Is Gravity Quantum? New Experiment To Probe Universe’s Deepest Mystery

Quantum Gravity Concept Art Illustration

Scientists from several universities are collaborating on an experiment named ‘MAST-QG’ to determine if gravity has quantum properties. The experiment, which involves levitating microdiamonds in quantum superposition, aims to unite general relativity and quantum mechanics. Despite its complexity, this research could fundamentally alter our understanding of gravity and has broad implications for physics. Credit:

  • Scientists are developing an experiment to test whether gravity is quantum
  • In quantum mechanics, which describes the behavior of atoms and molecules –objects behave differently to everything we know: they can be in a quantum superposition of being in two places at the same time
  • Now, scientists are investigating a way to determine whether gravity operates in this way, by levitating micro diamonds in a vacuum
  • If gravity is quantum, it will ‘entangle’ the diamonds – an intriguing phenomenon that strongly links two objects in ways impossible in everyday life
  • This research will help drive understanding of black holes, the Big Bang, and the universe

Quantum Gravity Experiment

Scientists are developing an experiment to test whether gravity is quantum – one of the deepest questions about our universe.

General relativity and quantum mechanics are the two most fundamental descriptions of nature we have. General relativity explains gravity on large scales while quantum mechanics explains the behaviour of atoms and molecules.

The Challenge of Unifying Theories

Arguably the most important unsolved problem in fundamental physics is the correct way to bring these two theories together – to determine whether gravity operates on a quantum level. While theoretical work has proposed many possibilities, experiments are needed to fully understand the behavior of gravity.

Laser Beam Probes Quantum Properties of Diamond

A laser beam in Gavin Morley’s lab probes the quantum properties of a diamond. Credit: Gavin Morley

Revolutionary Experiment by Global Consortium

For a hundred years experiments on the quantum nature of gravity seemed out of reach, but now scientists based at the Universities of Warwick, UCL, Yale (USA), Northwestern (USA), and Groningen (Holland) will work together to investigate this conundrum.

Their new idea is to levitate two microdiamonds in vacuum and put each into a quantum superposition of being in two places at the same time. This counterintuitive behavior is a fundamental feature of quantum mechanics.

Professor Morley’s Insight on the Experiment

Each diamond can be thought of as a smaller version of Schrödinger’s cat. Principal Investigator Professor Gavin Morley, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, explains: “Schrödinger’s cat is a thought experiment pointing out that it would be really weird if everyday objects (and pets!) could be in a quantum superposition of being in two places at once. We want to test the limits of this idea.

“Atoms and molecules have been successfully put into such a superposition state, but we want to do this with much larger objects. Our diamonds are made up of one billion atoms or more. To test the quantum nature of gravity, we would look for interactions between two such diamonds due to gravity.

“If gravity is quantum, then it would be able to entangle the two diamonds. Entanglement is a unique quantum effect where two things are linked more strongly than is possible in our everyday life. For example, if two coins could be entangled then you might find that whenever you flip them, they both land the same way up even if it’s impossible to know in advance if they will both be heads or both tails.”

Challenges and Implications

There are still many challenges to realizing this idea, which the team will investigate during the project. “For example, we need to eliminate all interactions between the nanoparticles other than gravity, which is incredibly challenging since gravity is so weak,” says Dr. David Moore, of Yale University.

Professor Morley, who is the founding director of Warwick Quantum, a new interdisciplinary initiative for Quantum Technology research, added: “For me, the most important problem in physics right now is to develop an experiment that can test the quantum nature of gravity. This new project is an acceleration in our exciting journey towards this.

Perspectives From Collaborating Scientists

Professor Sougato Bose, UCL, commented “It is hard to overstate how significant it would be for physicists to have experiments that could probe the correct way to combine quantum mechanics and general relativity. People working on theories of quantum gravity such as string theory typically focus on what’s happening at high energies, near black holes, and at the Big Bang.

“In contrast, our work is in the low-energy regime right here on Earth, but it would also provide invaluable information about whether gravity is quantum. Also, the experiment can be regarded as the verification of a generic prediction of any quantum theory of gravity at low energies.”

Professor Anupam Mazumdar, University of Groningen, adds “On the way to understanding the quantum nature of gravity, we may be able to test other aspects of fundamental physics such as exotic deviations from Newtonian gravity as short distances.”

“This is a challenging experiment, and this project is a pathfinder to address some of the key technical challenges to make these tests of quantum aspects of gravity a reality”, says Andrew Geraci, Associate Professor of Physics, Northwestern University.

The project is called ‘MAST-QG: Macroscopic superpositions towards witnessing the quantum nature of gravity’.

12 Comments on "Is Gravity Quantum? New Experiment To Probe Universe’s Deepest Mystery"

  1. Fixed gravity for you. | December 14, 2023 at 9:09 pm | Reply

    It’s great they’re talking about searching for signs quantized gravity at low energy, but it seems more constructive to do that by thinking about how quantizing gravity may explain things already evident, such as the inability to pin down “big G” with great precision, frame dragging and dark sector effects, as opposed to looking for unobservable things like imaginary “superposition of being in two places at once.” One has to be open to seeing general relativity’s supposed adequacy as a sort of artificial intelligence hallucination that enables tribal denials in the missing of obvious things.

    True superposition may be allowed with particles of light (true fundamental bosons – photons) because these particles are massless. Electrons, atoms and molecules can naturally be induced to magnetically pair up in complementary states, generating experimental signal drop-out and avoiding apparatus ambient noise as composite bosons without actually sharing the space of a single electron, atom or molecule, but coming extremely close to that. Even flattened buckyballs should pair up into magnetic dipoles. How about entangling two sheets of graphene first, before two lumps of diamond, so you don’t appear too eager to fail.

    • Fixed gravity for you. | December 14, 2023 at 10:47 pm | Reply

      “How about entangling two sheets of graphene first”

      … where they aren’t touching, of course. Seems that spinning both in sync on a common axis in extreme cold should help with isolation. Seems hydrogenating both sheets should be a huge help.

      Also, “signs quantized gravity” should be “signs of quantized gravity” and a larger text input window would be nice.

  2. I think of gravity being a manifestation of weight being that we live in a closed system on earth the evidence of gravity at the quantum level and being a weak force would be near impossible to detect. As far as entanglement I consider it at being in the same spin orientation in the multitude amount of quantum particles to separate the quantum would only give the attributes of a singled out quantum particle. A question to be asked is entanglement at a certain distance or does it very in the amount of similar quantum particles in an area.

    • dr mehrdad kesiri | December 17, 2023 at 5:08 am | Reply

      Hello to the American and NASA researchers, all the experiments that are done in the laboratory must come to a conclusion in order to determine the effect of the combination of hydrogen molecules with ionic nuclides, but on the surface of the sun, due to the verystrong gravitational force of the sun’s core, there are changes in trions, dorons, neutrons, and electrons, which In X-ray and laser beam tanks, artificial displacement does not occur and you will not get the desired result.On the surface of the stars, when fusion takes place, most hydrogen nuclei, i.e. protons, are not known to be attracted to the sun’s nucleus, but electrons, which are hundreds of thousands of times more than Protons are smaller and are attracted to thecore of the sun, of course ten percent of neutrons and protons are also attracted to the core of the sun, but trions and tritons and most of the protons become dust and hit the surface of the planets and they form materials that are necessary for life.They are necessary.We can understand from the distance between the stars, which is tens of trillions of kilometers, that at the time when the sun was in the form of huge clouds and full of gas and dust, it was in the form of a very large nebula thathad a width of five to tens of trillions of kilometers after passing.For several hundreds of billions of years, the sun has been compressed and as it has been around, this huge cloud nebula, when a core was formed in the center of this cloud nebula, the size of this nebula was not more than a few trillions, when the furnaces of the core of the young sun were lit and the hydrogen on the surface of the core split in the form of fusion.Now you can easily calculate if the radius of the young sun is one and a half trillion kilometers, how much was the volume of the sun of the solar system when it was a young star, and calculate every second because the sun’s core was not veryhot, every second two hundred to fifty million burn a ton of hydrogen and calculate that every ten billion years thirty million tons or a little less will be added to the hydrogen that burns, of course, this act of burning hydrogen in every second that burnsten to hundreds of million tons will decrease to a certain amount as the volume of the sun shrinks I made a calculation that is somewhat close to reality since the furnaces of the sun’s core begin to burn hydrogen, at least hundreds of billions of years have passed.The case of galaxies and a book called “Physics of Astronomy” which explained about the structure of atoms and was written by Albert Einstein.I read that book when I was 17 years old and now I am about 60 years old.I discovered dozens of very important discoveries about the existence of moons and the cause of hydrogen gas in gas planets and the reason why rocky planets from the big arm of the galaxy joined the solar system and the reason why meteorites hit all solar bodies and the formationof two inner and outer belts of the solar system.All this is due to the impact of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and the Sun on the stars of the two large arms of the galaxy.During tens of billions of years, solar objects collided with the two large arms of the galaxy.

      And how many times because the meteorites from the stars and planets that hit the sun and disintegrated, the rock, soil, core and mantle of the planets that came with those stars and hit the sun, and after the disintegration of the elements inside After thatstar and planet exploded, they were poured on the earth up to three thousand meters, and that is why there is oil three thousand meters below the ground next to the coasts of the seas, because the fishes, whales and other aquatic animals as well asthe rocks and soil on them The big waves of the sea led them to the shore and the bodies of the fish were spread over them, and the soil of the disintegrated planets was poured on them day and night, and they turned into oil.One hundred million years ago, but the humans who were on the earth before us.They knew about the collision of the stars of the arm of the galaxy and they drew the continent of North America for us like a bird that is flying in the sky and it is close to the country of Panama.America and the entire map of South America is known on the head of a man, and Panama is actually a bird’s foot that is carrying the old man of the Indian tribe, but he cannot fly because his left wing, which is near the North Pole, is broken, but his right wing, which is in Alaska, is intact.There is an old man, the head of the tribe, there is also the whole map of South America, and the face of that man is Brazil, which means to go under Berzir in Farsi, it means to go to the representative of the peopleof the earth, or to go to Farsi, the name of the country of Brazil is a Berzir, and it means, unfortunately, that old man spills the ground because of dumping dirt.At a height of two thousand meters from the planet we mentioned, it hits the sun and disintegrates, and the elements inside that star and planet after they disintegrate and sometimes hit the sun, their dust is poured into all the objects that orbit around the sun, that’s why even meteors The stones hit all the objects of the asteroids.You can see that the entire surface of the moons of the solar system is full of small meteorites on their surface.If you think that the asteroids collided, you should know that those meteorites hit the asteroids at a speed of hundreds of thousands of kilometers.They created a depth of several centimeters on the surface of the solar system objects, if those meteorites had been separated from the asteroid belt, they would not have created small dents with great depth.It is connected to the ground thank you pelise sent of the mobil dr mehrdad s m s 00989332197646 gods by

  3. Fixed gravity for you. | December 16, 2023 at 4:07 am | Reply

    Some quotes from other publications, a few years ago —-

    “And waves occupy multiple places in space at once. So any chunk of matter can also occupy two places at once.” – Rafi Letzter (Scientific American)

    Rafi is clearly a word construction rebel.

    “Simply by observing a particle in two different quantum states, you cause what is known as wave function collapse and the particle again exists in only one … location … . Therefore, measuring a particle in superposition is incredibly difficult.” Jay Bennett (Popular Mechanics)

    The Rafi mold persists with Jay.

    “In this take on the double-slit experiment, the team was able to use … heavy molecules … to create quantum interference patterns, as if they were behaving as waves and being in more than one place. The molecules were … more than 25,000 times the mass of a hydrogen atom. But as molecules get bigger, they also get less stable, and the scientists were only able to get them interfering for seven milliseconds at a time, using a newly designed piece of equipment called a matter-wave interferometer (designed to measure atoms along different paths). Even factors like the Earth’s rotation and gravitational pull had to be factored in.” – David Nield (ScienceAlert)

    “(A)s molecules get bigger, they also get less stable” can’t be the thing Dave knows that doesn’t compute. Anyway, Compton wavelength is probably cited in the paper. Seems timing differences, scaled by light speed, is measured. “Matter-wave interference” is used, instead of “matter-matter interference,” whatever that should be. More on that later, I hope. But for now I’m asking myself if it’s pretending two clumps of billions of carbon atoms are interfering, or is it pretending one clump is in two places at once? On top of that and seemingly even worse for “matter as a wave” philosophers, people are claiming interference between two different kinds of molecules is possible and that’s probably why no one is requiring the diamond lumps to be identical except through pretend-world/multiverse privilege.

  4. Fixed gravity for you. | December 16, 2023 at 10:58 am | Reply

    Everything stems pretty naturally from Einstein’s perception of “spooky action at a distance,” and that means popular royal dizzy industrial rent cartoon media will only confuse the issue with notions designed to confuse and annoy for the greater gory of the tribe. Extra-dimensionality, wormholes so fine, atoms in two places at once, Nobel prizes for aiming microwaves between target slits.

    A lot of quantum strangeness can be simulated with liquid drops on a resonant medium. Are drops good dipole models despite operating at only one resonant frequency? Is the resonant medium highlighting something about apparatus backreaction with strong field resonance? Is the medium wave limited-intensity roll-off naturally nonlinear in a way resembling tight magnetic dipole field strength? Is the medium implying superluminality in anything, or is it just revealing a backreaction feedback loop with tuned resonance?

  5. Fundamental formula aligning time, quanta, and gravity. This is my original scholarship..

  6. They need an experiment to figure that out. Um what’s a black hole again. Cause if gravity isn’t quantum then shouldn’t a black holes quantum sized points gravity not escape….so spend millions to figure out something we already know….

  7. I think there is a little too much fuss about a need to unite quantum with GR. After all they may mutually exist and not be connected at all. Take a special case of Newtonian based gravitation with has been measured at subatomic scale and that attraction is 100% accurate with Newtonian prediction to 14 decimal places. So quantum scale particles obey Newton perfectly. If Newtonian gravity need not be united with quantum why should GR? The proposed experiment is interesting but I think the answer will be as above. No wave character to gravity. But do the experiment. Let’s see the results. Graduated physics and mathematics. I see no need to unite as said above.

  8. By the way gravity waves are not the same a quantum waves and should not be confused.

  9. Fixed gravity for you. | December 18, 2023 at 12:33 pm | Reply

    Some people fight the relevance of geometry to an inverse-square (Newton-type) rule when it comes to gravity (but not quantized electrostatics), because an inverse-square rule implies an intensity variation, and an intensity, not just the essence of information theory itself, implies a quantized energy carrier density to explain it with logic and realism. Obviously Not on the mind-bending agenda, however. Agenda settlers there are probably often enough the same people who never explain that the speed of light was measured in Europe before Newton was born. The Solvay conference, fwiw, seems at times a major effort to keep the spookiness alive for the mob, and always just out of reach.

    Imo, quantum gravity waves are “stationary” to the extent that the source is “stationary” (carrier rotation phases do NOT spread out relative to a source). “Classical” (Einsteinian) waves (all phases and most notably peak phases) of gravity are *dynamic* due to *gravity effect phases (including peaks) spreading out* from their source. Both types of gravity wave are radiated gravitational energy, but quantum gravity waves are a product of quantum gravity carrier rotation along with its vectorized dipole basis effect and it has characteristics of being intrinsic to the carrier, much in the same way quantum spin is intrinsic to electrons and crates dipoles of them. Quantum gravity carriers are radiated from matter regardless of how it rotates or oscillates in space. Quantum gravity wave radiation does NOT require rotation in oblong masses or of binary mass pairs.

    Most people who wish to discount quantum gravity theoretically do so by condemning it to being some kind of “space-time” vacuum energy monopole (all pull, not dipole-like push capacity built into the carrier) which implies to me it could radiate at “c” and thus it is stuck precisely on a “light cone” or else it sits around, just waiting to do anything to help congratulate gravity theorists for being so darn smart.

    • Fixed gravity for you. | December 18, 2023 at 12:46 pm | Reply

      “much in the same way quantum spin is intrinsic to electrons and creates dipoles of them”

      … but observable in “stationary” waves, like waves in the effect of so-called “dark matter.” Huge difference in scale and the angular rotation rate lacks a complicated spectrum, maybe only two or three scales, with a galactic scale as the *shortest* wave.

      See: New Cosmological Constraints on the Nature of Dark Matter
      September 7, 2023 NAO Japan

      Some people likely believe they can match this “dark matter” effect wave pattern, existing at 30k light-year scale, to a boson condensate effect, but frankly they’re wasting everyone’s time with too much help from the usual royal suspects.

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