One of the most cherished laws of physics — the conservation of charge — has come under fire in “startling” research by physicists.

The paper by Dr. Jonathan Gratus from Lancaster University and Dr. Paul Kinsler and Professor Martin McCall from Imperial College London demonstrates how the laws of physics break down in a black hole or “singularity.”

“As the place where “physics breaks down” in a black-hole, we have the sense that anything might happen at a singularity. Although perhaps most useful as a plot device for science fiction stories, should we as concerned physicists nevertheless check what conservation laws might no longer hold?”

The physicists investigated the behavior of charge conservation which is the principle that the total electric charge in an isolated system never changes.

To their surprise, they found that they could overturn this “usually sacrosanct principle of standard electromagnetism.”

Dr. Kinsler said: “By dropping an ‘axion-bomb’ into a temporary singularity, such as an evaporating black hole, we can create or destroy electrical charge.”

Axions are a hypothesized particle that are a candidate for dark matter, although their exact properties are still debated, and they have not yet been detected.

Professor Martin McCall said: “This so-called axion-bomb is a mathematical construct that combines electromagnetic fields and axion particle fields in the correct way.”

Dr. Jonathan Gratus said: “The construction shrinks and disappears into the singularity taking electrical charge with it. And it is the combination of a temporary singularity and a newly proposed type of axion field that is crucial to its success.”

Dr. Kinsler added: “Although people often like to say that ‘physics breaks down’, here we show that although exotic phenomena might occur, what actually happens is nevertheless constrained by the still-working laws of physics around the singularity.”

The researchers said: “Our conclusion appears to be at once startling and undeniable: global charge conservation cannot be guaranteed in the presence of axionic electromagnetic interaction.”

For more on this research, read Throwing an “Axion Bomb” Into a Black Hole Could Break a Fundamental Law of Physics.

Reference: “Temporary Singularities and Axions: An Analytic Solution that Challenges Charge Conservation” by Jonathan Gratus, Paul Kinsler and Martin W. McCall, 5 May 2021, *Annalen der Physik*.

DOI: 10.1002/andp.202000565

The singularities of ordinary General Relativity can be avoided by considering the (mathematically well defined) Einstein-Yang-Mills-Dirac-Higgs System which is (heuristically) the super-classical limit of the (not mathematically well-defined) Standard Model. This system has complete solutions without singularities, solitons, and a Cyclic Universe solution. (The system has negative energy density; hence doesn’t satisfy the positivity conditions in the Penrose-Hawking Singularity Theorems.) The E-Y-M-D-H equations provide an alternative approach to a Cyclic Universe which Penrose has recently been advocating. They also imply that the massive compact objects now classified as Black Holes are actually Quark Stars, possibly with event horizons, but without singularities. A Super version of the above-including super-neutrinos-might be needed to explain Dark Matter. The E-Y-M-D-H is also a totally geometricized theory as a non-commutative geometry; the charge e and the mass m of the electron are geometric invariants of the non-commutative geometry analogous to pi. Unfortunately, there are quantum phenomena, such as EPR, for which this beautiful theory doesn’t make adequate predictions.

Axion have not been proven to exist therefore any hypothesis developed therefrom has not been proven and is at best speculation and at worse wished for fantasy. Useless conclusion. Prove your premise first before “sailing around the universe” with nonsense theories.

It’s perhaps worth noting that, although almost all of our technology relies on the existence and manipulation of charge, we don’t really know what it is. That makes us adept jugglers of black boxes.

Interesting. Ish.

Hey! Just pointing out roto, this research paper falls under theoretical physics, not experimental.

1. Use math models, objects and systems, and a lot of deep abstract thought.✔

2. Use tools and truths/knowns to probe unknowns,

to explain or shed light on what is unknown.❌

As stated so eloquently by Prof. Edwards, largely these singularties or anomalies can be explained the foundational mathematical continuity of relativity or 4-d space-time as well as the standard model. To expound on that idea, I believe it is entirely possible to present a complete theory of everything based entirely on discontinuous functions. Specifically, two separate 1+1 dimensions that overlap discontinously, however, as a continuous function, very much like a clifford torus, or perhaps a clifford torus exactly.

… Physics is not breaking down, it our math or our understanding of physics…

I’ll back Sir Roger’s theorem over Edwards any rime