Plastic Containers Can Contain Toxic “Forever Chemicals” – And They Are Getting Into Food

PFAS High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Plastic Containers Graphic

In a new study published in Environmental Science and Technology Letters, fluorinated high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic containers — used for household cleaners, pesticides, personal care products and, potentially, food packaging — tested positive for PFAS. Credit: University of Notre Dame

Scientists at the University of Notre Dame are expanding their list of consumer products that contain PFAS (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances), a harmful group of fluorine-based compounds known as “forever chemicals.”

A new study published in Environmental Science and Technology Letters has revealed that fluorinated high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic containers, which are commonly used for household cleaners, pesticides, personal care products, and potentially food packaging, contain PFAS. The research was prompted by a report from the EPA which showed that these containers were contributing high levels of PFAS to pesticides. This new study represents the first measurement of the leaching of PFAS from these containers into food and the impact of temperature on the leaching process.

Results also showed the PFAS were capable of migrating from the fluorinated containers into food, resulting in a direct route of significant exposure to the hazardous chemicals, which have been linked to several health issues including prostate, kidney, and testicular cancers, low birth weight, immunotoxicity, and thyroid disease.

“Not only did we measure significant concentrations of PFAS in these containers, we can estimate the PFAS that were leaching off creating a direct path of exposure,” said Graham Peaslee, professor of physics in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Notre Dame and an author of the study.

It’s important to note that these types of containers are not intended for food storage, but there is nothing preventing them from being used for food storage at the moment. Although not all HDPE plastic is fluorinated, the researchers noted, it’s often impossible for a consumer to know whether a container has had that treatment. And indeed, Peaslee added, if substances like pesticides are stored in these containers, and then are used on agricultural crops, these same PFAS will get into human food sources that way.

In 2021 the EPA announced its PFAS Strategic Roadmap — promising to act on widespread exposure to PFAS. The plan includes developing a more comprehensive understanding of the health and environmental effects of PFAS exposure, preventing further contamination of air, land and water, and addressing the need for cleanup of PFAS already in the environment.

PFAS is often used in association with stain- or water-resistant products. For the study, Peaslee and graduate student Heather Whitehead tested HDPE containers that were treated with fluorine to create a thin layer of a fluoropolymer, as a means to impart chemical resistance and improve container performance over long storage periods. While these materials generally stay in the container wall, the manufacturing process can generate lots of smaller PFAS molecules, which are not polymers. Experiments were designed to measure the ability of these chemicals to migrate from the container to samples of different foods and solvents.

Analysis of the containers found parts-per-billion levels of PFAS that could migrate into both solvents and food matrices in as little as one week.

“We measured concentrations of PFOA that significantly exceeded the limit set by the EPA’s 2022 Health Advisory Limits,” said Peaslee. “Now, consider that not only do we know that the chemicals are migrating into the substances stored in them, but that the containers themselves work their way back into the environment through landfills. PFAS doesn’t biodegrade. It doesn’t go away. Once these chemicals are used, they get into the groundwater, they get into our biological systems, and they cause significant health problems.”

Peaslee and Whitehead measured PFAS concentrations in olive oil, ketchup, and mayonnaise that had been in contact with the fluorinated containers for seven days at various temperatures. Based on the amount found in the different food samples, the study estimates enough PFAS could be ingested through food stored in the containers to be a significant risk of exposure.

The containers are the latest products in a long list of those tested by Peaslee and his lab at Notre Dame, including cosmetics, firefighting gear, school uniforms, and fast food wrappers.

Reference: “Directly Fluorinated Containers as a Source of Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylic Acids” by Heather D. Whitehead and Graham F. Peaslee, 6 March 2023, Environmental Science & Technology Letters.
DOI: 10.1021/acs.estlett.3c00083

5 Comments on "Plastic Containers Can Contain Toxic “Forever Chemicals” – And They Are Getting Into Food"

  1. Lisa D Pimentel | April 1, 2023 at 3:05 pm | Reply

    We should move back to glass. Glass leaches no chemical into our daily living. It can be reused over and over.
    The smelter plant in our town (Ferndale WA) needs purchased for glass containers. Glass is a sustainable product and would eliminate plastics, aluminum and contamination.

  2. Yeah well the government is lying to because the pfas are coming from the water in my hometown there’s 993 parts per million those are $993 separate lyes $993 parts per million total to solve solids at 1,000 parts per million the water becomes toxic and it’s no longer suitable for human consumption each of those lyes are made from an Elemental toxin designed for one thing and that is to kill sicken and destroy

  3. There’s a solution like the person said above. It doesn’t involve cold plasma and some crazy scientific method of removing the pfa’s. Move back to glass. I’ve been using glass since I was a kid, and so have my parents. It’s a non issue. Use glass. Also you know, some government regulations on the use of these chemicals would help, but I think we both know the government doesn’t care.

  4. Go back to glass, ceramics, woods and stainless steel for cooking and storing food stuffs. Get rid of the plastics, styrofoams and aluminum for cooking and storing food stuffs.

  5. Isthiak Hossan Rahath | April 3, 2023 at 11:10 pm | Reply

    It Will very important sit of Science.

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