Extremely Rare Higgs Boson Decay Process Spotted at the Large Hadron Collider

LHC CMS Detector

The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general-purpose detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It has a broad physics programme ranging from studying the Standard Model (including the Higgs boson) to searching for extra dimensions and particles that could make up dark matter. The CMS detector is built around a huge solenoid magnet. This takes the form of a cylindrical coil of superconducting cable that generates a field of 4 tesla, about 100,000 times the magnetic field of the Earth. The field is confined by a steel “yoke” that forms the bulk of the detector’s 14,000-tonne weight. Credit: CERN

The Higgs boson reached overnight fame in 2012 when it was finally discovered in a jumble of other particles generated at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Geneva, Switzerland. The discovery was monumental because the Higgs boson, which had only been theorized about previously, has the special property of endowing other elementary particles with mass. It is also exceedingly rare and difficult to identify in the debris of colliding particles.

Caltech physicists played a major role in the Higgs boson discovery, a result that earned theoretical physicist Peter Higgs a share of the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics, and now they continue to make significant findings about rare Higgs boson processes.

This summer, for the first time, particle physicists using data collected by the experiment known as the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at the LHC, have found evidence that the Higgs boson decays into a pair of elementary particles called muons. The muon is a heavier version of the electron, and both muons and electrons belong to a class of particles known as fermions, as described in the widely accepted model of particles called the Standard Model. The Standard Model classifies all particles as either fermions or bosons. Generally, fermions are building blocks of all matter, and bosons are the force carriers.

A muon is also what is known as a second-generation particle. First-generation fermion particles such as electrons are the lightest of particles; second- and third-generation particles can decay to become first-generation particles. The new finding represents the first evidence that the Higgs boson interacts with second-generation fermions.

In addition, this result provides further evidence that the decay rate of the Higgs to fermion pairs is proportional to the square of the mass of the fermion. This is a key prediction of the Higgs theory. With more data, the LHC experiments are expected to confirm that indeed the Higgs gives the fundamental particles their mass.

CMS Detector

Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Credit: CERN/CMS

“The importance of this measurement is that we are probing rare processes involving the Higgs boson, and we are in the precision Higgs physics investigation regime where any departure from the Standard Model predictions can point us to new physics,” says Maria Spiropulu, the Shang-Yi Ch’en Professor of Physics at Caltech.

Scientists analyzing data from another instrument at the LHC, known as ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS), also found corroborating evidence for the Higgs boson decaying into muons. The results from both experiments were presented at the 40th International Conference on High Energy Physics in August 2020.

“We need more data and clever analysis methods to confirm our results, but this is the first time we are seeing evidence that the Higgs boson decays into two muons,” says Irene Dutta (MS ’20), a Caltech CMS team member and graduate student in Spiropulu’s laboratory. “This result validates experimentally that the predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics are spot-on. Even a small deviation from our model would tell us something else is going on, but so far the Standard Model remains firm,” says Dutta.

The finding will ultimately help scientists better understand how the Higgs boson endows mass to the fermions. The Higgs boson can be thought of as the jiggling or excitation of the Higgs field. The Higgs field acts like a thick syrup and as particles move through it, they acquire mass; the slower the particles move through the field, the heavier they are (see video below for a metaphorical illustration of the concept).

“We want to understand the origin of mass in our universe,” says Caltech CMS team member Nan Lu, a postdoctoral scholar in Spiropulu’s laboratory. “The Higgs boson is an experimental tool for understanding this mechanism, and could be a handle for discovering new physics. We can’t systematically observe the Higgs boson or other elementary particles, except in their manifestation in high-energy particle collisions, but they are the basic building blocks of our universe,” says Lu.

The Caltech team contributed to the new finding by searching for Higgs bosons produced by a particular mechanism in which two particles called quarks are also generated at the same time (quarks are another type of fermion). This process is of special interest because the two quarks offer distinct signatures to help identify the Higgs bosons. Lu developed the method to probe the sensitivity of the CMS search for different masses of the Higgs boson, thereby improving the confidence of the findings. Dutta worked on demonstrating the power of an advanced artificial-intelligence (AI) methodology tool, known as a deep neural network, for analyzing the LHC data.

Both Dutta and Lu helped to derive the final sensitivity results. Former Caltech postdoctoral scholar Joosep Pata, who is now on the faculty of the National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics in Estonia, developed novel methods for speeding up the complex computational analysis used in the project.

“Probing the properties of the Higgs boson is tantamount to searching for new physics that we know has to be there” said Spiropulu. “I am especially proud of the work by Nan, Irene, Joosep, and the entire Caltech CMS group, whose talent, diversity, and results shine in the landscape of a grand international collaboration.”

The Caltech CMS team also includes Harvey Newman, Marvin L. Goldberger Professor of Physics; Si Xie, research assistant professor of physics; research scientists Adi Bornheim and Cristián Peña (MS ’15, PhD ’17); and Ren-Yuan Zhu, manager of the Caltech CMS electromagnetic calorimeter team.

11 Comments on "Extremely Rare Higgs Boson Decay Process Spotted at the Large Hadron Collider"

  1. As Mass is possibly a result of a higs boson partical, maybe a anti mass boson exists, with anti gravity quality’s that is negative gravity.

  2. Tha need to leave it alone all together when tha unlock the gates of hell what will u do then if it’s not already happened. Better be ready to meet our God please stop this thing before something really bad happens God will tell u everything when the time is right God bless all. An be with all

  3. Is it possible people created a Higgs muon that started motion in the universe?

    Where is the center of the universe ?

    If people first started motion on earth, then wouldn’t the earth be at the center of motion in the universe ?

    Attached is a Wikipedia photo of the comet ISon, *( 2012-2013 ) notice the redshift of light of the stars in the background….to me it does shift but in what direction …the redshift of light means its moving away from Earth ?

    Notice the red shift of cosmic light in the back ground stars in the Comet Ison where are they pointing to and moving away from ? Is it the Earth ? why does it look that way ? Did people start motion here on Earth ?

    Can anyone point in the direction of the universe where the Big Bang occurred?

    Is it possible people created a Higgs muon that started motion in the universe? If motion first started on earth, it would explain why the cosmic red shift points to the earth at the center of the universe, maybe because motion first started here? see: ” The red shift hypothesis for quasars: Is the earth the center of the universe? – Astrophysics and Space Science August 1976. “ The recently generated Higgs boson muon experiment at LHC in Cern in 2012 ..the Higgs muon may have decayed faster than the speed of light as predicted.

    Could people have started motion in the universe by generating a particle that allegedly went faster than the speed of light ? (with a 10 Billion Dollar man made machine that is colder than the 3 kelvin universe vs the LHC at 2 kelvin and creating a particle that goes back into time – 15 billion + years ago, ) when there was no motion – just motionless static gravity fields and that particle started motion, (gravitational) instability, the microwave background was then formed as a result of the instability, that created dust particles and matter in the universe ?

    Was this the time the universe started to fall (expand) into another static gravity field past the microwave background ?

    When was the last time the universe was at 2 kelvin ?

    Did the Universe create itself as the late Steven Hawking alleges ? Aren’t people part of that Universe ? Could it be all man made ? To me it looks like everything we see was created by people, or God like peoplefrom motionless fractals to the start of motion in the universe within in an absolute zero kelvin static gravity field . Notice the Blue shifted Andromeda Galaxy is heading towards the Earth – when you throw a stone in a pond of water it ripples out except the middle it heads towards the cast stone.displacement. From Wikipedia ” The Andromeda Galaxy is moving toward our own Milky Way galaxy within the Local Group; thus, when observed from Earth, its light is undergoing a blueshift. ” https://en.wikipedia.org/wi

    and the Faster-than-light neutrino anomaly at Cern https://en.wikipedia.org/wi…

    Can anyone point in the direction of the universe where the Big Bang occurred?
    Is it possible people created a Higgs muon that started motion in the universe? If motion first started on earth, it would explain why the cosmic red shift points to the earth at the center of the universe, maybe because motion first started here? see: ” The red shift hypothesis for quasars: Is the earth the center of the universe? – Astrophysics and Space Science August 1976. “ The recently generated Higgs boson muon experiment at LHC in Cern in 2012 ..the Higgs muon may have decayed faster than the speed of light as predicted.
    Could people have started motion in the universe by generating a particle that allegedly went faster than the speed of light ? (with a 10 Billion Dollar man made machine that is colder than the 3 kelvin universe vs the LHC at 2 kelvin and creating a particle that goes back into time – 15 billion + years ago, ) when there was no motion – just motionless static gravity fields and that particle started motion, (gravitational) instability, the microwave background was then formed as a result of the instability, that created dust particles and matter in the universe ?

    Was this the time the universe started to fall (expand) into another static gravity field past the microwave background ?

    When was the last time the universe was at 2 kelvin ?
    The Gravitational Instability Cosmological Theory on the Formation of the Universe
    When the Universe started to fall . When did Motion Start ?
    (1) The expansion of the universe is a result of the ” heat ‘ contained therein;
    (2) The source of the ” heat ” is the cosmic microwave radiation background at 3 kelvin,
    wherein;
    (3) The microwave electro magnetic-nuclear energy was formed as a result of the
    interaction of two different static gravitational vacuum fields, causing gravitational
    instability and the motion, void of matter, at this time,

    wherein; static gravitational field (1) began to go into “motion”.

    Therefore; the interaction of (2) motionless / static gravity vacuum fields, could eventually create dust particles in the Universe that later form into stars, galaxies , planets, moons and other objects in or about their current locations.

    When did motion first start ?

    Science knows the formation of matter in our universe was caused by the forces of the

    universe.

    These forces are:

    (1) The Force of Gravity

    (2) The Force of Electro Magnetism

    (3) The Strong Nuclear Force

    (4) The Weak Nuclear Force

    At some point in time, motion within the universe, had to begin.
    The paradox would be, what force could cause motion to begin, without moving in its
    present space-time ?

    The Gravitational Cosmological Theory was
    developed from an is rooted in the Einstein Steady State Theory and the Bondi-Gold-Hoyle Steady State Theory,

    Wherein the Steady State Theory the universe,
    contains more protons than electrons that
    create dust particles and
    galaxies formed in their current locations and the cosmic
    matter is recycled therein at the center of the galaxy furnace.
    ————
    When the Universe started to fall:
    The Gravitational Instability Cosmological Theory on the Formation of the Universe.
    The Theory:
    (1) The expansion of the universe is a result of the ” heat ‘ contained therein;
    (2) The source of the ” heat ” is the cosmic microwave radiation background at 3 kelvin,
    wherein;
    (3) The microwave electro magnetic-nuclear energy was formed as a result of the
    interaction of two different static gravitational vacuum fields, causing gravitational
    instability and the motion, void of matter, at this time, wherein; static gravitational
    field (1) began to go into “motion”.

    Therefore; the interaction of (2) motionless / static gravity vacuum fields, could eventually create dust particles in the Universe that later form into stars, galaxies , planets, moons and other objects in or about their current locations.

    Q: When did this motion start?
    A: If a neutral particle is able to resist the universal motion, in theory, that particle
    would go back in time. Going back in time the neutral particle would then enter into (1)
    of the (2) motionless-static gravity vacuum fields void of motion, and cause an unbalance
    and gravitational instability and this interaction would create motion and energy
    particles.
    Therefore; the interaction of (2) motionless / static gravity vacuum fields, ( now thanks to Mr Peebles, one Baryonic gravity vacuum field and one Non Baryonic vacuum field ) could eventually create dust particles in the Universe that later form into stars, galaxies , planets, moons and other objects in or about their current locations.

    Q: What causes a gravitational static vacuum field in the first place ?
    A: Pressure force is used to create a vacuum on Earth, perhaps an exotic something
    100,000 times weaker than the force of gravity decays, causing a static-motionless gravity vacuum field.

    Q: What created the motionless gravity vacuum fields in the first place ?

    A: Vacuums are created by pressure so the only answer I can think of is a created gravity vacuum pressure from the future goes back in time to start motion in the past.
    theory needs improvement – help yourself )

    They say the expanding balloon story often, but if the expanding balloon can be measured then it has a center. As for the rest of the theory, sending a man made particle back in time, ( the decay of a Higgs Muon ? ) maybe at CERN is pseudo science and even if possible, how could a tiny particle cause gravitational instability of 2 vacuum gravity fields of absolute zero 13.8 billion plus years ago that then interacts and generates a microwave background field that then creates dust particles that clump to form stars and galaxies and causes one field to fall. …I’m not happy with the theory. but to say I should except a perpetually HOT blob that eventually expands and creates all the galaxies and has no place of occurrence other than everywhere is an even worse theory. ( an always hot blob ? )

    “but to say I should except a perpetually HOT blob that eventually expands and creates all the galaxies and has no place of occurrence other than everywhere is an even worse theory”
    The universe is not hot now, so the perpetually hot blob is a wrong idea. But where did you get this from? Why is this a candidate idea for the start of the Universe?

    That is a summary of the Big Bang Theory. Actually the universe if hot at 3 kelvin for the billion ly + size of it 3 kelvin is impressive. The CERN collider operates at 2 kelvin, my question is when was the last time the universe was at 2 kelvin ? ( Some Big Bang theorist would say never. )

    see the Neutroid Steady State Theory or
    The Steady State Galaxy Theory

    at

    RUFUS’S GALAXY WEB PAGE

    http://www.roycaswell.co.uk

    The Steady State Galaxy Theory
    An Alternative To
    The Big Bang Theory

    ————————————————–

    Here is a completely different cosmological theory – it too has problems such as it does to explain cosmic inflation, ( the Redshift ) the microwave background , and claims galaxies do not decay, other than this it is a thoughtful theory and i agree based on helium 4 as helium 3 and 4 cannot freeze ( decay ) the universe is I say 4x older than 13.8 billion years old and having a Neutroid instead of a back hole in the center of some galaxies makes sense too. I’ve seen Hubble galaxy photos with both a hole ) funnel ) and a neutroid ( ball of light ) in galaxy centers so it is up to debate

  4. Layman’s terminology. The drawing of a moth to light.
    When there is no interested man(human being) persistently, and relentlessly, there’s no satisfying answer, due to the consistency of inquiry.
    With respect in the inquisitive longing for a reason or understanding. There may not be any sense of awe. Appreciation is lost in manipulating or attempted recreation.. how man may say, “the know how”.
    All the best man, maths technicians or engineers, may forget thyself in pursuit of personalized benefits which array to the incalculable fantasized fabrications that that one individual have.
    I’ll leave those whom read with this. Theory.
    Where or how doest the energy be consumed, or controlled, or dissappear? Does the fact of the unknown dissipated numbers exist? Or doest thou few fears of not knowing in worry of repercussion, or sickness?
    With respect to the allowances of governance, would it please to see the end of each fraction of creation?
    I warn thee, with respect and humbled gratitude.
    The laws that dictate you, or I, are. Those whomever ignore, or cast aside the law. Will be made to accountance, and thine *own* knowledge, poison thee. For if you know not, I tell ye now. The wages of sin *is* death.

  5. Is it possible people created a Higgs muon that started motion in the universe?

    Where is the center of the universe ?

    If people first started motion on earth, then wouldn’t the earth be at the center of motion in the universe ?

    Attached is a Wikipedia photo of the comet ISon, *( 2012-2013 ) notice the redshift of light of the stars in the background….to me it does shift but in what direction …the redshift of light means its moving away from Earth ?

    Notice the red shift of cosmic light in the back ground stars in the Comet Ison where are they pointing to and moving away from ? Is it the Earth ? why does it look that way ? Did people start motion here on Earth ?

    Can anyone point in the direction of the universe where the Big Bang occurred?

    Is it possible people created a Higgs muon that started motion in the universe? If motion first started on earth, it would explain why the cosmic red shift points to the earth at the center of the universe, maybe because motion first started here? see: ” The red shift hypothesis for quasars: Is the earth the center of the universe? – Astrophysics and Space Science August 1976. “ The recently generated Higgs boson muon experiment at LHC in Cern in 2012 ..the Higgs muon may have decayed faster than the speed of light as predicted.

    Could people have started motion in the universe by generating a particle that allegedly went faster than the speed of light ? (with a 10 Billion Dollar man made machine that is colder than the 3 kelvin universe vs the LHC at 2 kelvin and creating a particle that goes back into time – 15 billion + years ago, ) when there was no motion – just motionless static gravity fields and that particle started motion, (gravitational) instability, the microwave background was then formed as a result of the instability, that created dust particles and matter in the universe ?

    Was this the time the universe started to fall (expand) into another static gravity field past the microwave background ?

    When was the last time the universe was at 2 kelvin ?

  6. I believe this article makes an incorrect statement. It isn’t the Higgs Boson which causes mass; the Higgs Boson proved that the Higgs FIELD exists, and it is the Higgs FIELD that imparts mass???

  7. “Kun” (“Be”-and it is) The Word of Command given by the One Creator “Allah” s.w.t. brought everything that exists into being including all life and matter.

  8. Lawrence L Huber | October 12, 2020 at 8:54 am | Reply

    And what practical application does this knowledge have?
    Seems quite silly and a waste of resources unless there is a practical end game.

  9. The electron is expanding alleviating the search for a mass producing mechanism. The electron is particle, object, matter (physics) and as expansion is action, motion, phenomena (metaphysics). The search ended 18 years ago. Why keep pretending. The Final Theory: Rethinking Our Scientific Legacy, Mark McCutcheon is required reading for all ‘humanity ‘.

  10. Terrence Singh | October 12, 2020 at 3:53 pm | Reply

    It is disturbing to see that no recognition is given to the original scientist in this entire article. Please research Satyendra Nath Bose to full appreciate where the word Boson comes from.

    Thank you.

  11. … is there the Higgs field and what would be its property if it exists?
    Does it have some shape or geometry to be attached to it?
    What it would be its relationship to a space time?

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