Science Made Simple: What Is the Standard Model of Particle Physics?

Standard Model of Particle Physics


The Standard Model includes the matter particles (quarks and leptons), the force carrying particles (bosons), and the Higgs boson. Credit: Artwork courtesy of Sandbox Studio, Chicago for Symmetry

The Standard Model of Particle Physics is scientists’ current best theory to describe the most basic building blocks of the universe. It explains how particles called quarks (which make up protons and neutrons) and leptons (which include electrons) make up all known matter. It also explains how force carrying particles, which belong to a broader group of bosons, influence the quarks and leptons.

The Standard Model explains three of the four fundamental forces that govern the universe: electromagnetism, the strong force, and the weak force. Electromagnetism is carried by photons and involves the interaction of electric fields and magnetic fields. The strong force, which is carried by gluons, binds together atomic nuclei to make them stable. The weak force, carried by W and Z bosons, causes nuclear reactions that have powered our Sun and other stars for billions of years. The fourth fundamental force is gravity, which is not adequately explained by the Standard Model.

Despite its success at explaining the universe, the Standard Model does have limits. For example, the Higgs boson gives mass to quarks, charged leptons (like electrons), and the W and Z bosons. However, we do not yet know whether the Higgs boson also gives mass to neutrinos – ghostly particles that interact very rarely with other matter in the universe. Also, physicists understand that about 95 percent of the universe is not made of ordinary matter as we know it. Instead, much of the universe consists of dark matter and dark energy that do not fit into the Standard Model.

DOE Office of Science: Contributions to the Standard Model of Particle Physics

DOE has a long history of supporting research into fundamental particles. Five of the six types of quarks, one type of lepton, and all three neutrinos were discovered at what are now DOE national laboratories. Researchers supported by the DOE Office of Science, often in collaboration with scientists from around the world, have contributed to Nobel Prize-winning discoveries and measurements that refined the Standard Model. These efforts continue today, with experiments that make precision tests of the Standard Model and further improve measurements of particle properties and their interactions. Theorists work with experimental scientists to develop new avenues to explore the Standard Model. This research may also provide insight into what sorts of unknown particles and forces might explain dark matter and dark energy as well as explain what happened to antimatter after the big bang.

Standard Model of Particle Physics Facts

  • All ordinary matter, including every atom on the periodic table of elements, consists of only three types of matter particles: up and down quarks, which make up the protons and neutrons in the nucleus, and electrons that surround the nucleus.
  • The complete Standard Model took a long time to build. Physicist J.J. Thomson discovered the electron in 1897, and scientists at the Large Hadron Collider found the final piece of the puzzle, the Higgs boson, in 2012.

3 Comments on "Science Made Simple: What Is the Standard Model of Particle Physics?"

  1. Dear DOE

    The Nickel Standard ?

    Money from Space ?

    Baryonic dark matter conversion of matter to helium-4 ? see

    Baryonic dark matter

    Big Bang nucleosynthesis

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baryonic_dark_matter

    Helium 4 from Baryonic dark matter ? Wiki Oct 12th 2020

    Big Bang nucleosynthesis
    From the perspective of Big Bang nucleosynthesis, a larger amount of ordinary (baryonic) matter implies a denser early universe, more efficient conversion of matter to helium-4, and less unburned deuterium remaining. If all of the dark matter in the universe were baryonic, then there would be much less deuterium in the universe than is observed.

    see Steady State Galaxy Theory

    RUFUS’S GALAXY WEB PAGE

    http://www.roycaswell.co.uk…

    ” Basic Operation of Galaxies

    If helium 3 and 4 can escape most gravitational fields – why couldn’t the composition of dark matter in the universe be helium 3 or 4 gravity particles ?

    Greetings and Hello:

    Dear Learned Sirs: First, I wanted to ask you personally if you think a it makes sense that a giant blob that allegedly was always hot and always in motion would for no reason explode 13.8 billion years ago to form the universe ?

    Does this make any sense to you ?

    If it does then please can you point in the direction of the universe were that occurred ?

    I am not stating that the Steady State Galaxy Theory is 100% correct as i think galaxies do decay but it make more sense than the hot blob theory.

    I know you need funding an attacked money photos for you and here is a law that may help

    Coinage Act of 1965 – US Government Publishing Office

    https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/STATUTE-79/pdf/STATUTE-79-Pg254.pdf

    SEC. 102. All coins and currencies of the United States (including. Federal Reserve notes and circulating notes of Federal Reserve banks and national banking associations), regardless of when coined or issued, shall be legal tender for all debts, public and private, …

    Best wishes in your futures

    Daniel Izzo
    former governor of the United States territory of Marie Byrd Land and Ellsworth Land Antarctica from 2009-2013

    It was organized as a place for Americans and others to be buried in ice for hope in a medical resurrection.

    Now I am a funded member of the Cryonics Institute near Detroit Michigan, for more information following video on youtube is from the Cryonics Institute, their motto is :

    Little to Lose – Everything to Gain.

    https://youtu.be/E7a3oaKKaVs
    —————————————————————————–
    re
    If helium 3 and 4 can escape most gravitational fields – why couldn’t the composition of dark matter in the universe be helium 3 or 4 gravity particles ?

    If this is the case the universe is much older than 60 Billion years .

    If you can verify that dark matter is helium 3 or 4 gravity then maybe you’ll win a prize.

    Why is 23% of the Helium in the universe unexplained?

    23% of the Helium in the universe being unexplained…Helium 4 …as I stated Helium 3 and 4 can not freeze even at the alleged absolute ZERO Kelvin if that was even possible.

    please read

    ” All elements other than hydrogen and helium today account for only 2% of the mass of atomic matter in the universe. Helium-4, by contrast, makes up about 23% of the universe’s ordinary matter—nearly all the ordinary matter that is not hydrogen. ”

    Helium – Wikipediaen.wikipedia.org › wiki › Helium

    I hope this clarifies the 23% of the helium in the universe story I read…it is helium 4 that accounts for 23% of the helium in the universe and its formation is not explained as of yet ?

    If this is true that 23% of the Helium in the universe is unexplained , there is a little known fact that Helium 3 and 4 can not freeze even at an alleged 0 Kelvin temperature.

    As I have been trying to understand how and when and where motion first started in the universe to me it is apparent that this 23% of the unexplained helium in the universe is left over from a past cycle of expanding and decay of galaxies , leaving helium 3 and 4 and gravity …meaning the universe is much older than 13.8 Billion years ( my guess is the universe is in its forth cycle of decay and is about 4 x 13.8 billion yo or about 60 billion yo ) and that motion has been existence in the universe even before that, because if everything decayed to absolute ZERO Kelvin there would be no motion – but the universe allegedly cant go back to a motionless state now, because Helium 4 can not freeze this saving the day of a motionless static universe in the future.

    source of Helium information ;

    Neutroid Steady State Galaxy Theory

    RUFUS’S GALAXY WEB PAGE

    http://www.roycaswell.co.uk…

    ” Basic Operation of Galaxies

    ( this theory in error ? claims galaxies do not decay but are recycled through process )

    ” At the center of each galaxy is a neutroid which acts to constantly recycle all the matter and energy in the galaxy. This neutroid is similar to a neutron star but is very much larger and has reached a size where the pressure and temperature at its surface are great enough to generate a nuclear fusion process. In the areas of the neutroid’s magnetic poles, the products of fusion are trapped by the magnetic field and are pushed out along the magnetic field by the pressure of the nuclear fusion process going on below. This results in a column of material composed of hydrogen, helium and other light elements being ejected at each of the neutroid’s two magnetic poles. This material moves out from the neutroid at essentially constant velocity until it reaches a point where the magnetic field is no longer strong enough to control it. Once free of the magnetic field the material then continues under it’s own momentum to travel to the outer edge of the galaxy before starting to fall back toward the neutroid. …..

    Hydrogen-Helium

    A fourth arguement which has been used to support the Big Bang theory is that it would account for the abundance of helium we find in the universe. The amount of helium present (24%) cannot be accounted for by star production and according to Gamow it was generated by the Big Bang.

    Under the Steady State Galaxy theory, the nuclear fusion process which is expelling the material from the neutroid would generate large amounts of helium as well as other light elements and is the source of the excess helium found in the universe.”

    If helium 4 can escape most gravitational fields – why couldn’t the composition of dark matter in the universe be helium 4 gravity particles? If this is the case the universe is much older than 60 Billion years .

    If you can verify that dark matter is helium 3 or 4 gravity then you’ll win a prize.

    PS

    The Nickel Standard ?

    Money from Space ?

    Hello: I did want you to explore the possibility of converting our monetary system to one that is backed my magnetic nickel metal to mint $20 Twenty Dollar ” created gold ” coins ? ( that only cost $5 USD each to mint and deliver..each $20USD GC .even cheaper if electro magnets are used in the minting and delivey / storage process )

    Its psychological our currency would have great value again.

    Money from Space ?

    Most nickel is from asteroids from outer space…a huge asteroid near Mars is said to be of nickel ?

    Nickel metal is about $16,000 USD a ton…old Canadian coins were not stainless steel but 99% nickel metal and nickel is magnetic as our 5 cent coins are only 25% nickel and 75% copper and do not shine like the old Canadian coinage.

    (Samples attached )

    10 LBS – PURE NICKEL – Bullion – OLD Canada nickels – all dates before 1981

    you can buy them on eBay

    Sincerely

    Daniel Izzo former governor of the United States Trust Territory of Marie Byrd Land and Ellsworth Land Antarctica from 2009 – 2013 ) ( map attached )

    What happened in 1054 AD?

    The Crab Nebula was formed

    ” Tracing the expansion back revealed that the nebula must have become visible on Earth about 900 years before. Historical records revealed that a new star bright enough to be seen in the daytime had been recorded in the same part of the sky by Chinese astronomers on 4 July 1054, and probably also by Japanese observers a few weeks earlier. ” source Wikipedia

    I’m not saying people made the Crab Nebula to look like Africa in 1054 AD, but was it a call from the past for help from a people facing genocide ?

    ( can African drums and songs et al, echo to the sky ?)

    en.wikipedia.org
    Crab Nebula – Wikipedia
    en.wikipedia.org en.wikipedia.org

    en.wikipedia.org
    United States of Africa – Wikipedia
    en.wikipedia.org en.wikipedia.org

    The Crab Nebula looks like Africa ?

    A photo of the Crab Nebula that corresponds to the bright SN 1054 supernova recorded by ancient astronomers in AD 1054. ( wikipedia )

    A map of Africa,

    They say the Crab Nebula star explosion happened in1054 AD ?

    What happened in 1054 AD?

    ” The East–West Schism (also the Great Schism or Schism of 1054) is the break of communion since the 11th century between the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Churches. ”

    read

    en.wikipedia.org
    East–West Schism – Wikipedia
    en.wikipedia.org en.wikipedia.org

    re does the Crab nebula look like Africa ? Is it possible people created a Higgs muon that started motion in the universe?

    They say the Crab Nebula star explosion happened in1054 AD ?

    What happened in 1054 AD?

    ” The East–West Schism (also the Great Schism or Schism of 1054) is the break of communion since the 11th century between the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Churches. ”

    What if the Ethophian Coptic Church was in union with the Church of Rome before the Portugues explorers arrived in Africa around 1400 AD .

    If the Ethopian Coptic Church and the Roman Catholic Church where in union would there have been as much Western African slavery ?

    Is it just coincidence or are people able to do things we think are impossible ?

    Like create new things like civilization ?

    =================================

    From ask Ethan Forbes article Aug 14th 2020 story : ” Why Are The Moon And Sun The Same Size In Earth’s Sky? ”

    When you ask the question, “what are the odds that an Earth-like planet will have a Moon that’s comparable in angular size to the Sun,” you’re really asking what the odds are of:

    having an Earth-like planet, which is an Earth-sized planet at the right distance from its star for liquid water on its surface,
    that experienced a giant impact in its early history, creating a synestia,
    where the planet itself winds up rotating rapidly after that collision,
    where a large, inner moon gets created but won’t fall back onto the planet,
    and then spirals away as angular momentum gets transferred from the planet to the Moon.

    It’s remarkable that science, ”
    It may affirm; ” the universe created itself ” as the late Steven Hawking alleged and people are part of that universe and may have started motion?

    A Photo of the comet Ison showing the redshift of cosmic light in the background stars pointing to Earth as the center of the universe. ?

    en.wikipedia.org
    Comet ISON – Wikipedia
    en.wikipedia.org en.wikipedia.org

    Wikipedia photo of the comet Ison, *( 2012-2013 ) notice the redshift of light of the stars in the background….to me it does shift but in what direction …the redshift of light means its moving away from Earth ?

    Notice the red shift of cosmic light in the back ground stars in the Comet Ison where are they pointing to and moving away from ? Is it the Earth? Why does it look that way? Did people start motion here on Earth?

    If motion first started on earth, it would explain why the cosmic red shift points to the earth at the center of the universe, maybe because motion first started here? see: ” The red shift hypothesis for quasars: Is the earth the center of the universe? – Astrophysics and Space Science August 1976. “

    From 1985, wow, they question if MUONS decay faster than the speed of light?

    If Muons do decay faster than the speed of light, then what?

    Will the muon decay go back in time before motion even started to start motion in the universe inside a static gravity vacuum field, maybe of helium 3 and 4 gravity field, (left over from another universal cycle? ) since helium 3 and 4 can not freeze ?

    The Net Advance of Physics – MIT
    web.mit.edu › redingtn › www › netadv › ftlNuSwift

    [Physics Letters B 158, 227 (1985)]; Are muon neutrinos faster-than-light particles? … Breaking the light speed barrier by O. I. Chashchina and Z. K. Silagadze [Acta … Neutrinos Exist but not Higgs Bosons? by Burra G. Sidharth [2012/01] Argues … [2011/11]; Non-Standard Neutrino Propagation and Pion Decay by Massimo …

    Question: If the universe is at 3 Kelvin and the LHC at Cern operated at 2 Kelvin then:

    When was the last time the universe was at 2 Kelvin?

    If you support the Big Band theory as is, then your answer might be never, why?

    In your opinion how, where and when did motion first start?

    If the universe created itself as the late Stephen Hawking alleges – and Im sure you agree with the late Mr. Hawking that: ” The universe created itself ? ”

    The aren’t people part of the universe?

    Is there anything in the universe other than human beings on earth that can created a 10 billion dollar machine that operates at 2 Kelvin and can generate a Higgs muon that allegedly can decay faster that the speed of light?

    Can the decay of these man made Higgs muons go back in time to a place where there is no motion?

    If so, would this mean that people started motion in the universe and why the redshift of cosmic light has everything moving away from the Earth, maybe because motion first started here?

  2. @Daniel Izzo: 1 word: whatabunchoffcrap

  3. … Now, there is a question.
    What if, there is a structure of an electron, that for an example says that there are three parts in it? And is it, like for 100%% sure, that there is no under laying substructure of an electron?…

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