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Scientists Show How Synapses Are Arranged with Respect to Each Other

July 19, 2016

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How Synapses Are Arranged with Respect to Each Other

For the first time, neurobiologists show that contact points between specific neuron types are clustered in groups on the target neuron. The cerebral cortex resembles a vast switchboard. Countless lines carrying information about the environment, for example from the sensory organs, converge in the cerebral cortex. In order to direct the flow of data into […]

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Yale Scientists Recode Organisms to Resist Viral Contamination

July 18, 2016

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Scientists Recode Organisms to Resist Viral Contamination

Scientists from Yale University have discovered a novel way to combat viral contamination of bio-factories that produce a growing number of drugs, chemicals, and fuels. The new method involves recoding organisms to stop horizontal transfer of genes — which viruses use to infect and hijack cellular machinery to reproduce. The study is published in the […]

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New Study Improves Our Understanding of Intercellular Communication

July 6, 2016

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Biologists Improve Our Understanding of Intercellular Communication

New research reveals how cells can pack and release active ephrins and Eph receptors through extracellular vesicles, improving our understanding of intercellular communication and paving the way for new therapeutic strategies. Eph receptors and their partner proteins, the ephrins, are vital for intercellular communication. In the developing brain, they guide young neurons to the right […]

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Bird Brains Have Significantly More Neurons Than Primate Brains Of The Same Mass

June 14, 2016

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Birds Have Primate-Like Numbers of Neurons in the Forebrain

A new study systematically measures the number of neurons in the brains of birds, revealing that they have significantly more neurons packed into their small brains than are stuffed into mammalian and even primate brains of the same mass. The macaw has a brain the size of an unshelled walnut, while the macaque monkey has […]

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Researchers Identify the Molecular Pathways Involved in the Aging of Human Eggs

June 8, 2016

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Yale Researchers Identify the Molecular Pathways Involved in the Aging of Human Eggs

Researchers from the Yale School of Medicine have identified the molecular pathways involved in the aging of human eggs; which could eventually lead to treatments to correct age-related damage and improve fertility in women age 40 and older. Published in the June 6 issue of the journal Molecular Human Reproduction, the study examined the sharp […]

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New Research Shows Neanderthals Were Born with Wide Bodies and Robust Bones

May 25, 2016

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New Study Shows Neanderthals Were Stocky from Birth

Scientists investigated whether the differences in physique between Neanderthals and modern humans are genetic or caused by differences in lifestyle, finding that Neanderthals’ wide bodies and robust bones were formed by birth. If a Neanderthal were to sit down next to us on the underground, we would probably first notice his receding forehead, prominent brow […]

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New Approach Identifies Genetic Markers Linked to Complex Diseases

May 10, 2016

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Study Identifies New Gene Variants for Treating Arrhythmia

Researchers from MIT have developed a new approach that identifies genetic markers linked to complex diseases. Many diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and schizophrenia, tend to be passed down through families. After researchers sequenced the human genome about 15 years ago, they had high hopes that this trove of information would reveal the genes that […]

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New Study Details How Bacteria Become Individualists

May 9, 2016

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Bacteria Cells Respond Differently to Lack of Nutrients

No two bacteria are identical – even when they are genetically the same. New research reveals the conditions under which bacteria become individualists and how they help their group grow when times get tough. Whether you are a human or a bacterium, your environment determines how you can develop. In particular, there are two fundamental […]

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Researchers Discover 305 Million-Year-Old “Early Spider” Fossil

March 31, 2016

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305 Million-Year-Old Early Spider Fossil

A team of scientists has discovered the fossil of a 305 million-year-old arachnid, revealing more about the early origins of modern-day spiders. The new species, named Idmonarachne brasieri in honor of Professor Martin Brasier, University of Oxford, who passed away in December 2014, was found in Montceau-les-Mines, France, and researchers from The University of Manchester, […]

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New Findings Provide a Design for an HIV Vaccine Germline-Targeting Immunogen

March 28, 2016

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Scientists Announce New Anti-HIV Agent

A team of researchers has found HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibody precursor B cells that are present in most people, and has described the design of an HIV vaccine germline-targeting immunogen capable of binding those B cells. Some people infected with HIV naturally produce antibodies that effectively neutralize many strains of the rapidly mutating virus, and […]

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Yale Biologists Solve the Mystery of the Tully Monster

March 21, 2016

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Mystery of the Tully Monster Solved

A newly published study from Yale University reveals that the Tully Monster had gills and a notochord, which functioned as a rudimentary spinal cord. The Tully Monster, an oddly configured sea creature with teeth at the end of a narrow, trunk-like extension of its head and eyes that perch on either side of a long, […]

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New Stem Cell Innovation Could Someday Help Treat Parkinson’s

March 17, 2016

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Stem Cell Innovation Could Treat Parkinson’s

A team of researchers from Rutgers and Stanford have created a new way to inject healthy human nerve cells into the brain that could someday help treat Parkinson’s disease and other devastating brain-related conditions that affect millions of people. The technology – a major innovation – involves converting adult tissue-derived stem cells into human neurons […]

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Yale Researchers Track How the Brain Routes Visual Signals

March 10, 2016

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Yale Scientists Track How Brain Routes Visual Signals

Newly published research from Yale’s Department of Neuroscience provides some clues to how cells in the visual cortex direct sensory information to different targets throughout the brain. Understanding how the brain manages to process the deluge of information about the outside world has been a daunting challenge. By imaging activity in the mouse brain, the […]

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Yale Study Shows Gut Bacteria Aggressively Protect Their Territory

March 8, 2016

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Study Shows Friendly Bacteria Aggressively Protect Their Territory

A newly published study from Yale University details how human gut bacteria take on many tasks crucial to health. Bacterially speaking, it gets very crowded in the human gut, with trillions of cells jostling for a position to carry out a host of specialized and often crucial tasks. A new Yale study, published the week […]

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Neuroscientists Discover a Behavioral State Gene That May be Linked to Autism

March 7, 2016

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Gene for Behavioral State May be Linked to Autism

In a newly published study, neuroscientists from MIT reeval a gene that plays a critical role in controlling the switch between alternative behavioral states – which for humans include hunger and fullness, or sleep and wakefulness. This gene, which the researchers dubbed vps-50, helps to regulate neuropeptides — tiny proteins that carry messages between neurons […]

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Scientists Discover 520 Million-Year-Old Fossilized Nervous System

March 1, 2016

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Researchers Discover 520 Million-Year-Old Fossilized Nervous System

Researchers from the University of Cambridge have discovered a 520 million-year-old fossilized nervous system is the most complete and best example found to date. Researchers have found one of the oldest and most detailed fossils of the central nervous system yet identified, from a crustacean-like animal that lived more than 500 million years ago. The […]

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Yale Researchers Identify Gene That Regulates the Growth of Melanoma

February 29, 2016

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Yale Identifies Gene That Regulates the Growth of Melanoma

New research from Yale University identifies a gene in melanoma that can dramatically affect the growth of the disease. The findings, published in the journal Cell Reports, provide new insight into how melanoma grows and identifies a new target for treatment of melanoma and other cancers. Enzymes that chemically modify DNA, known as DNA methyltranferases, […]

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MIT Researchers Identify Cells That Represent Feelings of Isolation

February 16, 2016

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Researchers Identify Cells That Represent Feelings of Isolation

In a newly published study, MIT neuroscientists reveal how they identified a brain region that represents the feelings of loneliness. Humans, like all social animals, have a fundamental need for contact with others. This deeply ingrained instinct helps us to survive; it’s much easier to find food, shelter, and other necessities with a group than […]

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