Harvard Scientists Have Developed a Revolutionary New Treatment for Diabetes

Cells Biology Illustration

Researchers have recently successfully treated Type 1 diabetes by transplanting insulin-producing pancreas cells into the patient.

University of Missouri scientists are partnering with Harvard and Georgia Tech to create a new diabetes treatment that involves transplanting insulin-producing pancreatic cells

Type 1 diabetes is estimated to affect around 1.8 million Americans. Although type 1 diabetes often develops in childhood or adolescence, it can occur in adulthood.

Despite active research, type 1 diabetes has no cure. Treatment methods include taking insulin, monitoring your diet, managing blood sugar levels, and exercising regularly. Scientists have also recently discovered a new treatment method that holds promise. 

A group of researchers from the University of Missouri, Georgia Institute of Technology, and Harvard University has proved the successful use of a novel Type 1 diabetes treatment in a large animal model in a new study published in Science Advances on May 13th. Their method includes transferring insulin-producing pancreas cells, known as pancreatic islets, from a donor to a recipient without the need for long-term immunosuppressive medicines.

According to Haval Shirwan, a professor of child health and molecular microbiology and immunology at the MU School of Medicine and one of the study’s primary authors, people with Type 1 diabetes’ immune system may malfunction, leading it to target itself.

“The immune system is a tightly controlled defense mechanism that ensures the well-being of individuals in an environment full of infections,” Shirwan said. “Type 1 diabetes develops when the immune system misidentifies the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas as infections and destroys them. Normally, once a perceived danger or threat is eliminated, the immune system’s command-and-control mechanism kicks in to eliminate any rogue cells. However, if this mechanism fails, diseases such as Type 1 diabetes can manifest.”

Diabetes impairs the body’s ability to produce or utilize insulin, a hormone that aids in the regulation of blood sugar metabolism. People with Type 1 diabetes are unable to manage their blood sugar levels because they do not produce insulin. This lack of control may result in life-threatening problems including heart disease, kidney damage, and vision loss.

Shirwan and Esma Yolcu, a professor of child health and molecular microbiology and immunology at the MU School of Medicine, have spent the last two decades targeting an apoptosis mechanism that prevents “rogue” immune cells from causing diabetes or rejection of transplanted pancreatic islets by attaching a molecule called FasL to the islets’ surface.

“A type of apoptosis occurs when a molecule called FasL interacts with another molecule called Fas on rogue immune cells, and it causes them to die,” said Yolcu, one of the study’s first authors. “Therefore, our team pioneered a technology that enabled the production of a novel form of FasL and its presentation on transplanted pancreatic islet cells or microgels to prevent being rejected by rogue cells. Following insulin-producing pancreatic islet cell transplantation, rogue cells mobilize to the graft for destruction but are eliminated by FasL engaging Fas on their surface.”

Haval Shirwan and Esma Yolcu Roy Blunt NextGen Building

Haval Shirwan and Esma Yolcu work in their lab at the Roy Blunt NextGen Precision Health building. Credit: University of Missouri

One advantage of this new method is the opportunity to potentially forgo a lifetime of taking immunosuppressive drugs, which counteract the immune system’s ability to seek and destroy a foreign object when introduced into the body, such as an organ, or in this case, cell, transplant.

“The major problem with immunosuppressive drugs is that they are not specific, so they can have a lot of adverse effects, such as high instances of developing cancer,” Shirwan said. “So, using our technology, we found a way that we can modulate or train the immune system to accept, and not reject, these transplanted cells.”

Their method utilizes technology included in a U.S. patent filed by the University of Louisville and Georgia Tech and has since been licensed by a commercial company with plans to pursue FDA approval for human testing. To develop the commercial product, the MU researchers collaborated with Andres García and the team at Georgia Tech to attach FasL to the surface of microgels with proof of efficacy in a small animal model. Then, they joined with Jim Markmann and Ji Lei from Harvard to assess the efficacy of the FasL-microgel technology in a large animal model, which is published in this study.

Haval Shirwan Microscope

Haval Shirwan looks at a sample through a microscope in his lab at the Roy Blunt NextGen Precision Health building. Credit: University of Missouri

Incorporating the power of NextGen

This study represents a significant milestone in the process of bench-to-bedside research, or how laboratory results are directly incorporated into use by patients in order to help treat different diseases and disorders, a hallmark of MU’s most ambitious research initiative, the NextGen Precision Health initiative.

Highlighting the promise of personalized health care and the impact of large-scale interdisciplinary collaboration, the NextGen Precision Health initiative is bringing together innovators like Shirwan and Yolcu from across MU and the UM System’s three other research universities in pursuit of life-changing precision health advancements. It’s a collaborative effort to leverage the research strengths of MU toward a better future for the health of Missourians and beyond. The Roy Blunt NextGen Precision Health building at MU anchors the overall initiative and expands collaboration between researchers, clinicians, and industry partners in the state-of-the-art research facility.

“I think by being at the right institution with access to a great facility like the Roy Blunt NextGen Precision Health building, will allow us to build on our existing findings and take the necessary steps to further our research, and make the necessary improvements, faster,” Yolcu said.

Haval Shirwan and Esma Yolcu

Haval Shirwan and Esma Yolcu. Credit: University of Missouri

Shirwan and Yolcu, who joined the faculty at MU in the spring of 2020, are part of the first group of researchers to begin working in the NextGen Precision Health building, and after working at MU for nearly two years they are now among the first researchers from NextGen to have a research paper accepted and published in a high-impact, peer-reviewed academic journal.

Reference: “FasL microgels induce immune acceptance of islet allografts in nonhuman primates” by Ji Lei, María M. Coronel, Esma S. Yolcu, Hongping Deng, Orlando Grimany-Nuno, Michael D. Hunckler, Vahap Ulker, Zhihong Yang, Kang M. Lee, Alexander Zhang, Hao Luo, Cole W. Peters, Zhongliang Zou, Tao Chen, Zhenjuan Wang, Colleen S. McCoy, Ivy A. Rosales, James F. Markmann, Haval Shirwan and Andrés J. García, 13 May 2022, Science Advances.
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abm9881

Funding was provided by grants from the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (2-SRA-2016-271-S-B) and the National Institutes of Health (U01 AI132817) as well as a Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Post-Doctoral Fellowship and a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the funding agencies.

The study’s authors would also like to acknowledge Jessica Weaver, Lisa Kojima, Haley Tector, Kevin Deng, Rudy Matheson, and Nikolaos Serifis for their technical contributions.

Potential conflicts of interest are also noted. Three of the study’s authors, García, Shirwan, and Yolcu, are inventors on a U.S. patent application filed by the University of Louisville and the Georgia Tech Research Corporation (16/492441, filed Feb. 13, 2020). In addition, García and Shirwan are co-founders of iTolerance, and García, Shirwan, and Markmann serve on the scientific advisory board for iTolerance.

66 Comments on "Harvard Scientists Have Developed a Revolutionary New Treatment for Diabetes"

  1. [email protected]. IM NOT DIABETIC..HELP ME LIVE AGE 65 ALONE SENIOR LADY..SIBO B12 BONE FXS..FRUCTOSE INTOLERANCE..PLEASE HELP ME

  2. This is NOT new tech. This process has been researched in the past. Why is it not being implemented?????

  3. Ronald Johnson | June 13, 2022 at 5:27 am | Reply

    ‘Treat’ or ‘Cure’? Either way, I have a lot of diabetic friends and I think if they were to be cured you’d have some very grateful people.

  4. This is great news. However, the fact that a racist institution like harvard was involved removes all credibility.

    • I am so for this. I have been Type 1 diabetic for 41 years. This sounds promising and I am all for it.

    • WTF does this have to do with race?

      • Rhonda McBath | June 18, 2022 at 10:28 am | Reply

        Yep,I’m with you on this! What in the world does race have anything to do with this research, or helping with type one diabetics. There’s always one naysayer out there to instead be excited for people who are suffering daily with this horrible disease.

    • The credibility of a scientific claim must be tested in the field of science. Politics not-withstanding.

      The Nazis were racist. They also invented the jet plane. Jet planes fly.

  5. Susan Burris | June 13, 2022 at 11:06 am | Reply

    I am a late on set type 1 diabetes when I turned 55 yrs old..what a life changer..we need to approve whatever will help us..I spend $500. Each month just on insulin and a pump..had to sell my house to survive..on social security now and it takes 75 percent of monthly income..help us..please and thank you

  6. William F. Thorpe | June 13, 2022 at 6:15 pm | Reply

    Have been type I for over 60 yrs. Managed to avoid most complications, sure would welcome a cure. Sign Me up!!!

  7. Lisa Lyn Simonson | June 13, 2022 at 6:36 pm | Reply

    My daughter Katherine, was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes at the age of 5. Katherine just had her 33rd birthday. What a wonderful thing it would be for her and everyone else living with this horrible disease to finally be free of it.
    Thank you for your research
    Lisa Lyn Simonson

    • I’ll never understand why some people are so trusting plastering thier full name all over the internet. Plus you’ve also put your daughters name here. Unbelievable.

  8. Diabetes is caused by Benzene poisoning Benzene poisoning clogs the thyroid with Palmer’s of resin preventing the communication between the pancreas and the thyroid by eliminating sugar from your diet and consuming only aspartame in its place along with the elimination of all carbohydrates including yeast pastas and breads along with exercise and as much red meat as you want you will beat your diabetes in just six short months with the impossible diet aspartame f r e e s the thyroid of the polymers of resin Aspartame is the cure but it has to be consumed with zero sugar in the diet most importantly 6 months of committed time

    • Robin LaPage | June 14, 2022 at 1:19 pm | Reply

      I had a Whipple procedure in 2005. The body of my pancreas was removed due to having a tumor in it.
      That all threw me into being a diabetic. My remaining smaller pancreas does not produce enough insulin so I’m on 2 different insulins and Metformin. My sugars are all over the place. I have no consistent ‘in range’ readings. I’m now in Stage 3 kidney failure. Can you help?
      Thank you

    • That’s not even English Chris.

    • Chris, where did you get this info that benzene causes diabetes? And where do I find info about substituting aspartame in place of sugar is the cure?

    • Bobby Marchand | June 16, 2022 at 2:52 pm | Reply

      Ah yes. Replace sugars with something known to cause cancer just to treat a manageable disease. Also you’re dead wrong. If literally nobody credible knows what causes diabetes what makes you think you do And what makes you think people are gonna listen to you? you nut -sincerely a diabetic

    • You sir have a firm grasp of the English language! I’ve got a closet full of commas, periods and capital letters I can sell you for a reasonable price.

  9. This technology will never be implemented because they are playing against a multi-billion dollar phamaceutical industry.

  10. My doctor tells me i adult onset type one. I think my body is really attacking me. I’d really like to try some other medications besides lantus insulin and metformin. How can I start an experimental trial?

  11. Debbie Harshbarger | June 13, 2022 at 10:31 pm | Reply

    I have been a Diabetic for 59 years and would love to see some type of cure for all Diabetic. I have been on a Pump and CGM for 7years it has helped save my life I have low blood sugar that I can not pick up on. So I would like to try out this new medical procedure.

  12. Interesting.

    Triggered the following thought.

    Patenting of an invention is good.
    It is one way of ensuring the invention is put to good use for betterment of the health and lives of humans. It is a way of encouraging innovation.HOWEVER, Not the only way.

    Innovation and Invention must be rewarded and genuine reserch costs recovered.

    However, non-licensing of a Patent when the public health is involved does not make any sense. Covid 19 Pandemic taught us that.

    In such cases , reward the inventor handsomely but make licensing of the Patent Compulsory.

    God knows how many such cures are waiting in the wings , and stuck from commercialisation as a result of Letters Patent being a key link in the miracle molecule creation chain. One adamant Junkyard Dog in the manger, can cause the death of millions.

    Wisdom dictates, that all such molecules be weighed in the scale of importance of the same for public good vis a vis private profit.

    I favor both public good and private profit. Balancing the same is similar to a cat on a hot tin roof.

    Technology exists today to make planet earth Disease Free.

    Create a Global Data Data Base of Letters Patent issued by various Patenting authorities. Study will reveal most are unused and unworked. 😊😊

    I am a Georgia Bulldog. We won the College Football National Championship. Go Dawgs😊
    In College Football behaving like a Junkyard Bulldog is fine. Not when it comes to Letters Patent.

    There should be a system to make all unused parents granted, public knowledge for use by public, in their current R&D and innovation and invention efforts. Free of Charge.

    Views expressed are personal and not binding on anyone.

  13. John Donohue | June 14, 2022 at 8:12 am | Reply

    The cure for Type 2 is to fuel on ketones, not glucose, using a low carb diet. While the procedure described here for Type 1 is exciting, I wonder if the T2 diet has been tested on T1 patients, to see if it keeps the harm at bay.

    It is easier to control the food of a child than an adult. Keto conquers childhood seizures in youngsters with epilepsy, for instance. Why not try it on children with Type 1 diabetes?

  14. Anyone who says that Diabetes can be cured is full of BS! I’ve tried there no sugar diets and eliminated meats among other foods and still did nothing for me! The lowest I ever got was 190 blood glucose the highest was off the scale! I have been a Type 1 Diabetic since October 2008! I also have 9 Autoimmune Diseases making me 1 of the the sicker patients in the world today! I am also Native American and Diabetes for my race is worst then any other race in the USA! Plus I live near the Navajo Nation which is the Largest Indian Reservation in the USA! We have no Endocrinologists aka Diabetes Doctors and still use technology that is 30 years old! I was lucky enough to get Full Medicare and Full Medicaid that each month I save almost $5,000.00 a month just for my Insulin alone both 24 Hour Long Acting Insulin and Fast Acting Insulin! It would be awesome to have this treatment to help me and other Diabetics make our lives much easier!

  15. Jeff Quintilian | June 14, 2022 at 10:29 am | Reply

    Why not use the new treatment in the patient’s own cells rather than transplanted cells? Wouldn’t this stop the immune system from targeting their own cells, which is the underlying problem?

    • Bobby marchand | June 16, 2022 at 2:58 pm | Reply

      You are not bright. No because those are the cells your body wants to kill if they are produced in another body there’s a chance your body will think it’s natural.

  16. Question… what if someone does not have a thyroid and is type 1 and type 2 diabetic?

  17. This is old news for Canada. We are 6 months from finishing safety trials.

  18. Debbie A Hubbard | June 14, 2022 at 3:53 pm | Reply

    My 46 year old son and my 10 year old granddaughter (his daughter are T1 diabetic. My son just got T1 5 years ago and his daughter 3 years ago Pray everyday for a cure for this horrible disease!

  19. Victoria L Walker | June 14, 2022 at 7:14 pm | Reply

    Can I get this done I take 5 insulin shots can you help me

  20. Oren v close jr | June 14, 2022 at 8:32 pm | Reply

    I’m type 1 since 72 my family use to go out to eat every Friday I could pick what I wanted to eat I had to run around the building five times before I ate always active helps back then with shot thank you very thankfully to still be here 54 yo

  21. Chris, where did you get this info that benzene causes diabetes? And where do I find info that the cure is to substitute aspartame in place of sugar? I have never heard anything about this anywhere else!

  22. No name no face just let me pace | June 15, 2022 at 5:07 am | Reply

    No no no. They are changing the dna that made u
    Our ancestors survive the winter. No no no. No medication . Spinach egges and bacon for diabetes cure

  23. I’ve had type 1 diabetes for 53yrs and I don’t see any chance of a cure while the pharmaceutical companies make billions from diabetic drugs. Big money controls EVERYTHING!

  24. aspartame causes cancer. i think that guy is just trolling.

  25. My Son is a Brittle Type 1 Diabetic since the age of 4yrs old. This is a gift come true. He is now 26 a
    Still Brittle.

  26. Son Diabetic Type 1, since 4. He is considered a Brittle Diabetic. This would be a blessing. He is 26 and still Brittle. Blessing to All of you for your work.

  27. David A Quick | June 15, 2022 at 2:13 pm | Reply

    I have been Type 1 diabetic for almost 55 yrs. I have avoided the complications so far but have a limited life ! I take 6 shots of insulin a day and am thin build (I think that’s why I haven’t had problems) ? I welcome the new technology, let’s get it all figured out before I die !

  28. This gives me so much hope for my little T1D warrior. I pray that one day my 8 year old son can go back to living his normal life before diabetes. Thank you so much for your research and dedication to finding a cure.

  29. I was diagnosed in 2013 for diabetes II at the age of 52. I ended up in the emergency room with a blood reading of 879 and could only see silhouettes. My eyesight eventually came back, Thank GOD, but I now wear eyeglasses. For five years after the diagnosis I was treated for being diabetic II. Nothing was improving. My health seemed to get worse by the months. I was finally referred to a doctor(endocrinologist) that knew after his research with me that I am diabetic I. Since receiving treatment through this doctor, I went from an A1C of 13.4, yes that high, to a current 6.3. I wear a insulin pump and a GCM.
    However, my blood sugar levels are now under control. But on the flip side of things, because I was treated five years for type II, I’m now at stage 3 CKD (Chronic Kidney Disease). I’m happy with the way things are going now with my health. Finally getting a support care of doctors that know what they’re doing. Hopefully you’ll never have to go through this but if it should come to this , get doctors that know what they’re talking about. Unfortunately, a lot of doctors are stuck with the mind set that you’re only born being diabetic I or get it as an adolescent. However, research has found out that you can get onset diabetes I as an adult. Make sure you get that second opinion if you can. I wish I would have but I couldn’t afford it. Be careful and many blessings.

  30. Travis, do not listen to Chris. There’s nothing factual with what he said. Type 2 Diabetes is caused by eating too much sugar and having insulin resistance. It can be “cured” by your diet of no sugar. The aspartame is nonesense. Type one is a genetic factor. Babies aren’t consuming whatever he claimed causes it. It’s a genetic factor that can’t be cured by aspartame which actually causes cancer. I became Type 1 (now some call it 3) after having my entire pancreas removed. I had an auto islet cell transplant. But I was 30 before we knew I had the mutation, and most of islets were destroyed by the ENZYMES that are released from the pancreas to break down your food into nutrients. The pancreas was destroying itself and me. I can still control my disease by my diet. No insulin needed if you don’t consume carbs. There is a cure for diabetes. NO CARBS! No one wants to give it all up.

  31. The money isn’t in finding cures for our illnesses – it’s only about managing them with better and better drugs that maintains the cash flow $$$$$$

    It’s all about the money honey.

  32. Nancy Douglas | June 16, 2022 at 7:23 am | Reply

    My husband is a 43 year Type 1 diabetic and brittle. My son was diagnosed when he was 10, he is now 41. My daughter at 22 was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes and was rediagnosed 10!years later at Stanford that she was actually Type II . All the insulin usage ruined her pancreas . She and my husband are both on insulin pumps. Please hurry.

  33. How about finding a cure for cancer. Then I’ll be impressed.
    The side effects of chemo are never talked about. Nit to mention the emotional toll it takes on the family; especially the spouse.

  34. Michael Hackett | June 16, 2022 at 4:50 pm | Reply

    I’m fourty years living with diabetes, I am very grateful to scientists and doctors who work hard every day to combat this wearing disease, I would love if some day I could be diabetes free. Having diabetes is like being put to prison for something you didn’t do. The very best of luck with your research.

  35. Connie R Bullins | June 16, 2022 at 6:53 pm | Reply

    I’m a diebete 2 would love to. Be free of this forever. Make it happen and and patent it to be a non resk medicine and I’ll do it

  36. Hungry for recognition | June 17, 2022 at 9:02 am | Reply

    Title should be “UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI SCIENTISTS”, why contribute to the mythos of Harvard?

  37. Why do they need to be approved and wait for human testing? They didn’t on the covid vax…

  38. This is interesting but there are doctors at the University of Alberta in Canada who have been doing this for 20 years. So, good job Harvard.

  39. My brother was diagnosed with type 1 at 9, m.s. at 27. I think there are many things that contribute to it, like mercury fillings, diet is huge, exposure to asbestos, but I think the onset of m.s. was caused by the aspartame he eats large amounts of in place of sugar. Gluten and dairy also play a role. He can hardly walk for a week if he eats gluten. Sugar comes from many things, bread turns to sugar, and anything with the (ose). Glucose (gluten) lactose (dairy) fructose (fruit) dextrose (corn and grain) sucrose (table sugar) and maltose are a combination of sugars. Alcohol is obviously a sugar, caffeine isn’t good.. So what is left to eat?? Wild game, vegetables,some fruits, nuts and breads made with almonds or coconut flour, inulin is a sweetener I use because it actually stabilizes blood sugar and is a prebiotic. D-mannose is an amazing sweetner and great for the bladder and kidneys, Probiotics like sauerkraut and yogurt (coconut yogurt). The problem is we know the health industry doesn’t really want to fix people they want to continue charging you so they’re not going to tell you the best things for you is to eat right, exercise, and enjoy life.

  40. Our Son recently diagnosed 4 months ago at 12 years of age. Hopefully this tech will be shared globally in order to ensure a cure sooner than later. FDA tends to slow things down. Public awareness is key..shout from mountain tops, get lobbyists to ensure donations from the GATES FOUNDATION and other’s.

  41. I have been type 2 diabetic for 14 years. I developed diabetes from taking a mood stabalized Geodon. I took it for 1 year and was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes after a 475 sugar reading. My sugars were immediatly lowered by 3 insulin shots and then metformin and glucatrol to manage it for years. It eventually quit managing it so I was switched to 2 kinds of insulin. It worked mostly but not consistently. Recently I was moved back to metformin and glucatrol and sugar are better. This could have happened sooner but Dr’s get too comfortable leaving patients on one med as easier and less problem. I will tell you the glucatrol helps bring my sugars into control better than the metformin, or at least it seems so. Pray this invention is good for humans and put into use hopefully without the ghastly side effects of the meds we use now to control it. Maybe something like this can be developed for type 2. I also use bitter melon calebs as thos controls diabetes in many poor countries. It seems to help my sugar and blood pressure but it can cause indigestion.

  42. Shame on you for skipping MU and GTech in the title. The bulk of work is done by MU scientists and you give credit to Harvard only, which just joined at the end for testing.

  43. Logical Larry | June 20, 2022 at 10:43 am | Reply

    There’s always a jealous bigot in the crowd. A Heart should be called A Hole!!

  44. I’m a 41 year old type 2 diabetic. Have been sense I was 17. If there is anything out there that makes so little ones don’t have to take shots and do finger sticks I’m in 100% I’ll sign up first for trials

  45. Gtyoungblood | June 21, 2022 at 7:27 am | Reply

    If you are having problems with blood sugar, STOP EATING CARBS. If you are a type 2 diabetic, this can completely reverse it. It doesnt take long. See results the next day. HbA1c result from 11.7% to 5.7% in 4 months.
    If you have type 1 diabetes cutting out your carb intake will result in using much lower amounts of insulin. It works. Search for keto and type 1 diabetes. And remember , big pharma lies to you. So does your average doctor.

  46. Type 1 diabetic since 18 currently now im 45. A1-C of 14.5 had the pump but costly supplies and insulin forced me to use a generic fast acting and long lasting insulin. With that being said would love to be apart of a cure. Worst disease. So glad to know that research has paid off in this case.

    G3

  47. Lavn pringles | June 21, 2022 at 10:41 am | Reply

    Ready the passage was like reading note from a music scale. Extra ordinary. Superior. Hope for the future cure.

  48. Where do I sign up ?

  49. My Husband is a severe type 1 that takes 4 shots a day with an A1C of 14.9 and still struggling 24/7 to keep sugar regulated he is put in hospital about 2 or 3 times a year and has lots of other issues going on like heart, nerve damage. He was diagnosed at 29yrs old he is now 43 and the doctors say there is nothing much else they can do for him. Medicaid will not pay for him to get the pump and he is so skinny shots have caused scar tissue he don’t have many places to give shots anymore. 2 yrs ago while in hospital a doctor came in and told us about this new Islets transplant we should look into but it’s as of right now just trial.. wish there was help for him..

  50. ParentOfType1 | June 21, 2022 at 1:44 pm | Reply

    I am a parent of a 13 year old type 1…e was diagnosed at age 4. This would be great if they could get these clinical trials going. The dodo that said there were no trials for the COVID shot is misinformed. All vaccines are required to go through clinical trials, they just weren’t as extensive as we’d normally do. The idea was to get the vaccine out as soon as possible. Do your research, many clinical trials are done on medicines and vaccines.
    I don’t doubt that pharma plays a role in delaying this life-changing solution.
    The other dodo that said that a keto diet will cure type 1 is an idiot. It will cure type 2, no doubt. But my 13 year old son cannot go without carbs (or a low amount), he would be malnourished. Carbs are energy, and good for those that are growing and within a normal weight, and exercise frequently. Do your research and you would know that. Low carb would be devastating to my son’s development.
    I,myself, am all for eating carbs. Otherwise, I wouldn’t be able to go on my 7-8 mile runs. Everything in moderation, people. Whatever happened to common sense and taking care of yourself. Americans need to be re-educated on nutrition and how to cook meals at home. Sheesh.

  51. 1999, type 1 juvenile diabetes metitalus is the label i been living under since. Knowing first hand, what and how draining this illness is. I am testifying that it is such. Disease is a accumulation or infection. Illness is when a individual body harms itself. Spoken softly. As this article is a mixture of what many other comments posted touch on, The illness of type 1 diabetes is a ailment. Type 2 is reversible and should be implemented. Insulin resistant types should not block their receptors with too many B6 or B12 vitamins found abundantly in many food groups and convenient at all shopping levels. I am posting a testimonial suggestion of the correct terminology being used. Disease as to illness. Diabetes is a illness. Not a disease and should be considered as such, especially by those enduring such. Seasons as to many vegetables and fruits are key. Each body is different, yet we all share rythm of many variations. The worst is the definition or permanent labeling of many other health concerns that are used professionally as a means to entangle this individual living with such a ailment.

    In any regards, the individuals researching and attempting to offer a means of helping many who suffer from diabetes, are amazing, as to inspirational. Thanks. Yet, the major issue of diabetes is how the bodys communication for proper energy being cycled is ill or dead. Zombie cells that could cause cancer does not sound like a alternative.

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