Superstring Theory and Higher Dimensions: Bridging Einstein’s Relativity and Quantum Mechanics

de Sitter Universe Holography

Conceptual diagram of the calculation of density fluctuation correlations in the early universe based on a low-dimensional matter field theory using holography. Credit: KyotoU/Yasuaki Hikida

Seeing is more than believing: Holography helps our understanding of our early universe.

A team of researchers at Kyoto University is exploring the use of higher dimensions in de Sitter space to explain gravity in the early universe. By developing a method to compute correlation functions among fluctuations, they aim to bridge the gap between Einstein’s theory of general relativity and quantum mechanics. This could potentially validate superstring theory and enable practical calculations about the early universe’s subtle changes. Although initially tested in a three-dimensional universe, the analysis may be extended to a four-dimensional universe for real-world applications.

Having more tools helps; having the right tools is better. Utilizing multiple dimensions may simplify difficult problems — not only in science fiction but also in physics — and tie together conflicting theories.

For example, Einstein’s theory of general relativity — which resides in the fabric of space-time warped by planetary or other massive objects — explains how gravity works in most cases. However, the theory breaks down under extreme conditions such as those existing in black holes and cosmic primordial soups.

An approach known as superstring theory could use another dimension to help bridge Einstein’s theory with quantum mechanics, solving many of these problems. But the necessary evidence to support this proposal has been lacking.

Now, a team of researchers led by Kyoto University is exploring de Sitter space to invoke a higher dimension to explain gravity in the expanding early universe. They have developed a concrete method to compute correlation functions among fluctuations on expanding universe by making use of holography.

“We came to realize that our method can be applied more generically than we expected while dealing with quantum gravity,” says Yasuaki Hikida, from the Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics.

Dutch astronomer Willem de Sitter’s theoretical models describe space in a way that fits with Einstein’s general theory of relativity, in that the positive cosmological constant accounts for the expansion of the universe.

Starting with existing methods for handling gravity in anti-de Sitter space, Hikida’s team reshaped them to work in expanding de Sitter space to more precisely account for what is already known about the universe.

“We are now extending our analysis to investigate cosmological entropy and quantum gravity effects,” adds Hikida.

Although the team’s calculations only considered a three-dimensional universe as a test case, the analysis may easily be extended to a four-dimensional universe, allowing for the extraction of information from our real world.

“Our approach possibly contributes to validating superstring theory and allows for practical calculations about the subtle changes that rippled across the fabric of our early universe.”

Reference: “Three-Dimensional de Sitter Holography and Bulk Correlators at Late Time” by Heng-Yu Chen and Yasuaki Hikida, 3 August 2022, Physical Review Letters.
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.061601

Funding: JSPSGrant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, Grant-in-Aid for Transformative Research Areas (A)“Extreme Universe

8 Comments on "Superstring Theory and Higher Dimensions: Bridging Einstein’s Relativity and Quantum Mechanics"

  1. Superstring theory has been around now for decades. No one has found any of the higher dimensions. String theory posits that our universe is a complete chance consequence of the multiverse; with enough universers, one of them looks like ours. No other sign of universes outside of ours, however. This theory also excuses its proponents from having to derive the constants found in our universe. Kind of a lazy man’s theory with nice math.

  2. Is humanity and say planet earth not living inside a black hole…along with the other configurations and constellations… from here on the inside is where infinity goes outwards

  3. John Della Puca jr | April 5, 2023 at 1:05 pm | Reply

    I think a galaxy with a black hole forms when the matter of a dying star explodes creating the black hole at the new galaxy because when it creates new stars after exploding the new stars are pulled outwards and forms a new gravitational field from the mass of the old star, so I think that stars are just reducing and reducing, I also think that space time is relitave to the objects massin what we know as space like space being a sponge filled with the objects mass like water, but when you try to squeeze out the mass the sponge drips out, so we have to look at it like a sponge

  4. BibhutibhusanPatel | April 6, 2023 at 1:42 am | Reply

    The domain of science is divided in to three branches,namely-
    1.Classic or Newtonian Science.
    2.General Relativity due to Einstein.
    3.Quantum Science.

    These all are interlinked in Star Dynamics along with Galaxy Dynamics(associated with Rotation evolves acceleration in the rate of expansion of the Universe).

    Thus,Universal Dynamics is described.

    • mean the domain of physics, right?

      • BibhutibhusanPatel | April 17, 2023 at 5:18 am | Reply

        This domain of science is contained within Physics,the most dominating branch of science.Physics also includes some other important parts like thermodynamics,electromagnetism and so on.Chemistry and Biology are other important branches of the science.Links among all these branches of science are present,which are accounted to be important.Yet,some other factor like consciousness is left here has a link.

  5. BibhutibhusanPatel | April 6, 2023 at 3:26 am | Reply

    Ùse of Quantum Computation System can establish unification of all these three mechanics; Quantum,relativistic and Newtonian mechanics into singl mechanics of star dynamics.Classical Computation System and Quantum Computation System can have interconversion.

  6. BibhutibhusanPatel | April 6, 2023 at 8:49 am | Reply

    Use of Quantum Computation System can establish unification of all these three mechanics.These three branches can describe the total universe composed of matter and energy.
    Quantum,relativistic and Newtonian mechanics can be related by star dynamics in united form.
    Quantum Computation System can be converted to Classical Computation

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