustible motive force of mass, inertia and various forms of energy.
According to the topological vortex field theory, quantum gravity comes from the interaction between topological vortex gravitational fields. From the cosmic space accretion disk to the quantum spin, the topological vortex gravitational fields are everywhere.
Numerous topological vortices and their twin anti-vortices interact with each other to form a world that human eyes see and do not see. Symmetry is mainly manifested in the topological vortex and its twin anti-vortex, but not in the high-dimensional space-time matter formed by their interaction. From the cosmic space accretion disk to the quantum spin, this interaction is everywhere.
Topological vortex is a natural gravitational field. Mass, inertia and various forms of energy are the result of the interaction of topological vortices. In fact, each topological vortex is the unity of opposites of left rotation and right rotation, which is not only for the observers, that is the same in the interaction of vortices. There is no eternal mass, only eternal fluid mechanics.
In fact, each topological vortex is the unity of opposites of left rotation and right rotation, which is not only for the observers, that is the same in the interaction of vortices. There is no eternal mass, only eternal fluid mechanics.
Contemporary physics has been fooled by pseudoscience. Topological vortex is a natural gravitational field. According to the topological vortex gravitational field theory, gravity is the source of all things and the most raw force to maintain and connect the world. Mathematics tells us that topological vortex can form complex space-time structure by interaction. Mathematics does not tell us that there must be God particles, neutrinos, bosons and fermions. That the imaginary microscopic particles with certain physical properties, even if they exist, are also the result of topological vortex interaction. Everything is the interaction of topological vortices from the cosmic space accretion disk to the quantum spin. The end of science is mathematics, not theology and wishful thinking.
Symmetries are power. For centuries, symmetries have allowed physicists to find underlying connections and fundamental relationships throughout the universe. The symmetry of topological vortex and its anti-vortex conform to the all characteristics of matter and antimatter scales in the ground state. We have observed that the vortex field is indeed everywhere, from the quantum spin to accretion disk in cosmos. That just are the implications of the vortex field for particle physics and cosmology.
Many physical phenomena observed in scientific experiments are often not the whole picture, let alone the essence, the hidden variables in which are closely related to symmetry. Scientific research is inseparable from seeking truth from facts. We should see the essence through the phenomenon and act according to the laws of nature, rather than distorting the facts and making arbitrary inference. Parity non-conservation and symmetry breaking are appearances, not the essence of nature.From the cosmic space accretion disk to the quantum spin, what is the fact of the space-time background. Why does contemporary physics turn a blind eye to vortex and pursue the so-called string instead. What gives the vortex the power of endless rotation. Why give up the natural gravitational field of vortex and look for the source of gravity everywhere. Humans are great because they are good at thinking.
In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is not composed of other particles. Dirac equation predicted every fundamental particle in the universe has an antiparticle – its identical twin but with opposite charge. That are parity conservation (P), charge conjugation (C) and time reversal (T) are the nature feature of elementary particles.The essence of mass, inertia and various forms of energy is the interaction of elementary particles. According to the modern discoveries in physics, fundamental forces and elementary particles can be written in terms of a pair of physical and virtual fields. Topological vortex and anti-vortex fields always appear in pairs. They perfectly reflect the exact symmetry under the simultaneous transformation of parity conservation (P), charge conjugation (C) and time reversal (T). As a result,Topological vortex and anti-vortex field pairs had all the physical characteristics of elementary particles.
1. Contemporary physics has long been misled by so-called academic journals and scientific associations.
2. According to the topological vortex field theory, topological vortex and its twin anti-vortex mirror each other. Symmetry is mainly expressed between topological vortex and its twin anti-vortex, but not between the high-dimensional space-time matter formed after their interaction.
3. Whether two objects are mirror images of each other must meet two requirements, one is simultaneous transformation, the other is precise symmetry, both of which are indispensable.
4. Please speak with facts. Which of the above two requirements can be achieved by the artificial inversion of two groups of Cobalt-60?
5.It is not rigorous to observe parity by using two sets of cobalt-60 reversals. Physical Review Letters has created the largest bug in the history of human science.
6. It is not rigorous to discuss parity between two objects that are not mirror images of each other. This discussion has no value or significance.
7. Science will eventually return to the right track, and it will not change for the misleading of Physical Review Letters and some so-called scientific associations.
The spin of topological vortex field covers all the long and short distance contributions of space-time motion, which is the basis of the evolution of space-time material motion. Scientific research has not found atoms, electrons, quanta and so-called neutrinos that are just a point and never spin.
Topological vortices are points in 2D fields. Two or more topological vortices interact together, in which the vortex cores or planes are deviated, or the vortex cores and planes all are deviated.
(1) Absolute Space-time
The cores of the vortices are coincided, where the vortex planes of them are deviated from each other. This vortex field is defined as Absolute Space-time (AST). The typical geometric model is sphere.
(2) Quantum Space-time
The planes of the vortices are superimposed in the same easy-planes, where the vortex cores of them deviate. This vortex field is defined as Quantum Space-time (QST). The typical geometric model is Möbius strip.
(3) Relative Space-time
The cores and the planes of the vortices all are deviated from each other. This vortex field is defined as Relative Space-time (RST). The typical geometric model is cylinder.
Relativity describes the evolution of topological vortex in relative space-time (RST), while quantum mechanics describes the evolution of topological vortex in quantum space-time (QST). According to the topological vortex gravitational field theory, both relativity and quantum mechanics are correct.
The essence of space-time movement is the dynamic evolution of one or countless points. Topological vortices are points in 2D fields. The end of science is mathematics, is the dynamic evolution of the mathematical symbol topological vortex, is the interaction and balance of the gravitational field of topological vortex, and is the unity of mathematics, physics and philosophy.
The theory of unity of opposites is the basis for dialectical materialism to understand all existence and movement relations, and is the essence and core of materialistic dialectics. The essence of philosophy for Schrödinger’s cat is the unity of opposites. Topological vortex is point in 2D field. Observing the vortex simultaneously in front and behind of 2D field, if clockwise rotation is observed in front of the vortex, then counterclockwise rotation will be observed in behind of the vortex. The unity of opposites of clockwise rotation and counterclockwise rotation, which is not only for the observers, that is the same in the interaction of vortices. Cat is a high-dimensional space-time material. It is unscientific to use cat to analogy low-dimensional space-time material. That can easily lead to misunderstanding and ambiguity. With the deepening of the study about topological vortex field, human science’s understanding about the laws of material motion is expected to be perfectly solved in topological space-time. Mr.Schrödinger’s half-dead cat and poison bottle should probably end and go into history. If you are interested, you can browse https://www.zhihu.com/column/c_1278787135349633024.
Fluid vortex is a point in the two-dimensional field, and its physical characteristics are more suitable to be described by energy rather than mass. According to the gravitational field theory of topological vortex, there are two kinds of vortex, one is constant temperature vortex, the other is variable temperature vortex.
Spin physics are vital for describing how our world is screwed together. Topological vortices are points with spin in 2D fields.They are natural gravitational fields. According to topological vortex gravitational field theory, the VA field pair interact to form topological bifurcation that make up the fundamental understructure of various particles.