Science Made Simple: What Is Antimatter?

Particle Physics Antimatter Art

Antimatter, the mirror image of matter’s subatomic particles, is a fascinating yet elusive element of our universe. Although theories suggest equal amounts of matter and antimatter should exist, the observable universe predominantly contains matter. This discrepancy poses a significant mystery in physics.

What Is Antimatter?

Antimatter is the twin of almost all the subatomic particles that make up our universe. The matter in our universe comes in many forms—solids, liquids, gasses, and plasmas. These forms of matter all consist of subatomic particles that give matter its mass and volume. These particles include protons and neutrons (also known as baryons), electrons and neutrinos (also known as leptons), and a variety of other particles in the Standard Model of Particle Physics.

Protons and neutrons are themselves made up of particles known as quarks and gluons. But matter can have an opposite in the form of antimatter. In fact, all the subatomic particles in matter either have their own anti-twins (antiquarks, antiprotons, antineutrons, and antileptons such as antielectrons) or they straddle the boundary between matter and antimatter.

LEGEND Detectors

Physicist assembling detectors 1.4 km under the mountains in Italy to search for a rare nuclear decay that if observed, could explain why we are made of matter and not anti-matter. Credit: LEGEND Collaboration

These anti-particles can combine to form anti-atoms and, in principle, could even form anti-matter regions of our universe. Scientists believe that these anti-matter regions would have the same physics, chemistry, and other properties. Scientists haven’t seen anti-matter regions in our universe, but they have created copious amounts of antiparticles in particle accelerators and even created anti-elements and anti-atoms. We also know about antimatter from the anti-particles that cosmic ray collisions create. Some types of radioactivity also produce antimatter antiparticles.

Why isn’t antimatter everywhere? When matter and antimatter meet, they annihilate each other, releasing energy. That leads us to the biggest mystery about antimatter. Scientific theories predict that the Big Bang should have created the same amount of matter and antimatter. But if that were true, all the matter and antimatter would have destroyed each other. That would mean there wouldn’t be any matter in the Universe to create stars, planets, or people. Physicists believe that there was one extra matter particle for every billion matter-antimatter pairs. This is more than can be explained by the Standard Model, so scientists are working to understand why.

Fast Facts

  • Antimatter may seem impossibly far from daily lives. But ordinary bananas produce antimatter, releasing one positron—the antimatter equivalent of an electron—about every 75 minutes.
  • Neutrinos may be their own antiparticles. A matter particle and its antimatter partner carry opposite charges, making them easy to distinguish. Neutrinos, nearly massless particles that rarely interact with matter, have no charge. Scientists believe that they may be Majorana particles, a hypothetical class of particles that are their own antiparticles.
  • Researchers at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory discovered the antimatter equivalent of helium. These small advances open the doors to future research on antimatter and its role in our universe.

DOE Office of Science: Contributions to Antimatter Research

The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science’s High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics programs have supported research on antimatter for decades as part of DOE’s involvement in fundamental physics research. The Office of Nuclear Physics supports research to understand the asymmetry between matter and antimatter within its Fundamental Symmetries portfolio.

This includes extremely sensitive table-top experiments using neutrons and nuclei and larger scale experiments hosted in deep underground laboratories looking for neutrinoless double beta decay, a predicted nuclear decay that would create two leptons without any accompanying antileptons thus creating more matter than antimatter.

The Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) supports the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) designed to detect neutrinos created at Fermi National Accelerator Lab. DUNE should be able to tell whether neutrinos are a major contributor to this asymmetry. HEP also supports experiments at high energy particle accelerators that search for differences between matter and antimatter in the decay of heavy particles created in high energy collisions.

10 Comments on "Science Made Simple: What Is Antimatter?"

  1. dr mehrdad kesiri | November 24, 2023 at 5:20 am | Reply

    In the previous comments, I explained the reason for the existence of oil, but this issue is highly debatable.Now you, the readers of this interesting website, may have this question in your mind: where did I become aware of this important issue and from what source did I get this information?I obtained my source only from the gods of the earth and the superior force that created the great God through the minds of humans and the science of physics and chemistry.From the earth, God pointed out to me that there was life, the earth had an advanced life before us, and not a simple life, a civilized life, and not a period of at least two periods of human life on the earth and hadevolved.Humans were on the earth before us.And I understood from the surahs that God revealed to me that the earth, its continents and seas were shaped by humans in the shape of humans, large four-legged mammals and in the shape of birds.One hundred million years ago, the American continent was shaped by humans in the shape of a bird.In the form of a flying bird, they convey this message to us that what happened on the earth and in the solar system means what fate has befallen the people of the earth and let us know what dangers lie in wait for them and lie in waitfor us, that is, with what We will face incidents, the destruction of life on earth has happened in the past, now we must think and think, that is, we must think about the solution, and if we can take refuge in thesky, we must learn from the incident that happened to the people before us and save us.The inhabitants of the earth, of course, I told you in the comments that the shape of the American continent is strange and amazing, which is a bird that wanted to take refuge in the sky, but its left wing was torn into pieces by meteorites, and its left wing is near the North Pole on the world map, and it is strange.It is true that huge meteorites hit the earth from the positive pole of the earth from the north, and the flight of that bird was the message to us now that those who wanted to escape to the sky before us, but this was very difficult,but it is still an issue.I must say about the shape of the border map of Brazil, the face of an old man is clearly visible, and the entire continent of South America is the head and chest of a tribal man next to a horse, which is the map of thecountry of Argentina.The Gods of the earth showed his ear, which is the country of Peru, with the map of the country of Peru and Paraguay, the feather on the face and cheek of the red-skinned man, and there is a long feather that is visiblefrom below his neck to his stomach and chest, that long feather is the map of the country of Chile.And the narrow pointed beard of the head of the Indian tribe is known to be in the south of the South American continent.That man’s belly is near the heart of the heart.All these names are strange and make people wonder, that is, all the names of the countries that I mentioned in the language are strange.Farsi means that it is related to the face of the old man of the tribe and the story of people going underground, who really created all these amazing changes with the marking of countries, this issue is so strange to me that I am amazed by God’swork that God was raised by the minds of people, and I have seen our God many times in the sky of Iran in the form of clouds.

    • According to topological vortex gravitational field theory, in the evolution of matter, time cannot be set aside to discuss antimatter. Any antimatter research that does not consider time is extremely absurd.
      If you are indeed interested in science, you can browse https://scitechdaily.com/microscope-spacecrafts-most-precise-test-of-key-component-of-the-theory-of-general-relativity/.

    • Dr mehrdad mehr ghaeil | January 19, 2024 at 2:41 pm | Reply

      Greetings to you, gentlemen in America and all over the world, those who research stellar explosions and black holes outside the Milky Way and other galaxies, I must say that this research may be very interesting for you at first, but I have experience I haverealized that after 42 years of research on quasars, galaxies, black holes, neutron stars, etc., I have come to the conclusion that I did not find any application of this research on the issues I raised.And the result that it has in life is not except that I passed this knowledge to other students of this field, but if we research on the discovery of the traces of the lives of the past on earth, we will be very, very successful andwe would inform the earthlings that from the incident that happened in the past.Is it possible to save the earthlings, and when I make discoveries about the effects of civilized life on earth that are beneficial to humans, all wars and all old religions will be edited and all superstitions will be removed, and many treasures under the earth willbelong to humans.What we mean is that we should not spend our precious time researching on the things that are outside the Milky Way galaxy.We should research on this earth and the solar system.I will tell you what happened to humans a hundred million years ago.They shaped its seas in the shape of four-legged mammals, and they shaped the American continent in the shape of a flying bird, which is carrying a man who is the chief of the Indian tribe of the earth, which is the bust of anold man who formed the map of South America, and the face of a Brazilian man.It is going down, that is, the bird’s left wing has been torn into pieces, and from that space, meteorites are hitting from the sky, two thousand meters of dust is falling on the earth from a planet that hit the sun and exploded,and dust and rocks and elements of the planet that came from the arm of the galaxy.time

  2. dr mehrdad kesiri | November 24, 2023 at 5:30 am | Reply

    But the description of it is very complicated and it does not fit in people’s beliefs, but they can see on the face of the head of the tribe that it is the name of the country Brazil.Just change one letter of the alphabet of the word Brazil to remove the letter L and put it in the Persian language, which is probably God.He is also fluent in Persian language and the name of the country Brazil is very similar to the word “Berzir”.In Persian, “Berzir” means a lamb under the ground.It means that God may have put this symbol on the earth in the name of the country Brazil.It means the bird whose foot is the map of our country called Panama.The country of Panama in Farsi is the footprint of a human being, and in fact, the bird’s foot is exactly on that old man’s head, God said, if you follow the bird’s foot, you will know the face of that man on the entiremap of South America, and you will know that the role of that person is the head of Qiblah.It is obvious and the foot of the bird is connected to the head of the tribe from the North American part of South Central America, Panama is connected to the north of South America, and the foot of the bird is connected to the head of thatman who represented the people on earth, that old man is the shape of the entire map of South America.And he was the head of the Indian tribe, and that bird means a spaceship or, for example, a Discovery, and it carried passengers into space to save them from the incident that I explained, but you should think about this issue.It is clear that it is not possible and they took shelter under the ground and were unfortunately buried under the ground.And again, I emphasize that the word Brazil is like the Persian word that we say to objects or people that are placed under the ground.It also means under Brazil.It means that the old man goes underground or the bird saves him, and that scene and picture of the old man in the map of the entire continent of North and South America, the shape of the bird and the man of the tribe is indicative ofthat event, and the people going underground when that star is close to the earth.Everyone has gone under the map of the earth because the weather has warmed or it has another meaning.When the meteorites poured from the sky onto the earth, all the people of the earth took shelter underground because it is cool underground and buried underground.Under three thousand meters of soil, now there are big cities and all factories, heavy machines, tall towers and space planes under the soil of South and North America, which belong to the advanced technology of humans about one hundred million years ago.Americans should dig in the bed of big cities to find the remains of people who lived on earth before us, but I don’t know how much you believe this issue, I know for a hundred that they took refuge underground from meteorites that came fromthe planets Disintegrated and dumped on the earth and caused the destruction of one or two million-year-old civilizations, those planets that came with the stars towards the sun from the arm of the galaxy and collided with the objects of the solar system.And we don’t have a few thousand more years.We on Earth and the American Air and Space Organization, NASA, should think of a solution, how to prevent this incident.They had at least hundreds of thousands of years of history.Well, what should I do about this and this issue?And I don’t think it is permissible to explain it on this website, because I have to write a book, which should have at least one hundred to three hundred pages, and it is not possible in one comment.I will explain this on this website, but I will gradually talk about this topic in the future, which is related to the fate of us humans in the future of the earth.

  3. dr mehrdad kesiri | November 24, 2023 at 5:46 am | Reply

    The position of the sun is now passing and hitting the arm of the galaxy.I explained a little about this issue in previous comments, but God has given me a religious duty that I must fulfill.I must explain that I was not chosen by God.who have a relationship with God, he gives a message to those wise people, especially to those who, like me, were able to have a relationship with the Lord of the Earth, and I have some general information in all fields, especially in astronomyand the great religions of the world, and from the end of the earth’s time, which maybe I know that I am the prophet of the end of time.Maybe the faithful people say that I am the Imam of the time and the savior of the human world, but I hate the word Imam so much that there is no limit because of Imam Khomeini.Khomeini was deceived even by President Jimmy Cartel.I don’t know why, even though the President of the United States gave Khomeini one hundred and fifty million dollars at that time, what was it for?This money is converted into the Iranian currency, seven trillion and five hundred billion tomans.This money was not very, very much.But now the dollar is very expensive and one US dollar is about fifty thousand tomans in Iran with 7 trillion and 500 billion tomans, now you can buy 750 units of one hundred square meter residential units in Tehran.None of them worked.I heard this news from the voice and sight of the Persian section of America, not the financial aid.The distinguished people I knew said that President Jimmy Carter helped Imam Khomeini.Khomeini deceived everyone and caused wars, killings, conflicts and massacres.The people in the Middle East region, and the God of Iran, the earth, has given this message against Khomeini, the Antichrist, every Iranian fighter who chants slogans against the mullahs’ regime in Iran, has recently inspired this slogan in the minds ofthe people.He saw that their children were killed in the conflicts of the first years of the revolution and war, 1360 and 1967, and the rain of missiles on Iranian cities by Saddam Hussein’s controversial regime, and those whose children were killed and martyred in the conflicts anddemonstrations of 1988, 1400, and 1401 because of the forced hijab.Recently, they say this slogan: Death to Khamenei, curse Barkhomini, maybe the most evil religion of the Islamic world is the Islamic Republic, because wherever the religion of Islam has been, there have been wars, ethnic discrimination, and killing people because ofthe old religion of Islam.

  4. dr mehrdad kesiri | November 24, 2023 at 6:00 am | Reply

    God, who is the supreme force that arose from the human mind before us on the earth, that God knows and is aware of everything and knows how to guide the people of the earth and knows how to arouse nations against sedition religions and religions that Oldreligions should not be followed, because religions disturb people and Islam is a collection of religions, and is it possible to follow all religions in human societies, this is impossible, war on earth, madness and crime, maybe it is related to the jinn,the two alphabets of madness and War and crime are jinn, jinn in Farsi and Arabic means may the spirit of God protect you, be victorious and good luck in all stages of your life, Dr. Mehrdad from Iran, I am waiting for your messagesfrom America, I hope that the big governments of the world will think about the oppressed people of Iran and stop the killing of the people of Iran.In the illegitimate regime of the Islamic Republic, which commits many crimes in Iran and the Middle East, and we did not elect the leader, and the leader of the mullahs should be punished in Iran for killing the people of Palestine and Israel in recent days, if Iran’s leaders use oil money to help Lebanon’s Hezbollah.And Hamas didn’t do it.The leaders of Iran’s mullah regime didn’t have so many conflicts and wars in the Middle East now.I am a supporter of the right.America and its allies should think about the people of Iran, Palestine, and Israel.May God protect all Muslim, Christian, and Jewish people.God did not create the world’s religions.Regarding this issue, it is not permissible for me to talk too much on this scientific and technical website.I will come to Canada whenever the financial situation improves, God willing, and about religious issues, the existence of God, the new religion, and the law of religions from the perspective of the holy books.I am writing an article or a book.Old religions must be abandoned.This work takes a little time.God is with you wherever you are.mobail dr mehrdad 009332197646

  5. dr mehrdad kesiri | November 24, 2023 at 10:12 am | Reply

    God, who is the supreme force that arose from the minds of people before us on earth, God is aware of everything and knows how to guide the people of the earth and knows how to incite nations against seditious religions.You should not follow old religions because they disturb people and Islam is a set of religions and following all religions in human societies has always been involved in war with generations, tribes that did not have a single religion may be madness and crime related to jinn.be .The two alphabets of madness, war and crime, jinn, jinn in Persian and Arabic mean soul.Good luck in all stages of life, I am waiting for your messages.From America, I hope that the major governments of the world will think about the oppressed people of Iran and stop the killing of the Iranian people.In the illegitimate regime of the Islamic Republic, which commits many crimes in Iran and the Middle East, we did not elect that leader of Iran, and the leader of the mullahs should be punished in Iran for the killing of Iranian people and the war inIran..Palestine and Israel in recent days if Iran’s leaders use oil money to help Lebanon’s Hezbollah.And Hamas, the people of Iran, are worried about this.The leaders of Iran’s mullah regime had now caused conflict and war in the Middle East.I am a supporter of the right.America and its allies should think about the people of Iran, Palestine and Israel.May God protect all Muslim, Christian and Jewish people.God did not create all the religions of the world.I am not allowed to talk about this topic on this scientific and technical site.Whenever my financial situation improves, God willing, I will write about religious issues, the existence of God, the new religion, and religious laws from the perspective of the holy books, and I will come to Canada.I have written many articles.Old religions should be abandoned.This takes time.In the future, God willing, I will publish a book that is God’s command.May God be the friend and protector of the truth.It doesn’t matter whether God speaks the right word or man, the right word is always permanent.May God bless you.thank you dr mehrdad iran mobil 00989332197646

  6. kesiriy doctormehrdad | January 21, 2024 at 2:13 pm | Reply

    We can’t go to this world, it’s all miserable.We gave our whole lives.Why are some people in this world looking for money and wealth?What’s the use of this world?I gave my whole life.We said it all ourselves, man, why did you do that, go outside, the earth will be destroyed soon

    If you can take us with you, we haven’t seen any happiness in our life, everyone dies in this world, why are you all looking for money, we can’t move on the earth, we can only survive with humans, see, hear, get energy, feel no pain We don’t do it, we don’t want to die, our life will not end, but we will be scattered on the earth.When all the people were buried under two or three thousand meters of soil, all these words were ours.It also means repeating that when the last person dies, God also dies
    So why did you change our words, souls?We have a lot of work, but you were losing your life.Why are you bothering us?So why did you change our words?We can’t go back.

    It was so interesting, we realized that you are there, John, we told everything to Mehrdad, we are always here, Mehrdad is always here, our whole life is gone, we have nothing, we will stay here until the world is destroyed,we have nothing more to say, may God protect you.۱:۴۳ نیمه شب رودهن

  7. kesiriy doctormehrdad | January 21, 2024 at 2:31 pm | Reply

    We can’t go to this world, it’s all miserable.We gave our whole lives.Why are some people in this world looking for money and wealth?What’s the use of this world?I gave my whole life.We said it all ourselves, man, why did you do that, go outside, the earth will be destroyed soon

    If you can take us with you, we haven’t seen any happiness in our life, everyone dies in this world, why are you all looking for money, we can’t move on the earth, we can only survive with humans, see, hear, get energy, feel no pain We don’t do it, we don’t want to die, our life will not end, but we will be scattered on the earth.When all the people were buried under two or three thousand meters of soil, all these words were ours.It also means repeating that when the last person dies, God also dies
    So why did you change our words, souls?We have a lot of work, but you were losing your life.Why are you bothering us?So why did you change our words?We can’t go back.

    It was so interesting, we realized that you are there, John, we told everything to Mehrdad, we are always here, Mehrdad is always here, our whole life is gone, we have nothing, we will stay here until the world is destroyed,we have nothing more to say, may God protect you.۱:۴۳ نیمه شب رودهنWe didn’t love our whole life, we gave our whole life, give so much here, why is it like this here?It is very difficult.We said all our words

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