Feeding the Future: Artificial Photosynthesis Transforms CO2 Into Food

Abstract Photosynthesis Concept

Researchers at the Technical University of Munich have developed a sustainable method to create the essential amino acid L-alanine from CO2. This process uses artificial photosynthesis, converting CO2 to methanol and then to L-alanine. This new method requires less space than traditional agriculture, highlighting the potential of combining bioeconomy and hydrogen economy for a more sustainable future.

Researchers produce important amino acid from greenhouse gas CO2

  • Growing demand for food in the world
  • Biotechnological process via methanol as intermediate product
  • Less ground required than for plant cultivation

Ensuring the supply of food to the constantly growing world population and protecting the environment at the same time are often conflicting objectives. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have successfully developed a method for the synthetic manufacture of nutritional protein using a type of artificial photosynthesis. The animal feed industry is the primary driver of high demand for large volumes of nutritional protein, which is also suitable for use in meat substitute products.

A group led by Prof. Volker Sieber at the TUM Campus Straubing for Biotechnology and Sustainability (TUMCS) has succeeded in producing the amino acid L-alanine, an essential building block in proteins, from the environmentally harmful gas CO2. Their indirect biotechnological process involves methanol as an intermediate. Until now, protein for animal feed has been typically produced in the southern hemisphere with large-scale agricultural space requirements and negative consequences for biodiversity.

Vivian Willers and Volker Sieber

Artificial photosynthesis for environmentally friendly food production, from left: PhD student Vivian Willers und Prof. Volker Sieber. Credit: Otto Zellmer / TUM

The CO2, which is removed from the atmosphere, is first turned into methanol using green electricity and hydrogen. The new method converts this intermediate into L-alanine in a multi-stage process using synthetic enzymes; the method is extremely effective and generates very high yields. L-alanine is one of the most important components of protein, which is essential to the nutrition of both humans and animals.

Prof. Sieber, of the TUM Professorship for Chemistry of Biogenic Resources, explains: “Compared to growing plants, this method requires far less space to create the same amount of L-alanine, when the energy used comes from solar or wind power sources. The more efficient use of space means a kind of artificial photosynthesis can be used to produce the same amount of foodstuffs on significantly fewer acres. This paves the way for a smaller ecological footprint in agriculture.”

Bioeconomy and hydrogen economy in combination

The manufacture of L-alanine is only the first step for the scientists. “We also want to produce other amino acids from CO2 using renewable energy and to further increase efficiency in the realization process,” says co-author Vivian Willers, who developed the process as a doctoral candidate at the TUM Campus Straubing. The researchers add that the project is a good example of how bioeconomy and hydrogen economy in combination can make it possible to achieve more sustainability.

Reference: “Cell-free enzymatic L-alanine synthesis from green methanol” by Vivian Pascal Willers, Manuel Döring, Barbara Beer and Volker Sieber, 23 January 2023, Chem Catalysis.
DOI: 10.1016/j.checat.2022.100502

3 Comments on "Feeding the Future: Artificial Photosynthesis Transforms CO2 Into Food"

  1. David smith | May 3, 2023 at 4:07 am | Reply

    How about we just let the plants do it?

  2. Cyril E. Broderick, Sr. | May 4, 2023 at 9:11 am | Reply

    Excellent. The discovery is significant, especially when implemented. I will love to work with them. Thanks.

    Cyril E. Broderick, Sr.

  3. Didnt the Chiese do something similar 2 years ago?

    Sept 24, 2021
    The world top academic journal Science published a major breakthrough in the artificial starch synthesis made by a research institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The research is the first time in the world to achieve synthesis of starch from carbon dioxide. Scientists believe it will have a revolutionary impact on future agricultural production and bio-manufacturing.

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