Biodiversity at Stake: The Dark Side of Our Food Production System

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A new study reveals that food production, particularly of commodities like beef, rice, and soy, often overlaps with areas of high conservation priority, leading to significant biodiversity loss. The research, which analyzed 50 agricultural products from 200 countries, points out the need for policy change and sourcing adjustments, highlighting how the same crop’s environmental impact can vary greatly depending on its origin, and showing that wealthier nations indirectly contribute to biodiversity loss through their consumption of imported goods farmed in conservation-critical areas.

Food production is the main cause of biodiversity loss. Understanding the areas where usage clashes with key conservation zones can guide policymakers in their decision-making.

The production of certain food items, notably beef, is widely recognized for its substantial contribution to carbon emissions. However, a recent study reveals that these same foods can also cause significant damage to biodiversity.

One of the main problems, the study found, arises when food production interferes with regions designated as having the utmost importance for conservation.

“Food production remains the main cause of biodiversity loss,” said Keiichiro Kanemoto, an associate professor at the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (RIHN) in Kyoto, Japan and one of the paper’s senior authors. “However, there is a painful lack of systematic data on which products and which countries contribute the most to this loss. Our research combines information about agricultural land use with species habitats to identify which crops cause the most pressure on biodiversity.”

The study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academies of Science, ranks which commodities are sourced from regions with high priority for conservation.  While previous studies have quantified the carbon, land, and water footprints of the agriculture industry, the threats to biodiversity and ecosystems from farming are poorly understood and thus often omitted. The new results are expected to assist with the formation of policies that protect biodiversity while preserving global food security.

Conflicts Between Conservation Priorities and Food Production

The map shows the land use and conservation priority index for major agricultural commodities. The grid cells are colored according to the dominant crop grown, and the intensity of the color, from lighter to darker shades, indicates the conservation priority of each cell. Credit: Hoang et al. 2023

The results have been made publicly available on Google Earth Engine, a cloud computing platform used for environmental analyses. The study covers 50 agricultural products sourced from 200 countries and draws on farming data, a database of global supply chains, and new ecological models with conservation data for more than 7000 species to estimate the conservation value of different areas.

Beef, rice, and soy biggest footprint

The international research team, with members from Norway, the Netherlands, and Japan, divided agricultural areas into four tiers, based on their conservation priority, from lowest to highest. They then determined which individual agricultural commodities were produced in these different priority levels.

The researchers found that about one-third of all farming occurs in areas that were considered the highest conservation priority. One pattern that emerged was that some staple commodities, such as beef, rice, and soybeans, tended to be produced in high conservation priority areas. At the same time, other substitutes, such as barley and wheat, were predominantly sourced from lower-risk areas.

“A surprising takeaway for me was how much the impact of the same crop can vary based on where it is sourced from,” said Daniel Moran, a senior scientist at the Climate and Environmental Institute NILU and a research professor at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology’s (NTNU) Industrial Ecology Programme who was also a co-author of the study.

Beef and soybeans, for example, are grown in high conservation priority areas in Brazil but not in North America. Similarly, wheat is grown in lower conservation priority areas in Eastern Europe than in Western Europe.

International trade is a factor

Coffee and cocoa are primarily grown in high conservation priority areas in equatorial nations, but these cash crops are largely consumed in richer nations like the United States and members of the European Union, the researchers’ model showed. At the global level, China, with its high demand for multiple commodities, has the biggest influence on food production in high-priority conservation areas.

The study also illustrated how different nations can have sharply different biodiversity food footprints. The United States, EU, China, and Japan all depend heavily on imports to satisfy their demand for beef and dairy. In Japan, more than one-quarter of the beef and dairy consumed in that country comes from high conservation priority areas. For the other regions, that number is closer to just ten percent.

“That suggests there are opportunities to change the biodiversity footprint of food consumption by simply changing our sourcing of food products,” said Kanemoto.

While it’s well known that cattle, soybean, and palm oil are farmed in high conservation priority areas, the study found that other commodities, including corn, sugarcane, and rubber, are also problematic and deserve more attention from policymakers.

Effects of climate change

The changing climate is expected to alter both cropping patterns and available habitats. The research team used their model to look at different scenarios to see how the interaction between wild biodiversity and farming would change under predicted 2070 temperatures.

Species are likely to colonize new territories in a warmer world, which could result in the emergence of new high-conservation priority areas or mitigate conflicts in current conservation hotspots.

While the researchers did not produce a detailed map forecasting future conflicts between agriculture and conservation, the paper’s supporting information offers some estimates of future competition under a range of scenarios.

“Our spatial approach is a valuable complementary method with other standard techniques to evaluate the impact agriculture has on biodiversity. The knowledge gained from our study should help reduce the trade-off many nations associate with agriculture production and environmental protection,” said Kanemoto. “It fills in a big missing piece in the footprint of food.”

“Our lifestyles are causing alarming damage to the atmosphere and water supplies. Farmers and governments worldwide are seeking policies that sustain prosperity while minimizing irreversible harm to the environment. Similar sustainable development policies are needed for agriculture. The calculation of detailed footprints for food and other farmed commodities is crucial to support these policies,” Moran said.

Reference: “Mapping potential conflicts between global agriculture and terrestrial conservation” by Nguyen Tien Hoang, Oliver Taherzadeh, Haruka Ohashi, Yusuke Yonekura, Shota Nishijima, Masaki Yamabe, Tetsuya Matsui, Hiroyuki Matsuda, Daniel Moran and Keiichiro Kanemoto, 30 May 2023, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2208376120

The results can be viewed in an interactive map at

The study was funded by the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, and the Moonshot Research and Development Program.

1 Comment on "Biodiversity at Stake: The Dark Side of Our Food Production System"

  1. There is a large movement that over a hundred nations have signed on to and it’s called Save Soil. Not a hippy or whacktivist movement, but based on real science. In that is the beginning of your solution.

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